2006 Census Area Profiles
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Profile for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2006 Census
About this profile
|Release date:||May 1, 2008|
|Topic:||Income and earnings|
Note: Data Quality - Age at immigration
There was a slight overestimation of age at immigration in the 2006 Census. For more information on the age at immigration variable, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, 2006 Census, catalogue number 97-557-GWE2006003.
Note: Data quality - Certificate or diploma below the bachelor level
The overall quality of the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable from the 2006 Census is acceptable. However, users of the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level' category should know that an unexpected growth in this category was noted compared to the 2001 Census.
In fact, in the 2001 Census, 2.5% of respondents aged 15 years or over declared such a diploma, compared to 4.4% in 2006, representing 89% growth. This phenomenon was not found in other sources like the Labour Force Survey.
We recommend users interpret the 2006 Census results for this category with caution.
For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B: Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.
More information will be available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, to be published later in 2008.
Note: Data Quality - Historical earnings and income data and outliers
Changes in methodology and response modes introduced in the 2006 Census resulted in improved income data. However, these changes also mean that some comparisons with data from previous censuses and some data for the highest earnings and income amounts are affected.
For the 2006 Census, changes to methods for capturing and processing the 2006 Census income data and the introduction of data from tax files may have an impact on the trends analysis for earnings at the individual level in particular (but also total income).
There are more reported small amounts in 2006 and less rounding of the amounts that now come from tax data. To compare from census to census, users are advised to consider full-year full-time earners as the presence of more small amounts tends to lower the mean and median when considering the full population of earners.
As in the past, when considering small populations, one or more outliers may affect the average. In regions with sampling, this makes the estimate of the mean unreliable because of the variance due to sampling for smaller populations. The standard error of the average should help identify these situations. With extremely small populations, the median might also be affected by the presence of outliers. Users are required to interpret data with caution when the sub-population has small or very small counts.
Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics
Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.
Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).
Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.
Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.
Note: Data quality - Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux)
When comparing the census results to those of the 2001 Census, it appears that there is some overestimation of persons reporting Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux) in British Columbia and, as a result, also at the Canada level. Although it affects a relatively small population, it is best to apply caution when analysing the census data for Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux) in these geographies.
For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.
Note: Broad occupational category A - Management occupations
Census data for occupation groups in Broad occupational category A - Management occupations should be used with caution. Some coding errors were made in assigning the appropriate level of management, e.g., senior manager as opposed to middle manager, and in determining the appropriate area of specialization or activity, e.g., a manager of a health care program in a hospital as opposed to a government manager in health policy administration. Some non-management occupations have also been miscoded to management due to confusion over titles such as program manager and project manager. Data users may wish to use data for management occupations in conjunction with other variables such as Income, Age and Education.
Note: Census family
A census family refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without children of either or both partners) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. 'Children' in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.
Note: Comparability of 2006 Place of work data
Working at home can be measured in different ways. In the census, the 'Worked at home' category includes persons who live and work at the same physical location, such as farmers, teleworkers and work camp workers. In addition, the 2006 Census Guide instructed persons who worked part of the time at home and part of the time at an employer's address to indicate that they 'Worked at home' if most of their time was spent working at home (e.g., three days out of five).
Other Statistics Canada surveys such as the General Social Survey, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, and the Workplace and Employee Survey also collect information on working at home. However, the survey data are not directly comparable to the census data since the surveys ask respondents whether they did some or all of their paid work at home, whereas the census asks them where they usually worked most of the time. Consequently, census estimates on work at home are lower than survey estimates.
The place-of-work question has remained in virtually the same format in each census since 1971. However, in 1996, the category 'No fixed workplace address' replaced 'No usual place of work.' In 1996, the census questionnaire was modified by adding a check box for the 'No fixed workplace' response category. In previous censuses, respondents were asked to write 'No usual place of work' in the address fields. It is believed that previous censuses have undercounted the number of persons with 'No fixed workplace address.'
Annexations, incorporations and amalgamations of municipalities could create some difficulties when comparing spatial units and structures which change over time.
For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.
Note: Dwelling universe
The dwelling universe pertains to characteristics of dwellings in Canada. Dwellings are distinct from households. Dwelling characteristics refer to the physical attributes of a set of living quarters, whereas household characteristics pertain to the person or the group of persons (other than temporary or foreign residents) who occupy a dwelling. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.
Note: Earnings historical variations
Due to improved collection methodology, income and earnings data from the 2006 Census is more complete, precise and less subject to rounding than in prior censuses. Small dollar amounts, which in the past may not have been reported, are now more likely to be captured. Compared to prior censuses, this has resulted in an increased number of earners and lower median and average earnings. Users are advised to exercise caution when interpreting census-to-census changes in statistics and counts of specific cells within an earnings distribution. This comparability issue is less apparent when considering the earnings of full-year, full-time workers.
Note: Economic families
In 2006 Census tables showing income data for economic families or economic family members, children of the economic family reference person may have any marital status; and grandchildren of the reference person, where no parent is present in the household, are treated as children of the reference person. In income tables before 2006, all previously married sons and daughters of the economic family reference person and all grandchildren of the reference person were classified as other economic family members. Where data for 2001 are shown in the 2006 Census tables, there are 75,000 more lone-parent families and 75,000 fewer other economic families in Canada for 2001 than as published at the time of the 2001 Census. Similarly, there are 66,000 more couple economic families with children, and 66,000 fewer couple economic families without children.
Additional information about this table is available in the Dimension Summary Box of the Profile.
|Profile of Census Divisions/Census Subdivisions (2175)||Values|
|Population, 2001 - 100% data Footnote 2||30,007,094|
|Population, 2006 - 100% data Footnote 3||31,612,897|
|Population percentage change, 2001 to 2006||5.4|
|Land area in square kilometres, 2006||9,017,698.92|
|Total population by sex and age groups - 100% data Footnote 4||31,612,895|
|0 to 4 years||864,600|
|5 to 9 years||926,860|
|10 to 14 years||1,065,860|
|15 to 19 years||1,095,285|
|20 to 24 years||1,047,945|
|25 to 29 years||975,945|
|30 to 34 years||987,715|
|35 to 39 years||1,083,495|
|40 to 44 years||1,285,535|
|45 to 49 years||1,290,130|
|50 to 54 years||1,158,970|
|55 to 59 years||1,026,395|
|60 to 64 years||780,140|
|65 to 69 years||593,805|
|70 to 74 years||493,465|
|75 to 79 years||386,485|
|80 to 84 years||251,420|
|85 years and over||161,925|
|0 to 4 years||825,940|
|5 to 9 years||882,515|
|10 to 14 years||1,014,065|
|15 to 19 years||1,045,205|
|20 to 24 years||1,032,440|
|25 to 29 years||1,009,635|
|30 to 34 years||1,032,510|
|35 to 39 years||1,124,775|
|40 to 44 years||1,324,925|
|45 to 49 years||1,330,470|
|50 to 54 years||1,198,335|
|55 to 59 years||1,058,230|
|60 to 64 years||809,730|
|65 to 69 years||640,770|
|70 to 74 years||560,320|
|75 to 79 years||493,090|
|80 to 84 years||395,285|
|85 years and over||358,685|
|Total population 15 years and over by legal marital status - 100% data Footnote 5||26,033,060|
|Never legally married (single)||9,087,030|
|Legally married (and not separated) Footnote 6||12,470,395|
|Separated, but still legally married||775,420|
|Total population 15 years and over by common-law status - 100% data Footnote 7||26,033,060|
|Not in a common-law relationship||23,301,425|
|In a common-law relationship||2,731,635|
|Total number of census families in private households - 20% sample data Footnote 8||8,896,840|
|Size of census family: 2 persons||4,291,665|
|Size of census family: 3 persons||1,959,210|
|Size of census family: 4 persons||1,840,575|
|Size of census family: 5 or more persons||805,395|
|Total number of census families in private households - 20% sample data Footnote 9||8,896,845|
|Total couple families by family structure and number of children||7,482,780|
|Without children at home||2,662,135|
|With children at home||3,443,780|
|3 or more children||678,400|
|Without children at home||758,715|
|With children at home||618,150|
|3 or more children||92,140|
|Total lone-parent families by sex of parent and number of children||1,414,060|
|3 or more children||122,600|
|3 or more children||20,320|
|Total number of children at home - 20% sample data Footnote 10||9,733,770|
|Under six years of age||2,013,065|
|6 to 14 years||3,501,480|
|15 to 17 years||1,270,255|
|18 to 24 years||1,934,225|
|25 years and over||1,014,740|
|Average number of children at home per census family Footnote 11||1.1|
|Total number of persons in private households - 20% sample data||31,074,405|
|Number of persons not in census families||4,961,015|
|Living with relatives Footnote 12||644,015|
|Living with non-relatives only||989,950|
|Number of census family persons||26,113,390|
|Average number of persons per census family||2.9|
|Total number of persons aged 65 years and over - 20% sample data||4,011,910|
|Number of persons not in census families aged 65 years and over||1,406,915|
|Living with relatives Footnote 13||209,205|
|Living with non-relatives only||69,045|
|Number of census family persons aged 65 years and over||2,604,995|
|Total number of occupied private dwellings - 20% sample data Footnote 14||12,437,470|
|Average number of rooms per dwelling Footnote 15||6.4|
|Average number of bedrooms per dwelling Footnote 16||2.7|
|Total number of occupied private dwellings by housing tenure - 20% sample data Footnote 17||12,437,465|
|Total number of occupied private dwellings by condition of dwelling - 20% sample data Footnote 18||12,437,465|
|Regular maintenance only||8,168,615|
|Total number of occupied private dwellings by period of construction - 20% sample data Footnote 19||12,437,465|
|Period of construction, before 1946||1,595,320|
|Period of construction, 1946 to 1960||1,812,520|
|Period of construction, 1961 to 1970||1,753,170|
|Period of construction, 1971 to 1980||2,421,395|
|Period of construction, 1981 to 1985||1,028,180|
|Period of construction, 1986 to 1990||1,055,955|
|Period of construction, 1991 to 1995||894,855|
|Period of construction, 1996 to 2000||820,370|
|Period of construction, 2001 to 2006 Footnote 20||1,055,690|
|Total number of occupied private dwellings by structural type of dwelling - 100% data Footnote 21||12,435,520|
|Apartment, building that has five or more storeys||1,114,925|
|Apartment, building that has fewer than five storeys||2,289,390|
|Other single-attached house||37,995|
|Movable dwelling Footnote 22||163,520|
|Total number of private households by household size - 100% data Footnote 23||12,435,520|
|4 to 5 persons||2,590,725|
|6 or more persons||357,185|
|Number of persons in private households||31,072,420|
|Average number of persons in private households||2.5|
|Total number of private households by household type - 20% sample data Footnote 24||12,437,470|
|Total population by mother tongue - 20% sample data Footnote 25||31,241,030|