2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Topic-based tabulation: Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (9), Labour Force Activity (8), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (7), Location of Study (16), Age Groups (9) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data

About this tabulation

General information

Catalogue number:97-560-XCB2006025
Release date:March 4, 2008
Data dimensions:


Note: Data quality - Certificate or diploma below the bachelor level

The overall quality of the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable from the 2006 Census is acceptable. However, users of the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level' category should know that an unexpected growth in this category was noted compared to the 2001 Census.

In fact, in the 2001 Census, 2.5% of respondents aged 15 years or over declared such a diploma, compared to 4.4% in 2006, representing 89% growth. This phenomenon was not found in other sources like the Labour Force Survey.

We recommend users interpret the 2006 Census results for this category with caution.

For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B: Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.

More information will be available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, to be published later in 2008.

Note: Institutional residents

People in seniors' residences in the 2006 Census are classified as 'not living in an institution'. This is a change from the 2001 Census where they were classified as institutional residents, specifically, 'living in an institution, resident under care or custody'.

Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe

In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.

From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.

Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.

Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.

Note: Population universe

The population universe of the 2006 Census includes the following groups:
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants with a usual place of residence in Canada;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants who are abroad, either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants at sea or in port aboard merchant vessels under Canadian registry;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who are claiming refugee status and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Study Permits and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Work Permits and members of their families living with them.

For census purposes, the last three groups in this list are referred to as 'non-permanent residents'. For further information, refer to the variable Immigration: Non-permanent resident found in the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Data table

Select data categories for this table

This table details immigrant status and period of immigration , labour force activity , highest certificate, diploma or degree , location of study , age groups and sex for the population 15 years and over in CanadaFootnote 2
Location of study (16) Labour force activity (8)
Total - Labour force activity In the labour force Employed Unemployed Not in the labour force Participation rate Employment rate Unemployment rate
Total - Location of studyFootnote 3 25,664,220 17,146,135 16,021,180 1,124,960 8,518,090 66.8 62.4 6.6
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 12,651,750 7,120,690 6,503,455 617,235 5,531,060 56.3 51.4 8.7
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 13,012,475 10,025,440 9,517,725 507,715 2,987,030 77.0 73.1 5.1
Inside Canada 10,948,470 8,615,450 8,203,175 412,275 2,333,025 78.7 74.9 4.8
Outside CanadaFootnote 4 2,064,000 1,409,995 1,314,550 95,445 654,005 68.3 63.7 6.8
United States of America 291,115 206,130 196,885 9,240 84,985 70.8 67.6 4.5
United KingdomFootnote 5 235,465 133,705 128,300 5,410 101,755 56.8 54.5 4.0
India 161,555 126,970 117,315 9,655 34,590 78.6 72.6 7.6
Philippines 160,555 130,090 124,695 5,390 30,460 81.0 77.7 4.1
China, People's Republic of 142,880 97,575 88,535 9,040 45,305 68.3 62.0 9.3
Germany 65,485 25,505 24,285 1,215 39,980 38.9 37.1 4.8
France 56,595 41,685 39,065 2,620 14,910 73.7 69.0 6.3
Poland 53,660 41,195 39,515 1,685 12,465 76.8 73.6 4.1
Pakistan 52,195 35,395 31,690 3,700 16,800 67.8 60.7 10.5
Korea, SouthFootnote 6 43,895 25,585 23,435 2,150 18,315 58.3 53.4 8.4
Other 800,600 546,165 500,835 45,330 254,435 68.2 62.6 8.3


Footnote 1

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

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Footnote 2

Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 3

'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.

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Footnote 4

Refers to the 10 locations of studies outside Canada most often reported.

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Footnote 5

The official name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Footnote 6

The official name is the Republic of Korea.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-560-XCB2006025.


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Footnote a

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Footnote c

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Footnote d

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