2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Topic-based tabulation: Labour Force Activity (8), Visible Minority Groups (15), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (9), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (7), Age Groups (9) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data

About this tabulation

General information

Catalogue number:97-562-XCB2006017
Release date:April 2, 2008
Topic:Ethnic origin and visible minorities
Data dimensions:


Note: Data quality - Certificate or diploma below the bachelor level

The overall quality of the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable from the 2006 Census is acceptable. However, users of the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level' category should know that an unexpected growth in this category was noted compared to the 2001 Census.

In fact, in the 2001 Census, 2.5% of respondents aged 15 years or over declared such a diploma, compared to 4.4% in 2006, representing 89% growth. This phenomenon was not found in other sources like the Labour Force Survey.

We recommend users interpret the 2006 Census results for this category with caution.

For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B: Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.

More information will be available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, to be published later in 2008.

Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe

In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.

From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.

Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.

Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.

Note: Population universe

The population universe of the 2006 Census includes the following groups:
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants with a usual place of residence in Canada;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants who are abroad, either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants at sea or in port aboard merchant vessels under Canadian registry;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who are claiming refugee status and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Study Permits and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Work Permits and members of their families living with them.

For census purposes, the last three groups in this list are referred to as 'non-permanent residents'. For further information, refer to the variable Immigration: Non-permanent resident found in the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Data table

Select data categories for this table

This table details labour force activity , visible minority groups , immigrant status and period of immigration , highest certificate, diploma or degree , age groups and sex for the population 15 years and over in CanadaFootnote 2
Visible minority groups (15) Labour force activity (8)
Total - Labour force activity In the labour force Employed Unemployed Not in the labour force Participation rate Employment rate Unemployment rate
Total - Population by visible minority groups 25,664,220 17,146,135 16,021,180 1,124,955 8,518,090 66.8 62.4 6.6
Total visible minority populationFootnote 3 3,922,695 2,639,520 2,413,605 225,910 1,283,180 67.3 61.5 8.6
Chinese 1,005,635 623,225 576,195 47,025 382,410 62.0 57.3 7.5
South AsianFootnote 4 957,645 656,205 599,520 56,680 301,440 68.5 62.6 8.6
Black 562,135 397,460 355,090 42,370 164,680 70.7 63.2 10.7
Filipino 320,910 245,850 233,540 12,315 75,065 76.6 72.8 5.0
Latin American 244,330 175,570 159,750 15,820 68,760 71.9 65.4 9.0
Southeast AsianFootnote 5 184,575 127,150 116,405 10,745 57,430 68.9 63.1 8.5
Arab 195,900 125,365 109,055 16,310 70,535 64.0 55.7 13.0
West AsianFootnote 6 125,855 80,725 72,075 8,650 45,130 64.1 57.3 10.7
Korean 114,620 62,820 57,465 5,355 51,800 54.8 50.1 8.5
Japanese 66,400 40,890 38,815 2,085 25,505 61.6 58.5 5.1
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 7 57,115 40,625 37,445 3,180 16,490 71.1 65.6 7.8
Multiple visible minorityFootnote 8 87,565 63,630 58,250 5,380 23,935 72.7 66.5 8.5
Not a visible minorityFootnote 9 21,741,525 14,506,615 13,607,565 899,045 7,234,910 66.7 62.6 6.2


Footnote 1

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

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Footnote 2

Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 3

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour'.

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Footnote 4

For example, 'East Indian', 'Pakistani', 'Sri Lankan', etc.

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Footnote 5

For example, 'Vietnamese', 'Cambodian', 'Malaysian', 'Laotian', etc.

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Footnote 6

For example, 'Iranian', 'Afghan', etc.

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Footnote 7

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere'. Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese', 'West Indian', 'Kurd', 'Tibetan', 'Polynesian', 'Pacific Islander', etc.

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Footnote 8

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian'.

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Footnote 9

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-562-XCB2006017.


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Footnote a

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Footnote b

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Footnote c

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Footnote d

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