2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Topic-based tabulation: Immigrant Status and Place of Birth (38), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (8A), Age Groups (8), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (277), for the Total Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data

About this tabulation

General information

Catalogue number:97-564-XCB2006008
Release date:December 9, 2008
Topic:Immigration and citizenship
Data dimensions:

Note

Additional information about this table is available in the Dimension Summary Box of the 'Selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics (277)' variable.

Note: Data Quality - Age at immigration

There was a slight overestimation of age at immigration in the 2006 Census. For more information on the age at immigration variable, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, 2006 Census, catalogue number 97-557-GWE2006003.

Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.

Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).

Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.

Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.

Note: Broad occupational category A - Management occupations

Census data for occupation groups in Broad occupational category A - Management occupations should be used with caution. Some coding errors were made in assigning the appropriate level of management, e.g., senior manager as opposed to middle manager, and in determining the appropriate area of specialization or activity, e.g., a manager of a health care program in a hospital as opposed to a government manager in health policy administration. Some non-management occupations have also been miscoded to management due to confusion over titles such as program manager and project manager. Data users may wish to use data for management occupations in conjunction with other variables such as Income, Age and Education.

Note: Consistency of earnings and labour estimates

Changes to the collection methodology for income data and to the editing procedures create an apparent inconsistency for more records in 2006 compared to 2001. For example, a larger amount of full-year, full-time workers (or part-year workers) are without reported earnings. There are also more persons with earnings that do not report work activity during the previous calendar year.

These impacts are also visible for wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

For more information, please consult the Income and Earnings Reference Guide, 2006 Census, Catalogue no. 97-563-GWE2006003.

Note: Data on knowledge of official languages

According to studies on data certification, the 2006 Census statistics on knowledge of official languages could underestimate the category 'English and French' and overestimate the category 'French only,' particularly for the francophone population and, therefore, for the whole population. More information on the subject is available in the Languages Reference Guide, 2006 Census, Catalogue no. 97-555-GWE2006003.


Note: Income Data for Seniors in Collective Dwellings

In the 2006 Census, individuals who resided in institutions or residences with distinct, separate living quarters, and who were able to complete the census questionnaire, received their own census form to complete. These individuals were excluded from measurements of income in prior censuses. This census their incomes have been set to zero. This results in a slight overestimation in the count of population 15 years and over, and primarily the age group 65 years and over, without income (or without earnings). Counts and income statistics for families or persons not in families are not affected, as individuals in these types of collective dwellings have always, and continue to be excluded from those populations.

Note: Income suppression

Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding institutional residents, is less than 250 from either the 100% or the 20% database, or if the number of private households is less than 40 from the 20% database.

Tables with income, after-tax income or earnings distributions

Income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income, average after-tax income or average earnings have been replaced with zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Tables with number and median or average income, after-tax income or earnings

Statistics have been suppressed if the estimated total number of persons (males, females or both sexes) with income, after-tax income or earnings in the reference year is less than 250 persons. All suppressed counts and associated averages and medians have been replaced by zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Note: Institutional residents

People in seniors' residences in the 2006 Census are classified as 'not living in an institution'. This is a change from the 2001 Census where they were classified as institutional residents, specifically, 'living in an institution, resident under care or custody'.

Note: Labour force growth for the Northwest Territories

Care should be exercised in comparing the Northwest Territories 2006 Census population counts with those from the 2001 Census. In 2001, the net undercount for the Northwest Territories was estimated at 8.11%, substantially higher than the national level of 2.99%, and almost double its 1996 level. The increase in the labour force, the employed, unemployed and not in the labour force populations between 2001 and 2006 is likely overstated due to improvements in coverage of the Northwest Territories in 2006.

Data table

Select data categories for this table


This table details immigrant status and place of birth , immigrant status and period of immigration , age groups , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics , for the total population in CanadaFootnote 2
Selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics (277) Immigrant status and period of immigration (8A)
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration Non-immigrants ImmigrantsFootnote 3 Before 1991 1991 to 1995 1996 to 2000 2001 to 2006Footnote 4 Non-permanent residentsFootnote 5
Total population 15 years and over by legal marital statusFootnote 6 25,664,225 19,592,375 5,841,245 3,408,415 801,370 744,665 886,795 230,600
Never legally married (single) 8,963,160 7,670,920 1,175,705 476,870 244,150 215,205 239,480 116,535
Legally married (and not separated)Footnote 7 12,415,720 8,627,325 3,691,705 2,198,825 460,585 456,315 575,985 96,685
Separated, but still legally married 766,035 579,310 181,050 113,270 25,560 20,030 22,190 5,680
Divorced 2,067,200 1,673,750 386,340 285,125 40,230 32,790 28,190 7,110
Widowed 1,452,110 1,041,075 406,440 334,330 30,845 20,325 20,945 4,585
Total population in private households by census family statusFootnote 8 31,074,400 24,651,930 6,166,770 3,394,245 822,220 843,040 1,107,270 255,700
Number of family persons 26,113,390 20,749,925 5,205,735 2,752,925 723,675 756,525 972,610 157,730
Husbands or wives 12,211,820 8,531,025 3,599,980 2,165,320 446,310 440,530 547,820 80,815
Common-law partners 2,753,735 2,487,905 245,250 157,145 31,835 24,395 31,870 20,585
Lone parents 1,414,065 1,052,015 353,780 227,130 51,860 38,635 36,155 8,270
Children in census families 9,733,770 8,678,980 1,006,725 203,325 193,665 252,960 356,770 48,065
Number of persons not in census families 4,961,015 3,902,000 961,035 641,320 98,550 86,510 134,655 97,975
Living with relatives 644,010 411,220 215,515 110,190 34,105 28,210 43,005 17,275
Living with non-relatives only 989,950 785,775 150,855 67,675 19,410 19,935 43,835 53,320
Living alone 3,327,045 2,705,005 594,670 463,455 45,030 38,370 47,810 27,375
Total population aged 1 year and over by mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 9 30,897,210 24,448,435 6,184,305 3,407,975 823,830 844,560 1,107,945 264,460
Non-movers 26,534,115 21,167,995 5,229,690 3,122,220 711,490 697,480 698,500 136,435
Movers 4,363,095 3,280,445 954,620 285,755 112,345 147,080 409,445 128,030
Non-migrants 2,554,260 1,964,580 544,020 176,750 75,970 97,295 194,005 45,660
Migrants 1,808,835 1,315,860 410,605 109,000 36,375 49,785 215,445 82,370
Internal migrants 1,511,305 1,260,160 237,145 97,030 29,900 41,360 68,860 13,995
Intraprovincial migrants 1,221,560 1,021,490 190,025 80,735 24,655 32,980 51,655 10,045
Interprovincial migrants 289,745 238,675 47,125 16,290 5,250 8,380 17,205 3,950
External migrants 297,530 55,700 173,455 11,975 6,475 8,425 146,580 68,375
Total population aged 5 years and over by mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 10 29,544,480 23,147,290 6,140,695 3,407,975 823,830 844,555 1,064,330 256,500
Non-movers 17,457,170 14,210,495 3,221,255 2,394,715 428,710 308,010 89,820 25,425
Movers 12,087,315 8,936,795 2,919,445 1,013,260 395,120 536,550 974,510 231,075
Non-migrants 6,507,905 5,090,145 1,389,265 622,545 266,920 353,795 146,000 28,500
Migrants 5,579,415 3,846,655 1,530,180 390,710 128,210 182,755 828,510 202,575
Internal migrants 4,419,375 3,714,780 691,825 355,395 112,160 157,515 66,760 12,770
Intraprovincial migrants 3,566,790 2,993,285 564,900 296,795 93,125 126,200 48,780 8,610
Interprovincial migrants 852,580 721,495 126,920 58,600 19,030 31,310 17,980 4,165
External migrants 1,160,040 131,875 838,360 35,320 16,050 25,245 761,750 189,805
Total population by mother tongueFootnote 11 31,241,030 24,788,725 6,186,955 3,408,415 823,925 844,625 1,109,980 265,355
English 17,882,780 16,318,405 1,500,650 1,098,780 133,720 120,120 148,030 63,720
French 6,817,655 6,609,860 192,390 101,965 21,070 26,200 43,155 15,405
Non-official language 6,147,840 1,621,980 4,345,940 2,141,245 645,345 674,025 885,320 179,915
English and French 98,630 92,435 5,760 3,070 785 705 1,200 435
English and non-official language 240,005 125,860 109,480 48,655 18,000 18,655 24,170 4,670
French and non-official language 43,335 14,160 28,130 12,425 4,190 4,365 7,150 1,045
English, French and non-official language 10,790 6,015 4,605 2,280 815 560 950 170
Total population by language spoken most often at homeFootnote 12 31,241,030 24,788,725 6,186,955 3,408,420 823,925 844,625 1,109,980 265,355
English 20,584,775 17,593,575 2,880,090 2,068,240 275,280 252,955 283,625 111,105
French 6,608,125 6,290,915 297,570 148,980 36,990 43,035 68,565 19,635
Non-official language 3,472,130 688,250 2,661,385 1,041,540 452,800 486,315 680,720 122,495
English and French 94,060 79,025 14,105 8,110 1,800 1,920 2,280 925
English and non-official language 406,455 114,915 282,080 122,635 48,605 51,430 59,410 9,460
French and non-official language 58,885 15,190 42,270 14,385 6,750 7,470 13,665 1,430
English, French and non-official language 16,600 6,855 9,445 4,535 1,700 1,500 1,710 300
Total population by knowledge of official languagesFootnote 13 31,241,030 24,788,725 6,186,950 3,408,415 823,925 844,625 1,109,985 265,360
English only 21,129,945 16,143,745 4,784,940 2,703,280 623,200 654,025 804,435 201,255
French only 4,141,850 3,889,090 241,495 105,225 29,070 33,695 73,500 11,270
English and French 5,448,850 4,652,565 762,340 435,165 98,715 99,420 129,040 33,950
Neither English nor French 520,385 103,325 398,175 164,745 72,940 57,490 103,000 18,880
Total population 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2005 by language used most often at workFootnote 14 18,418,100 14,410,090 3,868,645 2,081,015 590,575 563,275 633,775 139,365
English 14,064,105 10,720,245 3,236,415 1,813,345 482,685 457,155 483,240 107,445
French 3,724,970 3,432,010 280,695 141,080 41,835 38,505 59,270 12,275
Non-official language 273,830 54,365 204,960 60,710 39,430 42,810 62,010 14,505
English and French 252,295 184,100 66,385 33,670 11,205 9,385 12,120 1,810
English and non-official language 86,820 14,350 69,500 26,480 13,830 14,095 15,095 2,970
French and non-official language 5,055 1,445 3,495 1,675 515 505 790 115
English, French and non-official language 11,025 3,580 7,200 4,050 1,075 815 1,260 245
Total - CitizenshipFootnote 15 31,241,030 24,788,725 6,186,950 3,408,415 823,925 844,625 1,109,985 265,355
Canadian citizens 29,480,165 24,788,725 4,691,440 3,079,600 724,045 679,135 208,665 0
Canadian citizens only 28,617,050 24,617,755 3,999,300 2,695,800 602,380 540,430 160,685 0
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 863,115 170,965 692,145 383,805 121,665 138,695 47,980 0
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 16 1,760,865 0 1,495,510 328,820 99,885 165,495 901,315 265,355
Total immigrant population by age at immigrationFootnote 17 6,186,950 0 6,186,950 3,408,415 823,925 844,625 1,109,980 0
Under 5 years 543,395 0 543,395 342,905 49,750 61,705 89,035 0
5 to 14 years 1,102,135 0 1,102,135 638,240 141,515 149,620 172,760 0
15 to 24 years 1,417,945 0 1,417,945 968,375 148,170 133,315 168,085 0
25 to 44 years 2,549,570 0 2,549,575 1,279,425 359,420 385,905 524,825 0
45 years and over 573,905 0 573,910 179,470 125,075 114,085 155,275 0
Total - Population by visible minority groupsFootnote 18 31,241,030 24,788,720 6,186,950 3,408,420 823,925 844,625 1,109,980 265,355
Total visible minority populationFootnote 19 5,068,095 1,528,350 3,362,150 1,295,480 611,145 622,860 832,665 177,590
Chinese 1,216,565 310,085 870,955 340,350 172,330 175,995 182,285 35,530
South AsianFootnote 20 1,262,865 370,540 867,450 295,180 147,325 182,690 242,245 24,875
Black 783,800 346,950 411,835 195,165 67,810 57,985 90,875 25,005
Filipino 410,695 105,210 289,365 101,185 62,175 50,530 75,465 16,125
Latin American 304,245 64,070 218,150 91,035 40,720 26,880 59,515 22,025
Southeast AsianFootnote 21 239,935 74,940 159,530 96,160 30,015 14,975 18,385 5,465
Arab 265,550 71,800 182,550 52,580 33,595 36,900 59,480 11,205
West AsianFootnote 22 156,700 23,240 129,060 27,865 22,110 35,115 43,970 4,400
Korean 141,895 21,255 99,700 26,655 13,350 23,675 36,020 20,935
Japanese 81,300 51,355 21,615 9,640 2,575 3,900 5,500 8,325
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 23 71,420 24,335 45,530 23,535 8,670 6,060 7,270 1,550
Multiple visible minorityFootnote 24 133,120 64,570 66,405 36,120 10,470 8,165 11,650 2,145
Not a visible minorityFootnote 25 26,172,940 23,260,370 2,824,800 2,112,940 212,775 221,765 277,320 87,765
Total population 15 years and over by generation statusFootnote 26 25,664,225 19,592,375 5,841,245 3,408,420 801,365 744,670 886,790 230,600
1st generationFootnote 27 6,124,560 58,515 5,835,445 3,404,500 800,610 744,140 886,195 230,605
2nd generationFootnote 28 4,006,420 4,001,500 4,915 3,235 680 490 510 0
3rd generation or moreFootnote 29 15,533,240 15,532,360 885 685 75 45 80 0
Total population 15 years and over by labour force activityFootnote 30 25,664,220 19,592,380 5,841,245 3,408,420 801,365 744,665 886,795 230,600
In the labour force 17,146,135 13,386,300 3,634,845 1,949,270 559,415 530,155 596,015 124,990
Employed 16,021,180 12,524,695 3,383,705 1,857,075 518,260 485,860 522,515 112,775
Unemployed 1,124,960 861,600 251,140 92,195 41,155 44,295 73,500 12,215
Not in the labour force 8,518,090 6,206,080 2,206,395 1,459,150 241,955 214,515 290,780 105,615
Participation rate 66.8 68.3 62.2 57.2 69.8 71.2 67.2 54.2
Employment rate 62.4 63.9 57.9 54.5 64.7 65.2 58.9 48.9
Unemployment rate 6.6 6.4 6.9 4.7 7.4 8.4 12.3 9.8
Total labour force 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 31 17,146,130 13,386,300 3,634,845 1,949,270 559,410 530,150 596,015 124,990
Class of worker - Not applicableFootnote 32 284,950 191,670 87,800 26,995 14,355 15,535 30,920 5,485
All classes of workerFootnote 33 16,861,185 13,194,625 3,547,045 1,922,275 545,055 514,620 565,095 119,510
Wage earners 14,816,205 11,678,840 3,026,195 1,590,415 476,380 449,870 509,530 111,170
Self-employedFootnote 34 1,993,710 1,478,255 507,420 325,150 66,360 62,480 53,430 8,040
Unpaid family workers 51,265 37,535 13,435 6,710 2,320 2,270 2,135 295
Total labour force 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System 2002Footnote 35 17,146,135 13,386,300 3,634,845 1,949,265 559,415 530,150 596,015 124,990
Industry - Not applicableFootnote 36 284,950 191,670 87,800 26,995 14,355 15,535 30,915 5,485
All industriesFootnote 37 16,861,180 13,194,625 3,547,045 1,922,275 545,055 514,620 565,095 119,505
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 523,650 461,540 57,305 34,315 6,880 7,405 8,705 4,810
21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 238,815 215,280 22,285 13,230 2,200 2,955 3,900 1,245
22 Utilities 132,945 115,280 17,340 11,565 1,725 2,115 1,935 330
23 Construction 1,069,100 883,875 180,170 111,895 22,905 20,380 24,985 5,060
31-33 Manufacturing 2,005,980 1,440,290 553,020 287,045 91,800 82,335 91,835 12,670
41 Wholesale trade 739,305 558,440 176,350 91,110 28,245 27,665 29,330 4,515
44-45 Retail trade 1,917,170 1,547,880 361,290 176,635 61,625 58,375 64,655 8,010
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 820,200 636,670 179,770 98,850 30,785 27,430 22,705 3,755
51 Information and cultural industries 417,325 326,385 87,960 45,990 13,925 13,915 14,125 2,980
52 Finance and insurance 689,210 512,105 174,360 98,790 27,235 25,275 23,065 2,750
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 303,515 225,910 76,485 48,825 9,945 9,505 8,220 1,110
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1,122,450 815,075 297,450 152,165 40,320 50,925 54,045 9,920
55 Management of companies and enterprises 20,530 15,175 5,190 3,210 630 585 765 170
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 722,700 533,240 182,655 83,025 29,785 28,610 41,245 6,800
61 Educational services 1,150,535 930,725 204,450 125,005 23,740 24,910 30,795 15,355
62 Health care and social assistance 1,716,260 1,355,780 349,635 208,380 52,370 43,505 45,380 10,845
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 346,310 292,995 51,340 29,040 7,730 7,285 7,285 1,980
72 Accommodation and food services 1,126,695 847,005 269,230 116,890 50,270 46,205 55,865 10,460
81 Other services (except public administration) 819,880 622,875 182,515 101,480 29,460 23,760 27,815 14,490
91 Public administration 978,620 858,105 118,260 84,835 13,490 11,485 8,450 2,250
Total labour force 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006Footnote 38 17,146,135 13,386,300 3,634,845 1,949,270 559,415 530,150 596,010 124,990
Occupation - Not applicableFootnote 39 284,950 191,670 87,800 26,995 14,355 15,530 30,915 5,485
All occupationsFootnote 40 16,861,185 13,194,630 3,547,045 1,922,275 545,055 514,620 565,095 119,505
A Management occupations 1,631,730 1,263,305 358,945 230,905 45,955 42,700 39,385 9,475
B Business, finance and administrative occupations 3,025,425 2,391,790 620,445 357,140 92,305 83,210 87,790 13,190
C Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 1,108,050 771,270 325,920 146,475 47,725 67,210 64,515 10,860
D Health occupations 950,365 735,625 208,685 124,050 30,810 26,045 27,780 6,050
E Occupations in social science, education, government service and religion 1,414,325 1,142,500 253,995 148,640 31,865 33,330 40,155 17,830
F Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 502,195 406,920 91,585 53,470 12,790 12,095 13,235 3,690
G Sales and service occupations 4,037,725 3,164,930 837,880 402,495 146,385 131,120 157,880 34,915
H Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,550,295 2,074,835 464,375 272,430 70,120 59,605 62,215 11,090
I Occupations unique to primary industry 648,315 575,385 67,570 40,380 8,605 8,560 10,030 5,355
J Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities 992,765 668,075 317,640 146,290 58,495 50,740 62,115 7,045
Total population 15 years and over by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 41 25,664,225 19,592,380 5,841,245 3,408,415 801,370 744,665 886,795 230,600
No certificate, diploma or degree 6,098,325 4,820,305 1,245,570 806,945 163,320 129,985 145,325 32,450
Certificate, diploma or degree 19,565,895 14,772,075 4,595,670 2,601,475 638,050 614,685 741,465 198,150
High school certificate or equivalentFootnote 42 6,553,425 5,171,060 1,325,675 765,830 214,855 173,865 171,120 56,690
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma 2,785,420 2,242,370 530,665 391,705 58,400 40,235 40,325 12,380
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diplomaFootnote 43 4,435,135 3,535,630 872,335 576,400 119,055 88,565 88,325 27,170
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 44 1,136,150 735,900 383,450 195,810 59,195 57,910 70,530 16,795
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor's level or aboveFootnote 45 4,655,765 3,087,110 1,483,545 671,730 186,540 254,110 371,170 85,115
Bachelor's degree 2,981,460 2,085,435 850,660 384,970 115,060 143,790 206,835 45,365
University certificate or diploma above bachelor level 493,540 328,410 157,550 74,100 19,895 25,890 37,665 7,575
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 136,845 76,945 56,395 29,275 6,650 7,635 12,835 3,505
Master's degree 866,980 510,895 335,090 138,795 35,660 63,075 97,565 20,990
Earned doctorate 176,945 85,425 83,845 44,590 9,270 13,720 16,270 7,670
Total population 15 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs, 2000Footnote 46 13,012,475 9,601,015 3,270,000 1,835,645 423,190 440,815 570,345 141,460
Education 994,665 805,655 182,320 115,865 20,540 19,520 26,385 6,695
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 481,190 362,130 112,730 65,410 15,800 14,470 17,045 6,330
Humanities 717,125 507,520 198,215 104,685 25,055 28,695 39,780 11,390
Social and behavioural sciences and law 1,275,105 941,900 317,080 175,675 43,815 41,475 56,100 16,130
Business, management and public administration 2,801,720 2,078,840 690,965 381,090 94,825 92,075 122,980 31,915
Physical and life sciences and technologies 451,960 284,995 156,225 73,235 21,295 26,975 34,725 10,740
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 568,755 358,675 199,125 84,575 30,945 37,640 45,965 10,955
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 2,922,080 2,073,240 824,865 475,450 94,965 112,490 141,960 23,980
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 291,510 232,120 56,780 31,815 6,875 7,210 10,880 2,610
Health, parks, recreation and fitness 1,728,890 1,316,565 395,635 236,620 51,385 46,530 61,095 16,690
Personal, protective and transportation services 777,370 637,535 135,815 91,120 17,655 13,665 13,375 4,020
Other fields of studyFootnote 47 2,100 1,840 250 95 25 65 60 15
Total population 15 years and over by location of studyFootnote 48 25,664,225 19,592,375 5,841,240 3,408,415 801,370 744,670 886,795 230,600
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 12,651,750 9,991,365 2,571,245 1,572,770 378,180 303,855 316,445 89,140
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 13,012,470 9,601,015 3,269,995 1,835,645 423,190 440,815 570,350 141,465
Inside Canada 10,948,470 9,398,720 1,520,295 1,103,835 195,325 135,085 86,050 29,460
Newfoundland-and-Labrador 215,440 211,535 3,765 2,885 340 305 240 145
Prince-Edward-Island 50,760 49,245 1,475 1,195 140 80 55 35
Nova Scotia 400,260 381,500 17,835 13,760 1,415 1,345 1,315 925
New Brunswick 274,260 264,115 9,425 7,400 580 640 805 725
Quebec 3,054,910 2,801,350 247,990 167,330 32,830 25,080 22,745 5,570
Ontario 3,972,230 3,141,465 818,010 597,575 108,265 71,800 40,370 12,745
Manitoba 414,370 368,035 45,365 36,730 3,830 2,765 2,050 965
Saskatchewan 378,555 359,480 18,315 14,565 1,555 1,175 1,020 760
Alberta 1,029,270 897,050 130,110 100,365 13,870 9,405 6,465 2,115
British Columbia 1,144,595 911,945 227,195 161,365 32,435 22,445 10,955 5,460
Yukon Territory 4,515 4,090 425 365 30 15 10 0
Northwest Territories 6,050 5,785 255 205 20 15 15 10
Nunavut 3,265 3,135 125 95 20 10 10 0
Outside CanadaFootnote 49 2,064,000 202,300 1,749,700 731,810 227,865 305,730 484,295 112,005
United States of America 291,115 145,315 130,685 77,165 12,980 16,900 23,635 15,120
United KingdomFootnote 50 235,465 27,535 200,285 157,405 12,880 12,185 17,815 7,650
India 161,555 405 156,080 40,720 20,475 34,430 60,455 5,070
Philippines 160,550 290 147,050 48,990 29,685 25,630 42,745 13,210
China, People's Republic of 142,880 35 137,005 11,590 11,950 40,520 72,945 5,840
Germany 65,485 1,640 61,275 50,455 2,455 4,060 4,305 2,570
France 56,595 5,885 44,025 18,375 5,185 7,220 13,245 6,685
Poland 53,655 180 52,835 35,290 11,285 3,115 3,140 640
Pakistan 52,195 195 50,315 6,925 4,525 15,490 23,370 1,685
Korea, SouthFootnote 51 43,900 15 36,625 7,940 4,720 9,515 14,455 7,255
Other 800,600 20,795 733,525 276,950 111,720 136,665 208,185 46,285
Total population 15 years and over by employment income and work activityFootnote 52 25,664,225 19,592,380 5,841,245 3,408,420 801,370 744,665 886,790 230,605
Did not work or had no employment income in 2005Footnote 53 8,622,380 6,157,665 2,348,535 1,484,335 262,025 234,725 367,450 116,185
Worked full year full time with employment incomeFootnote 54 9,275,765 7,332,795 1,894,830 1,161,685 279,575 252,405 201,170 48,135
Average employment income $ 51,221 51,548 49,975 55,664 42,113 42,574 37,339 50,486
Median employment income $ 41,401 42,030 39,523 43,530 35,050 35,055 30,372 28,979
Standard error of average employment income $ 52 57 129 199 158 191 188 866
Worked part year or part time with employment incomeFootnote 55 7,766,075 6,101,915 1,597,875 762,395 259,765 257,540 318,175 66,280
Average employment income $ 22,398 22,033 23,882 30,147 20,447 18,969 15,650 20,142
Median employment income $ 13,072 12,679 14,910 19,176 13,743 12,505 10,468 11,550
Standard error of average employment income $ 41 44 109 216 137 99 79 258
Total population 15 years and over by employment incomeFootnote 56 25,664,225 19,592,375 5,841,245 3,408,420 801,370 744,670 886,790 230,600
Without employment income 7,462,955 5,313,875 2,043,320 1,304,735 227,370 195,870 315,345 105,760
With employment incomeFootnote 57 18,201,260 14,278,500 3,797,920 2,103,680 574,000 548,800 571,445 124,840
Under $5,000Footnote 58 2,696,200 2,127,470 545,790 267,290 76,195 83,515 118,790 22,935
$5,000 to $9,999 1,827,850 1,431,310 378,545 153,520 66,065 69,670 89,290 17,995
$10,000 to $19,999 2,862,810 2,203,710 627,475 288,555 107,095 104,690 127,140 31,625
$20,000 to $29,999 2,440,740 1,879,745 544,160 275,045 94,855 86,330 87,925 16,830
$30,000 to $39,999 2,265,075 1,761,755 493,035 285,055 80,480 68,540 58,960 10,285
$40,000 to $49,999 1,770,720 1,408,960 355,580 227,265 51,980 43,615 32,715 6,180
$50,000 to $59,999 1,272,415 1,023,395 244,855 164,530 32,505 28,790 19,030 4,160
$60,000 to $74,999 1,320,495 1,067,405 248,505 174,135 28,995 28,335 17,030 4,585
$75,000 and over 1,744,970 1,374,750 359,970 268,270 35,820 35,310 20,565 10,245
Average employment income $Footnote 59 36,301 36,457 35,876 42,607 30,534 29,272 22,801 31,413
Median employment income $Footnote 60 26,850 27,168 26,031 32,013 23,741 21,601 15,589 16,408
Standard error of average employment income $Footnote 61 34 37 82 140 105 106 86 371
Total population 15 years and over with income in 2005 by composition of total income %Footnote 62 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Market income % 88.9 89.5 86.9 85.8 89.0 91.0 88.3 90.1
Employment income % 76.2 77.0 73.2 68.6 83.8 85.9 82.1 82.0
Wages and salaries % 70.7 71.7 67.2 62.4 77.8 80.2 77.3 76.9
Self-employment income % 5.5 5.3 6.0 6.3 5.9 5.7 4.8 5.0
Investment income % 4.3 4.1 5.1 6.3 2.7 2.2 2.4 2.4
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities % 6.6 6.6 6.6 9.0 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.3
Other money income % 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.5 1.9 2.7 4.3
Government transfer payments % 11.1 10.5 13.1 14.2 11.0 9.0 11.7 9.9
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement % 3.0 2.7 4.1 5.3 3.0 0.8 0.2 1.1
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits % 3.4 3.2 3.9 5.3 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.8
Child benefits % 1.3 1.2 1.7 0.9 2.9 3.2 4.8 2.4
Employment Insurance benefits % 1.4 1.5 1.1 0.8 1.6 2.1 2.4 1.2
Other income from government sources % 2.0 1.9 2.3 2.0 2.8 2.5 3.9 4.4
Income taxes paid % 17.7 18.0 16.6 18.1 13.8 13.8 12.0 17.0
Total population 15 years and over by wages and salaries in 2005Footnote 63 25,664,225 19,592,375 5,841,245 3,408,415 801,370 744,670 886,795 230,600
Without wages and salaries 8,905,805 6,366,950 2,427,110 1,554,045 277,770 243,070 352,230 111,740
With wages and salaries 16,758,420 13,225,425 3,414,135 1,854,375 523,595 501,605 534,565 118,860
Under $5,000 2,376,085 1,891,260 462,555 205,395 69,025 75,905 112,225 22,275
$5,000 to $9,999 1,626,860 1,291,305 318,635 118,905 56,865 60,705 82,155 16,920
$10,000 to $19,999 2,548,365 1,983,885 534,510 236,555 91,855 90,675 115,425 29,965
$20,000 to $29,999 2,249,195 1,740,720 492,525 243,510 86,770 79,130 83,115 15,950
$30,000 to $39,999 2,148,340 1,674,665 463,850 266,410 76,435 64,865 56,135 9,825
$40,000 to $49,999 1,702,955 1,357,040 339,965 216,250 50,465 41,875 31,375 5,955
$50,000 to $59,999 1,224,070 985,690 234,350 157,255 30,980 27,865 18,245 4,025
$60,000 and over 2,882,550 2,300,855 567,750 410,100 61,190 60,575 35,890 13,945
Average wages and salaries $Footnote 64 36,602 36,648 36,621 43,932 31,112 29,916 22,950 30,964
Median wages and salaries $Footnote 65 27,994 28,201 27,780 34,337 24,908 22,764 15,863 16,392
Standard error of average wages and salaries $Footnote 66 35 38 87 151 104 111 88 377
Total population 15 years and over by total income in 2005Footnote 67 25,664,225 19,592,380 5,841,245 3,408,415 801,365 744,670 886,790 230,605
Without income 1,241,060 939,125 275,560 57,975 38,470 48,050 131,065 26,380
With income 24,423,160 18,653,255 5,565,685 3,350,440 762,895 696,615 755,735 204,220
Under $5,000Footnote 68 2,575,370 1,885,010 627,720 226,615 110,760 122,565 167,775 62,640
$5,000 to $9,999 2,411,170 1,835,670 547,250 243,605 90,020 88,950 124,675 28,250
$10,000 to $19,999 5,049,145 3,700,460 1,302,045 788,590 184,470 147,650 181,335 46,635
$20,000 to $29,999 3,681,500 2,773,470 883,340 543,010 118,330 108,775 113,220 24,690
$30,000 to $39,999 3,189,445 2,477,200 698,590 451,750 96,045 80,890 69,905 13,660
$40,000 to $49,999 2,293,505 1,819,325 466,625 322,575 58,670 48,640 36,740 7,555
$50,000 to $79,999 3,507,905 2,819,450 677,535 493,520 72,665 68,270 43,085 10,915
$80,000 and over 1,715,125 1,342,665 362,585 280,770 31,935 30,880 19,000 9,875
Average income $Footnote 69 35,498 36,243 33,444 38,992 27,431 26,844 20,999 23,428
Median income $Footnote 70 25,615 26,666 23,064 27,398 19,716 19,125 14,218 11,965
Standard error of average income $Footnote 71 30 34 66 104 86 94 72 242
Total persons in private households by income status in 2005Footnote 72 30,628,940 24,222,440 6,152,300 3,386,025 820,900 841,470 1,103,905 254,195
Total persons in economic familiesFootnote 73 26,358,390 20,773,245 5,410,705 2,856,800 756,760 783,520 1,013,630 174,440
Persons in economic families below low income cut-off before tax 3,144,530 2,033,990 1,042,080 280,840 161,075 196,300 403,865 68,465
Prevalence of low income before tax in 2005 for economic family members % 11.9 9.8 19.3 9.8 21.3 25.1 39.8 39.2
Persons in economic families below low income cut-off after tax 2,274,755 1,435,200 781,000 185,105 115,870 149,085 330,940 58,555
Prevalence of low income after tax in 2005 for economic family members % 8.6 6.9 14.4 6.5 15.3 19.0 32.6 33.6
Total persons 15 years and over not in economic families 4,270,545 3,449,195 741,595 529,230 64,145 57,950 90,280 79,755
Persons not in economic families below before-tax low income cut-off 1,556,490 1,187,405 308,480 192,650 31,265 27,470 57,100 60,600
Prevalence of low income before tax in 2005 for persons not in economic families % 36.4 34.4 41.6 36.4 48.7 47.4 63.2 76.0
Persons not in economic families below after-tax low income cut-off 1,209,865 908,745 244,180 138,920 27,870 24,780 52,625 56,940
Prevalence of low income after tax in 2005 for persons not in economic families % 28.3 26.3 32.9 26.2 43.5 42.8 58.3 71.4

Footnotes

Footnote 1

For information on the specific countries included in each regional grouping in this variable, please refer to Appendix J in the 2006 Census Dictionary.

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Footnote 2

Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 3

Immigrants are persons who are, or have ever been, landed immigrants in Canada. A landed immigrant is a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others are more recent arrivals. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number were born in Canada. Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to Census Day, May 16, 2006.

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Footnote 4

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to Census Day, May 16, 2006.

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Footnote 5

Non-permanent residents are persons from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living with them in Canada.

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Footnote 6

Legal marital status
Part A - Plain language definition
A person's conjugal status under the law (e.g., single, married, widowed). Legal marital status data are derived from the responses to Question 4 (Marital status) in the census questionnaires.
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the legal conjugal status of a person.
The various responses are defined as follows:
Never legally married (single)
Persons who have never married (including all persons less than 15 years of age) and persons whose marriage has been annulled and who have not remarried.
Legally married (and not separated)
Persons whose spouse is living, unless the couple is separated or a divorce has been obtained.
Separated, but still legally married
Persons currently married, but who are no longer living with their spouse (for any reason other than illness or work) and have not obtained a divorce.
Divorced
Persons who have obtained a legal divorce and who have not remarried.
Widowed
Persons who have lost their spouse through death and who have not remarried.

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Footnote 7

In 2006, this category includes spouses in same-sex marriages.

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Footnote 8

Census family status
Part A - Plain language definition
Classification of persons according to whether or not they are members of a census family and the status they have in the census family (a census family is composed of a married couple or two persons living common-law, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling). A person can be a spouse, a common-law partner, a lone parent, a child or a person not in a census family.
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the classification of the population according to whether or not the persons are members of a census family.
Family persons refer to household members who belong to a census family. They, in turn, are further classified as follows:

Spouses refer to two persons of opposite sex or of the same sex who are legally married to each other and living in the same dwelling.

Common-law partners are two persons of opposite sex or of the same sex who are not legally married to each other, but live together as a couple in the same dwelling.

Lone parent refers to a mother or a father, with no spouse or common-law partner present, living in a dwelling with one or more children.

Children refer to blood, step- or adopted sons and daughters (regardless of age or marital status) who are living in the same dwelling as their parent(s), as well as grandchildren in households where there are no parents present. Sons and daughters who are living with their spouse or common-law partner, or with one or more of their own children, are not considered to be members of the census family of their parent(s), even if they are living in the same dwelling. In addition, those sons and daughters who do not live in the same dwelling as their parent(s) are not considered members of the census family of their parent(s). The category of 'children' can be further distinguished as follows:

Never-married sons and/or daughters in a census family, as used in censuses prior to 2001.

Other sons and/or daughters in a census family who would not have been included in the census family of their parents according to the previous concept.

Grandchildren living in the same household as their grandparent(s), with no parents present.

Persons not in census families refer to household members who do not belong to a census family.

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Footnote 9

Refers to the relationship between a person's usual place of residence on Census Day and his or her usual place of residence one year earlier. A person is classified as a non-mover if no difference exists. Otherwise, a person is classified as a mover and this categorization is called Mobility status (1 year ago). Within the category of movers, a further distinction is made between non-migrants and migrants; this difference is called migration status.

Non-movers are persons who, on Census Day, were living at the same address as the one at which they resided one year earlier.

Movers are persons who, on Census Day, were living at a different address from the one at which they resided one year earlier.

Non-migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were living at a different address, but in the same census subdivision (CSD) as the one they lived in one year earlier.

Migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were residing in a different CSD one year earlier (internal migrants) or who were living outside Canada one year earlier (external migrants).

Intraprovincial migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were living in a different census subdivision from the one at which they resided one year earlier, in the same province.

Interprovincial migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were living in a different census subdivision from the one at which they resided one year earlier, in a different province.

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Footnote 10

Refers to the relationship between a person's usual place of residence on Census Day and his or her usual place of residence five years earlier. A person is classified as a non-mover if no difference exists. Otherwise, a person is classified as a mover and this categorization is called Mobility status (5 years ago). Within the movers category, a further distinction is made between non-migrants and migrants; this difference is called migration status.

Non-movers are persons who, on Census Day, were living at the same address as the one at which they resided five years earlier.

Movers are persons who, on Census Day, were living at a different address from the one at which they resided five years earlier.

Non-migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were living at a different address, but in the same census subdivision (CSD) as the one they lived in five years earlier.

Migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were residing in a different CSD five years earlier (internal migrants) or who were living outside Canada five years earlier (external migrants).

Intraprovincial migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were living in a different census subdivision from the one in which they resided five years earlier, in the same province.

Interprovincial migrants are movers who, on Census Day, were living in a different census subdivision from the one in which they resided five years earlier, in a different province.

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Footnote 11

Mother tongue
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the census.

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Footnote 12

Refers to the language spoken most often at home by the individual at the time of the census. Data on other languages spoken on a regular basis at home are also collected.

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Footnote 13

Knowledge of Official Languages
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the ability to conduct a conversation in English only, in French only, in both English and French, or in neither English nor French.

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Footnote 14

Refers to the language used most often at work by the individual at the time of the census. Data on other languages used at work on a regular basis are also collected.

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Footnote 15

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Citizenship
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the legal citizenship status of the respondent. Persons who are citizens of more than one country were instructed to provide the name of the other country(ies).

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Footnote 16

Includes persons who are stateless. Prior to the 2006 Census, this category was called 'Citizens of other countries.' The content of the category remains unchanged in 2006 compared with previous censuses.

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Footnote 17

Age at immigration
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the age at which the respondent first obtained landed immigrant status. A landed immigrant is a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

The derivation of the data on age at immigration in 2006 was slightly different from that of 2001 due to an omission of an estimation process. The result of this omission was an increase of the age at immigration estimate by one year for many records. As such, the overall mean age at immigration for the total weighted immigrant population was estimated as 24.9 years, whereas the correct estimate should be 24.4 years. The median age for the total weighted immigrant population was estimated at 25 years, whereas the correct estimate should be 24 years.

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Footnote 18

Visible minority population
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the visible minority group to which the respondent belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour'.

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Footnote 19

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour'.

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Footnote 20

For example, 'East Indian', 'Pakistani', 'Sri Lankan', etc.

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Footnote 21

For example, 'Vietnamese', 'Cambodian', 'Malaysian', 'Laotian', etc.

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Footnote 22

For example, 'Iranian', 'Afghan', etc.

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Footnote 23

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere'. Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese', 'West Indian', 'Kurd', 'Tibetan', 'Polynesian', 'Pacific Islander', etc.

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Footnote 24

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian'.

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Footnote 25

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 26

Generation status
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the generational status of a person, that is, 1st generation, 2nd generation or 3rd generation or more.

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Footnote 27

Persons born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, landed immigrants in Canada. Also included in the first generation are a small number of people born outside Canada to parents who are Canadian citizens by birth. In addition, the first generation includes people who are non-permanent residents (defined as people from another country living in Canada on Work or Study Permits or as refugee claimants, and any family members living with them in Canada).

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Footnote 28

Persons born inside Canada with at least one parent born outside Canada. This includes (a) persons born in Canada with both parents born outside Canada and (b) persons born in Canada with one parent born in Canada and one parent born outside Canada (these persons may have grandparents born inside or outside Canada as well).

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Footnote 29

Persons born inside Canada with both parents born inside Canada (these persons may have grandparents born inside or outside Canada as well).

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Footnote 30

Labour force activity
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the labour market activity of the population 15 years of age and over in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006). Respondents were classified as Employed, Unemployed, or Not in the labour force. The labour force includes the employed and the unemployed.

Employed
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Persons who, during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006):
(a) did any work at all for pay or in self-employment or without pay in a family farm, business or professional practice
(b) were absent from their job or business, with or without pay, for the entire week because of a vacation, an illness, a labour dispute at their place of work, or any other reasons.

Unemployed
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Persons who, during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006), were without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either:
(a) had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or
(b) were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or
(c) had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.

Not in the labour force
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to persons who, in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006), were neither employed nor unemployed. It includes students, homemakers, retired workers, seasonal workers in an 'off' season who were not looking for work, and persons who could not work because of a long term illness or disability.

Participation rate
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the labour force in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006), expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over.

The participation rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the total labour force in that group, expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over, in that group.

Employment rate
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the number of persons employed in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006), expressed as a percentage of the total population 15 years of age and over.

The employment rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the number employed in that group, expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over, in that group.

Unemployment rate
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 16, 2006).

The unemployment rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the unemployed in that group, expressed as a percentage of the labour force in that group, in the week prior to enumeration.

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Footnote 31

Class of worker
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
This variable classifies persons who reported a job into the following categories:
(a) persons who worked mainly for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piece-rates, or payments 'in kind' (payments in goods or services rather than money);
(b) persons who worked mainly for themselves, with or without paid help, operating a business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership;
(c) persons who worked without pay in a family business, farm or professional practice owned or operated by a related household member; unpaid family work does not include unpaid housework, unpaid childcare, unpaid care to seniors and volunteer work.
The job reported was the one held in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 16, 2006) if the person was employed, or the job of longest duration since January 1, 2005, if the person was not employed during the reference week. Persons with two or more jobs in the reference week were asked to provide information for the job at which they worked the most hours.

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Footnote 32

Unemployed persons 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2005 only.

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Footnote 33

Refers to the experienced labour force population: includes persons who were employed and persons who were unemployed who worked for pay or in self-employment since January 1, 2005.

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Footnote 34

Includes self-employed unincorporated and incorporated.

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Footnote 35

Industry (based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System [NAICS])
Part A - Plain language definition
General nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2006 Census data on industry (based on the 2002 NAICS) can be compared with data from Canada's NAFTA partners (United States and Mexico).
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. If the person did not have a job during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 16, 2006), the data relate to the job of longest duration since January 1, 2005. Persons with two or more jobs were required to report the information for the job at which they worked the most hours.
The 2006 Census industry data are produced according to the 2002 NAICS. The NAICS provides enhanced industry comparability among the three North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trading partners (Canada, United States and Mexico). This classification consists of a systematic and comprehensive arrangement of industries structured into 20 sectors, 103 subsectors and 328 industry groups. The criteria used to create these categories are similarity of input structures, labour skills or production processes used by the establishment. For further information on the classification, see North American Industry Classification System, Canada, 2002, Catalogue no. 12-501-XPE.

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Footnote 36

Unemployed persons 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2005 only.

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Footnote 37

Refers to the experienced labour force population: includes persons who were employed and persons who were unemployed who worked for pay or in self-employment since January 1, 2005.

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Footnote 38

Occupation (based on the National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 [NOC-S 2006])
Part A - Plain language definition
Kind of work done by persons aged 15 and over. Occupation is based on the type of job the person holds and the description of his or her duties. The 2006 Census data on occupation are classified according to the National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 (NOC-S 2006). For comparisons with data from the 1991 and 1996 censuses, the variable Occupation (historical) should be used.
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the kind of work persons were doing during the reference week, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. If the person did not have a job during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 16, 2006), the data relate to the job of longest duration since January 1, 2005. Persons with two or more jobs were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most hours.
The 2006 Census occupation data are classified according to the National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 (NOC-S 2006). This classification is composed of four levels of aggregation. There are 10 broad occupational categories containing 47 major groups that are further subdivided into 140 minor groups. At the most detailed level, there are 520 occupation unit groups. Occupation unit groups are formed on the basis of the education, training, or skill level required to enter the job, as well as the kind of work performed, as determined by the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the occupation.
For information on the NOC-S 2006, see the National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006, Catalogue No. 12-583-XIE.

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Footnote 39

Unemployed persons 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2005 only.

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Footnote 40

Refers to the experienced labour force population: includes persons who were employed and persons who were unemployed who worked for pay or in self-employment since January 1, 2005.

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Footnote 41

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class'. For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

Census questions relating to education changed substantially between 2001 and 2006, principally to reflect developments in Canada's education system. These changes improved the quality of data and provided more precise information on the level of educational attainment as well as fields of study.

However, users should be aware that changes to the education portion of the 2006 Census questionnaire have affected the comparability of some 2006 Census data with data from previous censuses. More information on the historical comparability of specific categories of 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' is available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, catalogue number 97-560-GWE2006003.

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Highest certificate, diploma or degree
Part A - Plain language definition
Information indicating the person's most advanced certificate, diploma or degree.
Part B - Detailed definition
This is a derived variable obtained from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported. There is an implied hierarchy in this variable (secondary school graduation, registered apprenticeship and trades, college, university) which is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education. However, at the detailed level a registered apprenticeship graduate may not have completed a secondary school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a master's degree necessarily have a certificate or diploma above the bachelor's degree level. Therefore, although the sequence is more or less hierarchical, it is a general rather than an absolute gradient measure of academic achievement.

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Footnote 42

'High school certificate or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. Excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree. Examples of postsecondary institutions include community colleges, institutes of technology, CEGEPs, private trade schools, private business colleges, schools of nursing and universities.

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Footnote 43

'College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma' replaces the category 'Other non university certificate or diploma' in previous censuses. This category includes accreditation by non degree-granting institutions such as community colleges, CEGEPs, private business colleges and technical institutes.

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Footnote 44

The overall quality of the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable from the 2006 Census is acceptable. However, users of the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level' category should know that an unexpected growth in this category was noted compared to the 2001 Census.

In fact, in the 2001 Census, 2.5% of respondents aged 15 years or over declared such a diploma, compared to 4.4% in 2006, representing 89% growth. This phenomenon was not found in other sources like the Labour Force Survey.

We recommend users interpret the 2006 Census results for this category with caution.

For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B: Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.

More information is available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, catalogue number 97-560-GWE2006003.

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Footnote 45

Questions pertaining to university degrees attained in 2006 (for example bachelor's degrees or master's degrees) were similar to those asked in 2001. Data for the university categories (bachelor's degree through to earned doctorate) are comparable over time.

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Footnote 46

'Field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level.

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Major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP)
Part A - Plain language definition
Main subject area of the person's highest certificate, diploma or degree after high school.
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the predominant discipline or area of learning or training of a person's highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree. The Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP [Canada 2000]) major field of study classification structure consists of 13 major categories or primary groupings, 12 of which are used for the census (the category which includes courses in personal development is not used). The 12 primary groupings are: education; visual and performing arts, and communications technologies; humanities; social and behavioural sciences and law; business, management and public administration; physical and life sciences and technologies; mathematics, computer and information sciences; architecture, engineering and related technologies; agriculture, natural resources and conservation; health, parks, recreation and fitness; personal, protective and transportation services; other.

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Footnote 47

Includes Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, Other.

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Footnote 48

'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.

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Location of study
Part A - Plain language definition
Indicates the province, territory or country where the highest certificate, diploma or degree was obtained.
Part B - Detailed definition
This variable indicates the province, territory (in Canada) or country (outside Canada) where the highest certificate, diploma or degree was obtained. It is only reported for individuals who had completed a certificate, diploma or degree above the secondary (high) school level.

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Footnote 49

Refers to the 10 locations of studies outside Canada most often reported.

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Footnote 50

The official name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Footnote 51

The official name is the Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 52

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2005 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2005. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2005 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2005, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the Net Income Stabilization Account (NISA). The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2005 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be less than approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors of average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families [census/economic], persons 15 years of age and over not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

Work activity - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in the reference year at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (1 to 29 hours per week). Persons with a part-time job for part of the year and a full-time job for another part of the year were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most weeks. The term 'Full-year full-time workers' refers to persons 15 years of age and over who worked 49 to 52 weeks (mostly full time) in the reference year for pay or in self-employment.

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Footnote 53

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2005 only, persons who worked in 2006 only, as well as persons who worked in 2005 but had no employment income.

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Footnote 54

Was an earner or employment income recipient and worked 49 to 52 weeks in 2005, mostly full time.

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Footnote 55

Was an earner or employment income recipient and worked less than 49 weeks or worked mostly part time in 2005.

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Footnote 56

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2005 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2005. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2005 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2005, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the Net Income Stabilization Account (NISA). The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income for unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2005 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump-sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be less than approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors of average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families [census/economic], persons 15 years of age and over not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

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Footnote 57

Earner or employment income recipient - Refers to a person 15 years of age and over who received wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income during calendar year 2005.

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Footnote 58

Including loss.

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Footnote 59

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 60

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 61

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 62

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

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Footnote 63

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2005. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump-sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions, as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors for average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families [census/economic], persons not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

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Footnote 64

For persons with wages and salaries.

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Footnote 65

For persons with wages and salaries.

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Footnote 66

For persons with wages and salaries.

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Footnote 67

'Total income' refers to the total money income received from the following sources during calendar year 2005 by persons 15 years of age and over:

- wages and salaries (total)
- net farm income
- net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice
- child benefits
- Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement
- benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- other income from government sources
- dividends, interest on bonds, deposits and savings certificates, and other investment income
- retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from RRSPs and RRIFs
- other money income.

'After-tax income' refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2005.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excluded gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions, as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be less than approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors of average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families [census/economic]), persons 15 years of age and over not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

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Footnote 68

Including loss.

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Footnote 69

For persons with income.

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Footnote 70

For persons with income.

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Footnote 71

For persons with income.

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Footnote 72

Income status before tax - Refers to the position of an economic family or a person 15 years of age and over not in an economic family in relation to Statistics Canada's low income before tax cut-offs (LICOs).

Income status after tax - Refers to the position of an economic family or a person 15 years of age and over in relation to Statistics Canada's low income after-tax cut-offs (LICO-AT).

Measures of low income known as 'low income (before tax) cut-offs (LICOs)' were first introduced in Canada in 1968 based on 1961 Census income data and 1959 family expenditure patterns. At that time, expenditure patterns indicated that Canadian families spent about 50% of their total income on food, shelter and clothing. It was arbitrarily estimated that families spending 70% or more of their income (20 percentage points more than the average) on these basic necessities would be in 'straitened' circumstances. With this assumption, low income cut-off points were set for five different sizes of families.

Subsequent to these initial cut-offs, revised low income before tax cut-offs were established based on national family expenditure data from 1969, 1978, 1986 and 1992. The initial LICOs were based upon the total income, before tax, of families and persons 15 years and over not in economic families.

After a comprehensive review of low income cut-offs completed in 1991, low income cut-offs based upon after-tax income were published for the first time in Income After Tax, Distributions by Size in Canada, 1990 (Catalogue no. 13-210). Income after tax cut-offs are estimated independently for economic families and persons 15 years of age and over not in economic families based upon family expenditure and income after tax. Consequently, the low income after-tax cut-offs are set at after-tax income levels, differentiated by size of family and area of residence, where families spend 20 percentage points more of their after-tax income than the average family on food, shelter and clothing.

For the purposes of low income statistics (before or after tax), economic families and persons 15 years of age and over not in economic families in the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut and on Indian reserves were excluded. The low income cut-offs are based on certain expenditure-income patterns which are not available from survey data for the entire population.

The incidence of low income is not calculated for economic families and persons not in economic families living in the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and on Indian reserves. In addition, low income data are available for two census subdivisions (CSDs) in Saskatchewan (Denare Beach, Sandy Bay) which Indian and Northern Affairs Canada considers as First Nation communities but which are not Indian reserves. The data for these communities have been included in the incidence of low income calculations for the Saskatchewan and Canada level data. However, they are not shown as part of the 'On reserve' column in the tables for Saskatchewan and Canada.

Prevalence of low income (before or after tax) can also be derived for census families, persons not in census families and the population in private households. See Low Income Statistics for Census Families and Households, Staff Report no. 1991-1, Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada.

Prevalence of low income rates are calculated from rounded counts of low income persons or families and the total number of persons or families. These counts have been rounded independently of the rounded counts shown in the table; thus, there may be a small difference between the rate shown and the one derived from the counts shown. Users are advised to interpret prevalence of low income rates based upon small counts with caution.

Since its initial publication, Statistics Canada has clearly and consistently emphasized that the LICOs are not measures of poverty. Rather, LICOs reflect a consistent and well-defined methodology that identifies those who are substantially worse-off than average. These measures have enabled Statistics Canada to report important trends, such as the changing composition of those below the LICOs over time.

Low income before tax cut-offs (LICOs) - Income levels at which families or persons not in economic families spend 20% more than average of their before tax income on food, shelter and clothing. For additional information and a table of low income cut-offs, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-XWE.

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Footnote 73

Economic family
Part A - Plain language definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law or adoption. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. For 2006, foster children are included.

Persons not in economic families - Household members who do not belong to an economic family. Persons living alone are included in this category.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-564-XCB2006008.

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Footnote c

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Footnote d

XML (SDMX - ML) - Is a statistical data and metadata exchange standard for the electronic exchange of statistical information. Two extensible mark-up language (XML) files are provided in a compressed bundle.

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