2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Topic-based tabulation: Employment Income Groups (23) in Constant (2005) Dollars, Age Groups (7A), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (5), Work Activity in the Reference Year (3) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2000 and 2005 - 20% Sample Data

About this tabulation

General information

Catalogue number :97-563-XCB2006054
Release date :May 1, 2008
Topic :Income and earnings
Data dimensions :

Note

Note: Data quality - Certificate or diploma below the bachelor level

The overall quality of the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable from the 2006 Census is acceptable. However, users of the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level' category should know that an unexpected growth in this category was noted compared to the 2001 Census.

In fact, in the 2001 Census, 2.5% of respondents aged 15 years or over declared such a diploma, compared to 4.4% in 2006, representing 89% growth. This phenomenon was not found in other sources like the Labour Force Survey.

We recommend users interpret the 2006 Census results for this category with caution.

For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B: Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.

More information will be available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, to be published later in 2008.

Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.

Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).

Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.

Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.

Note: Earnings historical variations

Due to improved collection methodology, income and earnings data from the 2006 Census is more complete, precise and less subject to rounding than in prior censuses. Small dollar amounts, which in the past may not have been reported, are now more likely to be captured. Compared to prior censuses, this has resulted in an increased number of earners and lower median and average earnings. Users are advised to exercise caution when interpreting census-to-census changes in statistics and counts of specific cells within an earnings distribution. This comparability issue is less apparent when considering the earnings of full-year, full-time workers.

Note: Historical comparison of census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2001 and 2006

A few census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census agglomerations (CAs) have different geographical boundaries in 2006 as compared to 2001. In order to facilitate data comparisons, the 2001 CMA and CA data have been adjusted to reflect as closely as possible the 2006 CMA and CA boundaries. Care should then be taken when looking at the 2001 Census data. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Note: Income Data for Seniors in Collective Dwellings

In the 2006 Census, individuals who resided in institutions or residences with distinct, separate living quarters, and who were able to complete the census questionnaire, received their own census form to complete. These individuals were excluded from measurements of income in prior censuses. This census their incomes have been set to zero. This results in a slight overestimation in the count of population 15 years and over, and primarily the age group 65 years and over, without income (or without earnings). Counts and income statistics for families or persons not in families are not affected, as individuals in these types of collective dwellings have always, and continue to be excluded from those populations.

Note: Income suppression

Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding institutional residents, is less than 250 from either the 100% or the 20% database, or if the number of private households is less than 40 from the 20% database.

Tables with income, after-tax income or earnings distributions

Income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income, average after-tax income or average earnings have been replaced with zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Tables with number and median or average income, after-tax income or earnings

Statistics have been suppressed if the estimated total number of persons (males, females or both sexes) with income, after-tax income or earnings in the reference year is less than 250 persons. All suppressed counts and associated averages and medians have been replaced by zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe

In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.

From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.

Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.

Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.


Note: Population universe

The population universe of the 2006 Census includes the following groups:
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants with a usual place of residence in Canada;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants who are abroad, either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants at sea or in port aboard merchant vessels under Canadian registry;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who are claiming refugee status and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Study Permits and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Work Permits and members of their families living with them.

For census purposes, the last three groups in this list are referred to as 'non-permanent residents'. For further information, refer to the variable Immigration: Non-permanent resident found in the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Data table

Select data categories for this table


This table details employment income groups in constant dollars, age groups , highest certificate, diploma or degree , work activity in the reference year and sex for the population 15 years and over in CanadaFootnote 2
Employment income groups (23) Year (2)
2000Footnote 3 2005Footnote 4
Total - Employment income groupsFootnote 5 23,901,360 25,664,220
Without employment income 7,485,575 7,462,960
With employment incomeFootnote 6 16,415,785 18,201,265
Under $2,000Footnote 7 1,080,070 1,476,235
$2,000 to $4,999 1,102,505 1,219,960
$5,000 to $6,999 707,190 753,470
$7,000 to $9,999 789,400 1,074,375
$10,000 to $11,999 629,600 652,385
$12,000 to $14,999 748,400 875,075
$15,000 to $19,999 1,114,525 1,335,345
$20,000 to $24,999 1,297,250 1,250,960
$25,000 to $29,999 1,113,685 1,189,780
$30,000 to $34,999 1,311,050 1,199,260
$35,000 to $39,999 971,370 1,065,810
$40,000 to $44,999 1,089,215 961,660
$45,000 to $49,999 581,235 809,060
$50,000 to $59,999 1,316,465 1,272,415
$60,000 to $69,999 893,900 955,590
$70,000 to $79,999 556,385 672,890
$80,000 and over 1,113,530 1,436,985
Median employment income $Footnote 8 28,123 26,850
Average employment income $Footnote 9 35,619 36,301
Standard error of average employment income $Footnote 10 25 34

Footnotes

Footnote 1

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

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Footnote 2

Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 3

Canadian censuses were conducted in 2001 and 2006. Income data from these censuses relate to the calendar year prior to the census year, i.e., 2000 and 2005 respectively. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-XWE.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Canadian censuses were conducted in 2001 and 2006. Income data from these censuses relate to the calendar year prior to the census year, i.e., 2000 and 2005 respectively. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-XWE.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2005 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2005. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2005 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2005, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (For example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the Net Income Stabilization Account (NISA). The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2005 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be less than approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors of average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families (census/economic), persons 15 years of age and over not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Earner or employment income recipient - Refers to a person 15 years of age and over who received wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income during calendar year 2005.

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Footnote 7

Including loss.

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Footnote 8

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 9

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 10

For persons with employment income.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-563-XCB2006054.

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Footnotes

Footnote a

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Footnote b

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Footnote c

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Footnote d

XML (SDMX - ML) - Is a statistical data and metadata exchange standard for the electronic exchange of statistical information. Two extensible mark-up language (XML) files are provided in a compressed bundle.

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