Data tables, 2016 Census
Visible Minority (15), Income Statistics (17), Generation Status (4), Age (10) and Sex (3) for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
|Income statistics (17)||Generation status (4)|
|Total - Generation statusFootnote 2||First generationFootnote 3||Second generationFootnote 4||Third generation or moreFootnote 5|
|Total - Income statisticsFootnote 6||11,084,525||1,370,490||1,656,855||8,057,175|
|With total income||10,724,715||1,341,210||1,605,805||7,777,700|
|Percentage with total income (%)||96.8||97.9||96.9||96.5|
|Median total income ($)||43,664||41,919||48,305||43,115|
|Average total income ($)||60,437||62,378||68,989||58,336|
|With after-tax income||10,727,465||1,341,760||1,606,350||7,779,350|
|Percentage with after-tax income (%)||96.8||97.9||97.0||96.6|
|Median after-tax income ($)||38,066||37,284||41,838||37,504|
|Average after-tax income ($)||48,024||49,401||54,051||46,541|
|With employment income||8,390,460||932,215||1,266,060||6,192,190|
|Percentage with employment income (%)||75.7||68.0||76.4||76.9|
|Median employment income ($)||42,003||41,836||46,548||41,236|
|Average employment income ($)||56,920||60,433||64,002||54,943|
|With wages, salaries and commissions||7,688,445||806,185||1,143,265||5,738,995|
|Percentage with wages, salaries and commissions (%)||69.4||58.8||69.0||71.2|
|Median wages, salaries and commissions ($)||44,305||46,935||49,796||43,034|
|Average wages, salaries and commissions ($)||58,345||64,165||65,977||56,008|
- Symbol ..
not available for a specific reference period
- Symbol ...
- Symbol x
suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
- Symbol F
too unreliable to be published
- Footnote 1
Includes persons who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal group question (Question 18), as well as persons who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.
- Footnote 2
For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.
- Footnote 3
'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or once were, immigrants to Canada.
- Footnote 4
'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.
- Footnote 5
'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.
- Footnote 6
Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:
- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.
In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:
- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.
Receipts excluded from this income definition are:
- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.
After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.
Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.
Wages, salaries and commissions - Gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income taxes, pension plan contributions and employment insurance premiums during the reference period. While other employee remuneration such as security options benefits, board and lodging and other taxable allowances and benefits are included in this source, employers' contributions to pension plans and employment insurance plans are excluded. Other receipts included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses associated with paid employment, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union, research grants, royalties from a work or invention with no associated expenses and all types of casual earnings during the reference period.
Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).
Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016210.
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