Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016
Figure 3.3
Mother tongue and home language classification

Release date: August 2, 2017

Figure 3.3 Mother tongue and Home language Classification

Description of Figure 3.3

Figure 3.3 provides an overview of the mother tongue and home language classification for the 2016 Census of Population.

The mother tongue and home language classification is broken down into non-official languages and official languages. The former is broken down into Aboriginal languages and non-Aboriginal languages, while the latter is broken down into English and French. Following down the hierarchy, Non-Aboriginal languages are subdivided into 19 language groups, including: Afro-Asiatic, Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Creole, Dravidian, Hmong-Mien, Indo-European, Japanese, Kartvelian, Korean, Mongolic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, Sign, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, Turkic, Uralic, and other languages not included elsewhere. Afro-Asiatic, Hmong-Mien, Indo-European, Japanese, Korean, Sino-Tibetan, and other languages not included elsewhere are not broken down further.

By contrast, Austro-Asiatic languages are subdivided into the following: Khmer (Cambodian), Vietnamese, and Austro-Asiatic languages not included elsewhere. Austronesian languages include: Bikol, Cebuano, Fijian, Hiligaynon, Malagasy, Pampangan (Kapampangan, Pampango), Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino), Ilocano, Malay, Pangasinan, Waray-Waray, and Austronesian languages not included elsewhere. Creole languages include: Haitian Creole, Creole not otherwise specified, and Creole languages not included elsewhere. Dravidian languages include: Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, and Dravidian languages not included elsewhere. Kartvelian languages include only Georgian. Mongolic languages include only Mongolian. Niger-Congo languages include: Akan (Twi), Edo, Fulah (Pular, Pulaar, Fulfulde), Ganda, Lingala, Kinyarwanda (Rwanda), Swahili, Yoruba, Bamanankan, Ewe, Ga, Igbo, Rundi (Kirundi), Shona, Wolof, and Niger-Congo languages not included elsewhere. Nilo-Saharan languages include: Dinka and Nilo-Saharan languages not included elsewhere. Sign languages include: American Sign Language, Quebec Sign Language, and Sign languages not included elsewhere. Tai-Kadai languages include: Lao, Thai, and Tai-Kadai languages not included elsewhere. Turkic languages include: Azerbaijani, Turkish, Uyghur, Uzbek, and Turkic languages not included elsewhere. Lastly, Uralic languages include: Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, and Uralic languages not included elsewhere.

For a detailed breakdown of Aboriginal languages, Afro-Asiatic languages, Indo-European languages and Sino-Tibetan languages, see Figures 3.3A, 3.3B, 3.3C, and 3.3D respectively.

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

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