NHS Focus on Geography Series – Quebec


Aboriginal Peoples

Demographic characteristics of Aboriginal people

In 2011, 1.8% (141,915) of the population of Quebec had an Aboriginal identity.Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 1 Of those, 58.1% (82,425) reported a First Nations identityAboriginal Peoples Footnote 2 only, 28.9% (40,955) reported a Métis identity only and 8.9% (12,570) reported an Inuit identity only. An additional 4,415, or 3.1%, reported other Aboriginal identities and 1,550, or 1.1%, reported more than one Aboriginal identity.

Table 1 – Population by Aboriginal identity, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population by Aboriginal identity. The column headings are: population; Quebec and Canada. The columns Quebec and Canada are divided into number, percentage of total population and percentage of Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population; Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian); First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian); Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; multiple Aboriginal identities; Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 1 – Population by Aboriginal identity, Quebec, Canada
Population Quebec Canada
Number % of total population % of Aboriginal identity population Number % of total population % of Aboriginal identity population
Total population in private households 7,732,520 100.0 ... 32,852,325 100.0 ...
   Aboriginal identity population 141,915 1.8 100.0 1,400,685 4.3 100.0
      First Nations single identity 82,425 1.1 58.1 851,560 2.6 60.8
         First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian) 52,650 0.7 37.1 637,660 1.9 45.5
         First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian) 29,775 0.4 21.0 213,900 0.7 15.3
      Métis single identity 40,955 0.5 28.9 451,790 1.4 32.3
      Inuit single identity 12,570 0.2 8.9 59,440 0.2 4.2
      Multiple Aboriginal identities 1,550 0.0 1.1 11,415 0.0 0.8
      Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere 4,415 0.1 3.1 26,475 0.1 1.9
   Non-Aboriginal identity population 7,590,605 98.2 ... 31,451,635 95.7 ...

In Quebec, the Aboriginal population is younger than the non-Aboriginal population. In 2011, the median age of the Aboriginal population was 32.7 years compared to 41.3 for the non-Aboriginal population. The median age is the age where exactly one-half of the population is older and the other half is younger.

The median age and age distribution of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are shown in table 2.

Table 2 – Age distribution and median age by Aboriginal identity, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population by Aboriginal identity and distribution by various age groups, as well as the median age. The column headings are: population; Quebec and Canada. The columns Quebec and Canada are divided into percent distribution by age groups and median age (years). The column percent distribution by age groups is further divided into: total - age groups; 0 to 14 years; 15 to 24 years; 25 to 64 years and 65 years and over. The rows are: total population; Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian); First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian); Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; multiple Aboriginal identities; Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 2 – Age distribution and median age by Aboriginal identity, Quebec, Canada
Population Quebec Canada
Total – Age groups 0 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Median age Total – Age groups 0 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Median age
Percentage (%) distribution by age groups years Percentage (%) distribution by age groups years
Total population in private households 100.0 16.3 12.6 56.5 14.6 41.2 100.0 17.0 13.2 56.0 13.9 40.1
   Aboriginal identity population 100.0 23.7 16.2 51.7 8.4 32.7 100.0 28.0 18.2 47.9 5.9 27.7
      First Nations single identity 100.0 25.0 16.5 49.9 8.5 31.3 100.0 30.4 18.4 45.7 5.5 25.9
         First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian) 100.0 28.9 17.4 47.0 6.7 27.7 100.0 30.7 18.6 45.4 5.3 25.5
         First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian) 100.0 18.3 15.1 54.9 11.7 38.7 100.0 29.4 17.9 46.5 6.2 27.0
      Métis single identity 100.0 18.6 14.4 58.7 8.4 38.8 100.0 23.1 17.7 52.6 6.6 31.4
      Inuit single identity 100.0 35.3 21.5 39.5 3.5 21.3 100.0 33.9 20.1 41.9 4.1 22.8
      Multiple Aboriginal identities 100.0 20.6 16.8 52.9 9.7 33.1 100.0 32.7 17.5 44.2 5.7 24.9
      Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere 100.0 12.6 12.3 55.9 19.1 46.0 100.0 18.9 13.8 54.8 12.5 39.4
   Non-Aboriginal identity population 100.0 16.1 12.5 56.6 14.7 41.3 100.0 16.5 12.9 56.3 14.2 40.6

Living arrangements of Aboriginal children

In Quebec, 56.9% of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under lived in a familyAboriginal Peoples Footnote 3 with both their parents (biological or adoptive) and 29.7% lived in a lone-parent family.Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 4 Another 8.8% were stepchildren,Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 5 1.2% were grandchildren living in a skip-generation family,Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 6 2.7% were foster childrenAboriginal Peoples Footnote 7 and 0.7% were children living with other relatives.

Living arrangements of First Nations, Métis and Inuit children aged 14 and under are illustrated in table 3.

Table 3 – Percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Quebec

Table summary

This table presents the percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: living arrangements; percentage distribution of the population for: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population aged 14 and under; children of both parents; stepchildren; children of lone parent; of male lone parent; of female lone parent; grandchildren in skip-generation family; foster children; children living with other relatives.

Table 3 – Percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Quebec
Living arrangements Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity Non-Aboriginal identity population
Percentage (%) distribution of the population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Includes children in a two-parent family where there may also be step siblings or half-siblings present. Also includes children in a two-parent family for whom it cannot be determined if they are stepchildren.

Return to footnote 3-1 referrer

Footnote 2

Non-relatives may be present.

Return to footnote 3-2 referrer

Footnote 3

This category excludes foster children.

Return to footnote 3-3 referrer

Total population aged 14 and under 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   Children of both parentsTable 3 Footnote 1 56.9 56.1 59.5 55.6 72.9
   Stepchildren 8.8 8.6 11.2 5.1 7.8
   Children of lone parent 29.7 30.0 27.7 31.6 18.6
      Of male lone parent 5.5 5.2 5.5 7.0 3.7
      Of female lone parent 24.2 24.8 22.2 24.8 14.9
   Grandchildren in skip-generation family 1.2 1.5 0.0 1.9 0.2
   Foster children 2.7 2.9 1.3 4.4 0.4
   Children living with other relativesTable 3 Footnote 2,Table 3 Footnote 3 0.7 0.8 0.0 1.5 0.1

Language and Aboriginal peoples

In Quebec, 45,925 Aboriginal people, or 32.4% of the population who had an Aboriginal identity, responded that they were able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language. In 2011, the Aboriginal languages most frequently reported by Aboriginal people were: Cree languages (15,940), Inuktitut (11,065) and Innu/Montagnais (9,190).

In 2011, 30.5% of the Aboriginal identity population reported an Aboriginal language as mother tongue, defined as the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood.

As well, 30.6% of Aboriginal people reported speaking an Aboriginal language at home: 27.3% spoke it most often while another 3.3% spoke it on a regular basis.

Linguistic characteristics of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are shown in tables 4 to 6.

Table 4 – Number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators, Quebec

Table summary

This table presents number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators. The column headings are: selected Aboriginal language indicators; total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity. The last four columns are divided into number and percentage of population. The rows are: ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language; Aboriginal language as mother tongue; Aboriginal language spoken at least regularly at home; Aboriginal language spoken most often at home; Aboriginal language spoken regularly at home.

Table 4 – Number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators, Quebec
Selected Aboriginal language indicators Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity
numberTable 4 Footnote 1 % of population number % of population number % of population number % of population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

The estimates for the three Aboriginal groups do not add to the total Aboriginal identity population because only selected Aboriginal identity categories are shown.

Return to footnote 4-1 referrer

Footnote 2

This category excludes individuals who reported speaking one Aboriginal language most often at home and speaking another Aboriginal language regularly at home. These individuals are included only in the category 'Aboriginal language spoken most often at home.'

Return to footnote 4-2 referrer

Ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language 45,925 32.4 34,355 41.7 400 1.0 11,080 88.1
Aboriginal language as mother tongue 43,240 30.5 32,160 39.0 150 0.4 10,880 86.6
Aboriginal language spoken at least regularly at home 43,435 30.6 32,275 39.2 265 0.6 10,850 86.3
   Aboriginal language spoken most often at home 38,700 27.3 28,180 34.2 135 0.3 10,360 82.4
   Aboriginal language spoken regularly at homeTable 4 Footnote 2 4,735 3.3 4,095 5.0 130 0.3 485 3.9

In Quebec, 62.1% of the Aboriginal identity population reported that they were able to conduct a conversation only in English or only in French. Additionally, 34.2% of Aboriginal people reported that they were able to conduct a conversation in both of Canada's official languages. The other 3.7%, or 5,195, reported that they were not able to conduct a conversation in either of these two languages.

Table 5 – Percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Quebec

Table summary

This table presents the percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: knowledge of official languages; percentage distribution of the population for: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population; English only; French only; English and French; neither English nor French.

Table 5 – Percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Quebec
Knowledge of official languages Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity Non-Aboriginal identity population
Percentage (%) distribution of the population
Total population in private households 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   English only 17.3 19.6 3.5 53.5 4.3
   French only 44.8 44.6 55.2 8.8 51.8
   English and French 34.2 32.1 41.3 20.4 43.0
   Neither English nor French 3.7 3.7 0.0 17.2 0.9

In Quebec, among the 45,925 Aboriginal people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language, 92.9% reported that same language as their mother tongue. The other 7.1% reported a different language, such as English or French, as mother tongue, which suggests these individuals have acquired an Aboriginal language as a second language.

On the other hand, among the 43,240 Aboriginal people who reported an Aboriginal language as mother tongue, 1.3% could no longer conduct a conversation in this language, despite the fact that they still understand it.

Table 6 – Population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Quebec

Table summary

This table presents the population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and the population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: selected Aboriginal identity categories; persons reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue; persons reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language. The last two columns are divided into number and percentage of population. The rows are: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 6 – Population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Quebec
Selected Aboriginal identity categories Persons reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue Persons reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language
numberTable 6 Footnote 1 % of population numberTable 6 Footnote 1 % of population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

The estimates for the three Aboriginal groups do not add to the total Aboriginal identity population because only selected Aboriginal identity categories are shown.

Return to footnote 6-1 referrer

Total Aboriginal identity population 3,255 7.1 570 1.3
   First Nations single identity 2,720 7.9 520 1.6
   Métis single identity 265 66.3 15 10.0
   Inuit single identity 235 2.1 35 0.3
Non-Aboriginal identity population 595 83.2 50 28.6

Note(s):

Footnote 1

Aboriginal identity: The term 'Aboriginal identity' refers to whether the person reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or being a Registered or Treaty Indian, (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or being a member of a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Respondents self-identified as 'First Nations (North American Indian)' on the NHS questionnaire; however, the term 'First Nations people' is used throughout this document.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Family: The term 'family' in this document refers to the census definition of 'census family,' but for simplicity, the term 'family' is used throughout this report. A census family is composed of a married or common-law couple, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling. Couples can be of the opposite sex or of the same sex.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Lone parents: Mothers or fathers, with no married spouse or common-law partner present, living in a dwelling with one or more children.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Stepchild: A stepchild is a child in a couple family who is the biological or adopted child of only one married spouse or common-law partner in the couple, and whose birth or adoption preceded the current relationship.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Skip-generation family: A census family that consists of grandparents and grandchildren without the presence of parents in the home.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

Foster children: The population in private households who have been reported as foster children on the NHS questionnaire. Foster children are considered as 'other relatives' outside of a census family.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 7 referrer

Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity

Immigrant population

According to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), 974,895 (12.6%) of the population of Quebec were foreign-born (immigrants), 6,690,535 (86.5%) were Canadian-born (non-immigrants) and 67,095 (0.9%) were non-permanent residents.Ethnocultural Footnote 1 In comparison, the proportion of the population of Canada who were immigrants was 20.6%, 78.3% were non-immigrants, and 1.1% were non-permanent residents.

Figure 1 Percentage of Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non permanent residents in Quebec

Figure description

This vertical bar graph shows the percentage of Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non-permanent residents. The y-axis is the percentage of population and the x-axis, from left to right, shows Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non-permanent residents.

Of the immigrants living in Quebec in 2011, 223,400 came to Canada between 2006 and 2011. These recent immigrants made up 22.9% of the immigrants in the province.

The three most common countries of birth of immigrants living in Quebec were: Haiti (accounting for 7.1% of the immigrant population in Quebec), France (6.9%) and Italy (5.9%). In comparison, the top three countries of birth of immigrants living in Canada were: India (accounting for 8.1% of the immigrant population in Canada), China (8.1%) and United Kingdom (7.9%).

Table – Immigrants by country of birth, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the most common countries of birth of immigrants. The column headings are: immigrants by country of birth along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: total immigrants and the most common countries of birth of immigrants.

Table – Immigrants by country of birth, Quebec and Canada
Immigrants by country of birth Quebec Canada
Count % Rank Count % Rank
Total immigrants 974,895 100.0 ... 6,775,765 100.0 ...
   Haiti 69,070 7.1 1 80,095 1.2 22
   France 67,650 6.9 2 90,445 1.3 18
   Italy 57,710 5.9 3 256,820 3.8 6

In 2011, among Quebec's immigrant population, 57.2% spoke English and/or French most often at home. Meanwhile, the three most frequently reported non-official languages spoken most often at home by immigrants in Quebec were Arabic, Spanish and Italian. This compared to the top three non-official languages in Canada, which were Cantonese, Panjabi (Punjabi) and Chinese, n.o.s..Ethnocultural Footnote 2

Table – Immigrants by non-official languages spoken most often at home, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the most common non-official language spoken most often at home for immigrants. The column headings are: immigrants by non-official language spoken most often at home with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common non-official language spoken most often at home.

Table – Immigrants by non-official languages spoken most often at home, Quebec
Immigrants by non-official language spoken most often at homeEthnocultural Footnote 2 Quebec Canada
Count % Rank Count % Rank
Arabic 86,265 8.8 1 190,305 2.8 6
Spanish 75,005 7.7 2 220,720 3.3 5
Italian 37,785 3.9 3 139,435 2.1 8

The median age of immigrants in Quebec was 43.8 years in 2011, compared to 47.4 years for the immigrant population at the national level.

Visible minority population and ethnic origins

The 2011 NHS estimated that 850,240 individuals in Quebec belonged to a visible minority group, accounting for 11.0% of its total population.Ethnocultural Footnote 1 In comparison, visible minorities comprised 19.1% of Canada's population.

The largest visible minority groups living in Quebec were Black, Arab and Latin American. In Canada, the three largest visible minority groups were South Asian, Chinese and Black.

The median age of the visible minority population in Quebec was 31.5 years in 2011, compared to 33.4 years for the visible minority population at the national level.

Table – Population showing visible minority groups, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the population by visible minority groups. The column headings are: population showing visible minority groups along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: total population; total visible minority population; South Asian; Chinese; Black; Filipino; Latin American; Arab; Southeast Asian; West Asian; Korean; Japanese; visible minority, n.i.e., multiple visible minorities and not a visible minority.

Table – Population showing visible minority groups, Quebec and Canada
Population showing visible minority groups Quebec Canada
Count % Count %
Total population in private households 7,732,520 100.0 32,852,320 100.0
   Total visible minority population 850,240 11.0 6,264,750 19.1
      South Asian 83,320 1.1 1,567,400 4.8
      Chinese 82,850 1.1 1,324,750 4.0
      Black 243,625 3.2 945,665 2.9
      Filipino 31,490 0.4 619,310 1.9
      Latin American 116,380 1.5 381,280 1.2
      Arab 166,260 2.2 380,620 1.2
      Southeast Asian 65,855 0.9 312,080 0.9
      West Asian 23,450 0.3 206,840 0.6
      Korean 6,660 0.1 161,125 0.5
      Japanese 4,025 0.1 87,265 0.3
      Visible minority, n.i.e. 8,900 0.1 106,475 0.3
      Multiple visible minorities 17,420 0.2 171,935 0.5
   Not a visible minority 6,882,285 89.0 26,587,575 80.9

The most frequently reported ethnic origins in Quebec, for people reporting either one or multiple ethnic origins, were Canadian, French and Irish. This compared to the top three in Canada, which were Canadian, English and French.

Table – Most frequently reported ethnic origins, Quebec and Canada

Table summary

This table shows the most common ethnic origins. The column headings are: ethnic origin along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common ethnic origins.

Table – Most frequently reported ethnic origins, Quebec and Canada
Most frequently reported ethnic origins Quebec Canada
Count % Rank Count % Rank
   Canadian 4,571,990 59.1 1 10,563,800 32.1 1
   French 2,246,705 29.1 2 5,065,685 15.4 3
   Irish 428,570 5.5 3 4,544,870 13.8 5

Religion

According to the 2011 NHS, 87.9% of the population in Quebec reported a religious affiliation, while 12.1% said they had no religious affiliation.Ethnocultural Footnote 1 At the national level, 76.1% of the population reported a religious affiliation, while 23.9% had no religious affiliation.

The most frequently reported religious affiliation in Quebec was Roman Catholic, reported by 5,766,750 (74.6%) of the population. Other frequently reported religions included: Muslim (3.1%) and Christian, n.i.e. (1.4%). In comparison, the most frequently reported religions in Canada were: Roman Catholic (reported by 38.7% of the population of Canada), United Church (6.1%) and Anglican (5.0%).

Table – Most frequently reported religions, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the most common religions. The column headings are: religion along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common religions.

Table – Most frequently reported religions, Quebec
Most frequently reported religions Quebec Canada
Count % Rank Count % Rank
Total population in private households 7,732,520 100.0 ... 32,852,320 100.0 ...
   Total reporting a religious affiliation 6,794,975 87.9 ... 25,001,715 76.1 ...
      Roman Catholic 5,766,750 74.6 1 12,728,880 38.7 1
      Muslim 243,430 3.1 2 1,053,945 3.2 5
      Christian, n.i.e. 110,875 1.4 3 1,475,575 4.5 4
   Total not reporting a religious affiliation 937,545 12.1 ... 7,850,610 23.9 ...

Note(s):

Footnote 1

For details on the concepts, definitions, universes, variables and geographic terms used in the 2011 National Household Survey, please consult the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For detailed explanations on concepts and for information on data quality, please refer to the reference guides found on the NHS website.

Ethnocultural Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

These counts include both single non-official language responses and multiple language responses. A multiple language response is a combination of non-official language response with a response of English and/or French.

Ethnocultural Return to footnote 2 referrer

Education

Educational attainment Education Footnote 1

In 2011, 59.8% of the 5,499,490 adults aged 25 years and over in Quebec had completed some form of postsecondary education, compared with 59.6% at the national level.

Of the population aged 25 years and over in Quebec, 26.0% had a university certificate or degree. An additional 16.4% had a college diploma and 17.4% had a trades certificate.

The share of the adult population that had completed a high school diploma as their highest level of educational attainment was 20.1%, and 20.2% had completed neither high school nor any postsecondary certificates, diplomas or degrees.

Table 1 – Population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainmentEducation Footnote 1, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population aged 25 years and over by highest level of educational attainment. The column headings are: highest level of educational attainment; Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total population aged 25 years and over; no certificate, diploma or degree; high school diploma; a subtotal for postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree: trades certificate which is a subtotal of the rows for trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship) and registered apprenticeship certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; university degree which is a subtotal of the rows for bachelor's degree; university certificate above bachelor; degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry; master's degree; earned doctorate.

Table 1 – Population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainment
Highest level of educational attainment Quebec Canada
Number % Number %
Total – Population aged 25 years and over 5,499,490 100.0 22,935,460 100.0
No certificate, diploma or degree 1,108,545 20.2 3,956,620 17.3
High school diplomaEducation Footnote 2 1,102,860 20.1 5,300,080 23.1
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 3,288,085 59.8 13,678,765 59.6
Trades certificateEducation Footnote 3 957,225 17.4 2,744,380 12.0
Trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship) 682,930 12.4 1,596,595 7.0
Registered Apprenticeship certificateEducation Footnote 4 274,295 5.0 1,147,790 5.0
College diplomaEducation Footnote 5 899,710 16.4 4,487,520 19.6
University certificate below bachelorEducation Footnote 6 285,970 5.2 1,100,325 4.8
University degreeEducation Footnote 7 1,145,180 20.8 5,346,530 23.3
Bachelor's degree 717,340 13.0 3,347,425 14.6
University certificate above bachelorEducation Footnote 8 122,265 2.2 571,525 2.5
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 31,235 0.6 151,715 0.7
Master's degree 227,315 4.1 1,068,190 4.7
Earned doctorate 47,025 0.9 207,680 0.9

Overall, successive generations of Canadians have been completing high school and attaining postsecondary qualifications in increasing proportions. In 2011, 41.7% of Canadians aged 65 years and over had a postsecondary credential; this compares with 69.5% among adults between the ages of 25 and 44. As well, 35.7% of those aged 65 years and over had not completed any certificate, diploma or degree compared with 9.5% of individuals aged 25 to 44.

In Quebec, 36.9% of those aged 65 years and over had a postsecondary credential, compared to 74.1% of adults aged 25 to 44; 41.0% of individuals aged 65 years and over had no certificate, diploma or degree, compared to 10.9% of 25 to 44 year-olds.

Quebec – Proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups This product was revised on October 7, 2014.

Figure description

This vertical bar graph shows the proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups. The age groups are: 25 to 44, 45 to 64 and 65 and over. The y-axis is the percentage of the population and the x-axis is level of educational attainment including: No certificate, diploma or degree; High school diploma; Trades certificate; College diploma; University certificate below bachelor; Bachelor's degree; University above bachelor.

Major field of study

Table 2 – Most common fields of studyEducation Footnote 9 for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainmentEducation Footnote 1, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the five most common fields of study by level of educational attainment for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications. The column headings are: field of study; Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number, percentage and rank. The rows are: the five most common fields of study under the educational attainment levels of: trades certificate; college diploma; university.

Quebec – Proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups Table 2 Canada, #currentGeo# – Most common fields of study for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainment
Field of study Quebec Canada
Number % Rank Number % Rank
Trades certificate
Business, management, marketing and related support services 159,510 16.7 1 329,330 12.0 3
Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 145,335 15.2 2 485,755 17.7 1
Personal and culinary services 117,510 12.3 3 328,125 12.0 4
Construction trades 111,680 11.7 4 434,090 15.8 2
Precision production 107,505 11.2 5 289,740 10.6 5
College diploma
Business, management, marketing and related support services 243,835 27.1 1 1,242,870 27.7 1
Health professions and related programs 126,850 14.1 2 787,660 17.6 2
Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 85,315 9.5 3 413,205 9.2 3
Computer and information sciences and support services 52,960 5.9 4 212,800 4.7 5
Visual and performing arts 43,360 4.8 5 170,725 3.8 6
UniversityEducation Footnote 10
Business, management, marketing and related support services 334,330 23.4 1 1,215,210 18.8 1
Education 216,005 15.1 2 921,390 14.3 2
Health professions and related programs 143,120 10.0 3 702,280 10.9 3
Engineering 137,850 9.6 4 686,100 10.6 4
Social sciences 76,845 5.4 5 429,185 6.7 5

Location of studyEducation Footnote 11

In 2011, there were 3,288,085 residents of Quebec aged 25 years and over with postsecondary credentials. Of these graduates, 86.2% had studied in Quebec, 3.8% had studied in another province or territory and 10.0% had studied outside Canada. Nationally, 72.5% of graduates had studied in the same province/territory in which they lived in 2011, 10.4% had studied in another province or territory and 17.1% had studied outside Canada.

In all provinces, individuals with trades or college certificates were more likely than those with university credentials to have earned their highest certificate, diploma or degree in the province in which they lived in 2011.

Table 3 – Population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by location of study and by level of educational attainment, Quebec

Table summary

This table presents location of study compared with the province or territory of residence in 2011 for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainment. The column headings are: educational attainment; location of study divided into studied in Quebec, studied in another province / territory, studied outside Canada further divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications; trades certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; bachelor's degree; university above bachelor.

Table 3 – Population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by location of study and by level of educational attainment, Quebec
Educational attainment Location of study
Studied in Quebec Studied in another province/territory Studied outside Canada
number % number % number %
Total population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications 2,834,620 86.2 124,655 3.8 328,815 10.0
Trades certificate 898,710 93.9 17,640 1.8 40,870 4.3
College diploma 811,030 90.1 33,685 3.7 54,990 6.1
University certificate below bachelor 237,600 83.1 9,080 3.2 39,285 13.7
Bachelor's degree 584,380 81.5 39,320 5.5 93,635 13.1
University above bachelor 302,895 70.8 24,925 5.8 100,030 23.4

Note(s):

Footnote 1

The terms 'Educational attainment,' 'level of educational attainment' and 'highest level of educational attainment' used in this document refer to the Highest certificate, diploma or degree completed by a person. The portion of the population that completed each type of education noted is the portion that completed it as their highest certificate, diploma or degree.

Education return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

'High school diploma' refers to 'secondary (high) school diploma or equivalent.'

Education return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

'Trades certificate' refers to 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' and is an aggregation which includes both 'Registered Apprenticeship certificate' as well as 'trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship).'

Education return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

'Registered Apprenticeship certificate' includes those with a certificate of qualification/journeyperson's designation.

Education return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

'College diploma' refers to 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma.'

Education return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

'University certificate below bachelor' refers to 'university certificate or diploma below bachelor level.' Comparisons with other data sources suggest that this category was over-reported in the NHS. It is recommended that users interpret the results for this category with caution. For further information, please refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey.

Education return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

'University degree' refers to 'university certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above.'

Education return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

'University certificate above bachelor' refers to 'university certificate or diploma above bachelor level'.

Education return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

'Field of study' in this table is classified based on the 2-digit series from the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. It is the major field of study for the highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree completed by the person.

Education return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

'University' in this table refers to 'university certificate, diploma or degree,' and includes all university certificates, diplomas and degrees including university certificates below the bachelor level, bachelor's degrees and university certificates and degrees above the bachelor level.

Education return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree was completed. Here, location of study is compared with province or territory of residence to indicate whether the location of study is the same province or territory as the person's residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada.

Education return to footnote 11 referrer

Labour

Labour

In Quebec, 3,880,420 people were employed and 303,025 were unemployed for a total labour force of 4,183,445 in May 2011. The employment rate was at 59.9% and the unemployment rate was at 7.2%.

Table 1 Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force status, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the labour force status for the population aged 15 years and over. The column headings are: labour force status; Quebec and Canada. The rows are: total population aged 15 years and over with sub-totals of: in the labour force (number) and not in the labour force (number). In the labour force (number) there are two components: employed (number) and unemployed (number). Rates are also presented for: participation rate (%); employment rate (%); and unemployment rate (%).

Table 1 Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force status
Labour force status Quebec Canada
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

Labour: Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Total population aged 15 years and overLabour Table 1 Footnote 1 6,474,590 27,259,525
In the labour force 4,183,445 17,990,080
Employed 3,880,420 16,595,035
Unemployed 303,025 1,395,050
Not in the labour force 2,291,145 9,269,445
Participation rate 64.6 66.0
Employment rate 59.9 60.9
Unemployment rate 7.2 7.8

Within Quebec, 13.3% of the employed labour force was aged 15 to 24 and 14.8% was aged 55 to 64. This compares to 13.1% and 15.3% respectively for Canada.

Table 2 Employed labour force by age groups, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the employed labour force by selected age groups. The column headings are: age groups and Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; age groups; 15 to 24 years; 25 to 34 years; 35 to 54 years; 55 to 64 years; 65 years and over.

Table 2 Employed labour force by age groups
Age groups Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total 3,880,420 100.0 16,595,035 100.0
15 to 24 years 518,030 13.3 2,180,880 13.1
25 to 34 years 820,080 21.1 3,394,445 20.5
35 to 54 years 1,860,310 47.9 7,912,010 47.7
55 to 64 years 573,220 14.8 2,535,655 15.3
65 years and over 108,780 2.8 572,045 3.4

Within Quebec, the top occupations were: Retail salespersons; Administrative assistants; Cashiers. For Canada as a whole the top occupations were: Retail salespersons; Retail and wholesale trade managers; Administrative assistants.

Table 3 Top occupations for the employed labour force, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the top occupations. The column headings are: occupation, Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the top occupations.

Table 3 Top occupations for the employed labour force
Occupation Quebec Canada
number % Rank number % Rank
Retail salespersons 158,000 4.1 1 656,395 4.0 1
Administrative assistants 114,170 2.9 2 328,825 2.0 3
Cashiers 81,560 2.1 3 308,950 1.9 5
Retail and wholesale trade managers 80,140 2.1 4 363,285 2.2 2
Early childhood educators and assistants 71,335 1.8 5 187,750 1.1 16
Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations 66,345 1.7 6 312,820 1.9 4
Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses 63,850 1.6 7 291,380 1.8 6
Administrative officers 60,000 1.5 8 246,875 1.5 9
Light duty cleaners 57,800 1.5 9 213,515 1.3 11
Transport truck drivers 56,645 1.5 10 261,775 1.6 8

Within Quebec, the top industries were: Elementary and secondary schools; Hospitals; Grocery stores. For Canada as a whole the top industries were: Elementary and secondary schools; Hospitals; Grocery stores.

Table 4 Top industries for the employed labour force, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the top industries. The column headings are: industry, Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the top industries.

Table 4 Top industries for the employed labour force
Industry Quebec Canada
number % Rank number % Rank
Elementary and secondary schools 182,775 4.7 1 777,015 4.7 1
Hospitals 173,015 4.5 2 614,440 3.7 2
Grocery stores 108,535 2.8 3 405,685 2.4 3
Full-service restaurants 106,475 2.7 4 397,965 2.4 4
Provincial and territorial public administration 92,505 2.4 5 317,545 1.9 10
Other federal services 84,620 2.2 6 371,190 2.2 6
Local, municipal and regional public administration 81,115 2.1 7 372,630 2.2 5
Nursing and residential care facilities 79,650 2.1 8 341,915 2.1 8
Child day-care services 72,465 1.9 9 202,850 1.2 18
Depository credit intermediation 70,035 1.8 10 312,775 1.9 11

The number of self-employed in Quebec amounted to 414,650 or 10.7% of all total employed workers.

Table 5 Employed labour force by class of workers, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents class of worker. The column headings are: class of worker; Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total employed labour force; with subtotals of employee (number and percent) and total – self-employed (number and percent). The total – self-employed there are two components: self-employed (incorporated or unincorporated) and unpaid family worker.

Table 5 Employed labour force by class of workers
Class of worker Quebec Canada
number % number %
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

Return to footnote 5-1 referrer

Total employed labour force 3,880,420 100.0 16,595,035 100.0
Employee 3,465,775 89.3 14,720,340 88.7
Total – Self-employedTable 5 Footnote 1 414,650 10.7 1,874,695 11.3
Self-employed (incorporated or unincorporated) 406,800 10.5 1,829,120 11.0
Unpaid family worker 7,845 0.2 45,575 0.3

In 2011, 13.3% of commuters within the province used public transit to get to work. This compares to a national level of 12.0%. 74.7% of the population used a car, truck or van as a driver, while 3.8% used a car, truck or van as a passenger. The average commuting time to work in the province was 25.2 minutes, this compares to a national commuting time of 25.4 minutes.

Within Quebec, 85.1% of the employed labour force aged 15 years and over worked at their usual place, 6.1% worked at home and 8.5% had no fixed workplace address.

Table 6 Employed labour force by mode of transportation, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the employed labour force by mode of transportation. The column headings are: mode of transportation; Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total employed labour force with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address; car, truck or van as driver; car, truck or van as passenger; public transit; walked; bicycle; other.

Table 6 Employed labour force by mode of transportation
Mode of transportation Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total employed labour force with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address 3,633,085 100.0 15,385,940 100.0
Car, truck or van as driver 2,713,295 74.7 11,393,140 74.0
Car, truck or van as passenger 136,495 3.8 867,050 5.6
Public transit 484,595 13.3 1,851,520 12.0
Walked 215,215 5.9 880,815 5.7
Bicycle 48,870 1.3 201,785 1.3
Other 34,620 1.0 191,625 1.2

Table 7 Average commuting duration for the employed labour force, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the average commuting duration. The column headings are: average commuting duration; Quebec and Canada. The row includes the average commuting duration.

Table 7 Average commuting duration for the employed labour force
Commuting duration Quebec Canada
Average 25.2 25.4

Table 8 Employed Labour force by time leaving for work, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents time leaving for work. The column headings are: time leaving for work; Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; 5 to 5:59 a.m.; 6 to 6:59 a.m.; 7 to 7:59 a.m.; 8 to 8:59 a.m.; 9 to 11:59 a.m.; 12 p.m. to 4:59 a.m.

Table 8 Employed Labour force by time leaving for work
Time leaving for work Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total 3,633,085 100.0 15,385,940 100.0
5 to 5:59 a.m. 249,210 6.9 980,550 6.4
6 to 6:59 a.m. 679,010 18.7 2,782,690 18.1
7 to 7:59 a.m. 1,137,025 31.3 4,472,745 29.1
8 to 8:59 a.m. 737,375 20.3 3,397,085 22.1
9 to 11:59 a.m. 327,620 9.0 1,593,230 10.4
12 p.m. to 4:59 a.m. 502,850 13.8 2,159,630 14.0

Table 9 Employed labour force by place of work status, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents place of work. The column headings are: place of work; Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; usual place of work; worked at home; worked outside Canada; no fixed workplace address.

Table 9 Employed labour force by place of work status
Place of work Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total employed labour force 3,880,420 100.0 16,595,035 100.0
Usual place of work 3,301,560 85.1 13,517,690 81.5
Worked at home 237,625 6.1 1,142,640 6.9
Worked outside Canada 9,705 0.3 66,455 0.4
No fixed workplace address 331,520 8.5 1,868,245 11.3

In Quebec, 11.9% (526,790) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported English only as the language used most often at work, 81.6% (3,614,285) reported French only and 5.3% (235,475) said they used both official languages (English and French) equally. In addition, 0.4% of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language equally most often at work and 0.7% a non-official language only.

Furthermore, 21.3% (944,195) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported working in English on a regular basis, 6.4% (284,730) in French on a regular basis and 0.0% (1,550) in the country's two official languages on a regular basis. In addition, 0.4% (19,325) of of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language on a regular basis at work and 1.0% (43,905) a non-official language only.

In Canada, 76.4% (14,622,905) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported English only as the language used most often at work, 20.0% (3,831,535) reported French only and 1.7 (317,135) said they used both official languages (English and French) equally. Furthermore, 0.6% of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language equally most often at work.

As for the language used at work on a regular basis in Canada, the proportions are as follows: 6.0% (1,148,980) reported using English; 3.4% (645,075) use French; 0.0% (1,925) use both official languages; 0.2% (34,290) reported using an official language and a non-official language; and 2.2% (411,735) a non-official language only.

Table 10 Languages used at work, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the languages used most often and regularly at work. The column headings are: languages used at work; language used most often at work and language used regularly at work for Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: Total population 15 years and over who worked since 2010; English only; French only; other language only; English and French; English and other language; French and other language; English, French and other language.

Table 10 Languages used at work
Languages used at work Language used most often Language used regularlyTable 1 Footnote 1
Quebec Canada Quebec Canada
number % number % number % number %
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Other than the language spoken most often.

Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Total population aged 15 years and over who worked since 2010 4,426,985 100.0 19,133,310 100.0 1,293,710 29.2 2,242,010 11.7
English only 526,790 11.9 14,622,905 76.4 944,195 21.3 1,148,980 6.0
French only 3,614,285 81.6 3,831,535 20.0 284,730 6.4 645,075 3.4
Other language only 31,755 0.7 251,020 1.3 43,905 1.0 411,735 2.2
English and French 235,475 5.3 317,135 1.7 1,550 0.0 1,925 0.0
English and other language 4,865 0.1 94,100 0.5 12,895 0.3 15,125 0.1
French and other language 4,770 0.1 5,180 0.0 6,355 0.1 19,020 0.1
English, French and other language. 9,040 0.2 11,445 0.1 75 0.0 140 0.0
None ... ... ... ... 3,133,275 70.8 16,891,300 88.3

In Quebec, the non-official languages most used, most often or regularly, with or without an official language, are Spanish, Chinese languages and Arabic, which account respectively for 0.3% (29,245), 0.1% (11,740) and 0.1% (10,185) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011.

In Canada, the non-official languages most used, most often or regularly, with or without an official language, are Chinese languages, Spanish and Panjabi (Punjabi), which account respectively for 1.2% (224,195), 0.4% (82,050) and 0.4% (71,430) of the population aged 15 years and older who worked in 2010 or 2011.

Table 11 Non-official languages used at work, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table presents non-official languages used at work. The column headings are: languages used at work; language used at least regularly at work, language used most often at work and language used regularly at work for Quebec and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are the top non-official languages used at least regularly at work.

Table 11 Non-official languages used at work
Languages used at work Language used at least regularlyTable 2 Footnote 2 Language used most oftenTable 2 Footnote 2 Language used regularlyTable 2 Footnote 1,Table 2 Footnote 3
Quebec Canada Quebec Canada Quebec Canada
number % rank number % rank number % rank number % rank number % rank number % rank
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Other than the language spoken most often.

Return to footnote 2-1 referrer

Footnote 2

Percentages calculated over the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011.

Return to footnote 2-2 referrer

Footnote 3

Percentages calculated over the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 and who declared one or more languages used regularly at work.

Return to footnote 2-3 referrer

Spanish 29,245 0.3 1 82,050 0.4 2 8,775 0.2 1 24,595 0.1 3 20,470 1.6 1 57,450 2.6 2
Chinese languages 11,740 0.1 2 224,195 1.2 1 7,385 0.2 2 134,480 0.7 1 4,355 0.3 4 89,710 4.0 1
Arabic 10,185 0.1 3 24,190 0.1 9 4,305 0.1 4 10,475 0.1 7 5,880 0.5 3 13,710 0.6 8
Italian 9,805 0.1 4 31,655 0.2 6 2,960 0.1 6 7,115 0.0 13 6,845 0.5 2 24,540 1.1 5
Cree languages 6,660 0.1 5 22,655 0.1 10 4,865 0.1 3 9,145 0.0 9 1,795 0.1 7 13,510 0.6 9
Income

Income composition

The total income for the population in private households can be broken down into two basic components: market incomeIncome Footnote 1 and government transfers.Income Footnote 2 In Quebec, 85.0% of total income was from market income in 2010 and 15.0% was from government transfers. (Aggregate total income for Quebec was 224.8 billion dollars in 2010.)

Figure 1 Income composition for the population in private households in 2010

Figure description

This stacked horizontal bar figure shows income composition for the population in private households. The y-axis is Canada and the provinces and territories. The x-axis is percentage of income composition (market income and government transfer payments).

Market income's main component was employment income. In Quebec, it accounted for $84.40 of every $100 of market income, slightly below the figure for Canada of $85.20. For the two components of employment income, wages and salaries represented $78.70 and net income from self-employment, $5.80.

The other components of market income were smaller than employment income: in Quebec, investment income represented $4.80 per $100 of market income, retirement income, $8.90 and $1.90 came from other private sources of money.

The government transfers received in Quebec were Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan with $26.00 of every $100 of total government transfers received, Old Age Security (OAS) pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement ($25.50), Other income from government sources ($18.00), Employment Insurance benefits ($16.00), and Child benefits ($14.60).

Table 1 – Income composition for the population in private households in 2010, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows income composition for the population in private households in 2010. The column headings are: income composition, Quebec and Canada. The rows are: aggregate total income in millions of dollars which has main components of market income and government transfer payments. Market income is further divided into: employment income in percentage (including wages and salaries in percentage and self-employment income in percentage); investment income in percentage; retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities in percentage; other money income. Government transfer payments is further divided into: Canada / Quebec pension plan benefits in percentage; Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement in percentage; employment insurance benefits in percentage; child benefits in percentage and other income from government sources in percentage. Also included are income taxes paid (as a percent of total income) and after-tax income (as a percent of total income).

Table 1 – Income composition for the population in private households in 2010, Quebec, Canada
Income composition Quebec Canada
Aggregate total income (million $) 224,780.4 1,053,582.1
Composition of total income in 2010 (%) 100.0 100.0
Market income (%) 85.0 87.6
Employment income (%) 71.7 74.7
Wages and salaries (%) 66.8 70.3
Self-employment income (%) 4.9 4.4
Investment income (%) 4.1 4.6
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (%) 7.6 6.7
Other money income (%) 1.6 1.7
Government transfer payments (%) 15.0 12.4
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (%) 3.9 3.5
Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement (%) 3.8 3.1
Employment Insurance benefits (%) 2.4 1.8
Child benefits (%) 2.2 1.5
Other income from government sources (%) 2.7 2.6
Income taxes paid – as a % of total income 16.7 16.4
After-tax income – as a % of total income 83.3 83.6

High total income

Among the Canadian population in private households aged 15 years and over, ten percent had total incomes of more than $80,400 in 2010. To be in the top five percent, Canadians needed to have a total income of slightly above $102,300 and to be in the top one percent required just over $191,100, nearly seven times the national median income of $27,800.Income Footnote 3

In Quebec, 3.3% percent of the population aged 15 years and over had total income that put them in the top five percent and 0.7% in the top one percent. This compared with 5.0% and 1.0% in Canada.

Table 2 – Population aged 15 years and over by total income, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

The following table presents the population aged 15 years and over by total income. The column headings are: total income, Quebec and Canada. The rows are: population aged 15 years and over by total income (count); without income or less than $27,815 in percentage; without income or less than $12,025 in percentage; $12,025 to $27,814 in percentage; $27,815 and over in percentage; $27,815 to $51,304 in percentage; $51,305 and over in percentage; $80,420 and over (top 10 percent) in percentage; $102,305 and over top 5 percent) in percentage and $191,150 and over (top 1 percent) in percentage.

Table 2 – Population aged 15 years and over by total income, Quebec, Canada
Total income Quebec Canada
Population 15 years and over by total income (count) 6,474,590 27,259,525
Without income or less than $27,815 (%) 51.9 50.0
Without income or less than $12,025 (%) 24.5 25.0
$12,025 to $27,814 (%) 27.3 25.0
$27,815 and over (%) 48.1 50.0
$27,815 to $51,304 (%) 27.6 25.0
$51,305 and over (%) 20.6 25.0
$80,420 and over (top 10 percent) (%) 6.7 10.0
$102,305 and over (top 5 percent) (%) 3.3 5.0
$191,150 and over (top 1 percent) (%) 0.7 1.0

A national map showing the spatial distribution of persons with total income in the top five percent of persons with the highest total income is also available. Canada. Percentage of population in top five percent of total income in 2010 by 2011 census division (CD)

Employment income

Of those persons with employment income in Quebec, 49.0% worked full year, full timeIncome Footnote 4 in 2010 compared to 50.3% in Canada. The median employment income was $41,963 for these workers ($47,868 for those in Canada).

The top three most common occupations for those working full-year full-time in 2010 in Quebec were Administrative assistants; Retail salespersons; and Retail and wholesale trade managers.

Table 3 – Median earnings of the most common full-year, full-time occupations in 2010, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

The following table presents the most common occupations for full-year, full-time workers in 2010. The column headings are: population with earnings who worked full-year, full-time in 2010, Quebec divided into number and median earnings in dollars and Canada divided in median earnings in dollars. The rows are the most common occupations.

Table 3 – Median earnings of the most common full-year, full-time occupations in 2010, Quebec, Canada
Population with earnings who worked full-year, full-time in 2010Income Footnote 5 Quebec Canada
number median earnings ($) median earnings ($)
Administrative assistants 67,055 36,765 39,143
Retail salespersons 60,075 27,664 30,249
Retail and wholesale trade managers 57,960 36,326 42,697

Family income

The median after-tax income of economic families in Quebec in 2010 was $59,560, the median for couple families was $64,197 and for lone-parent families, $41,275. For persons not in economic families (persons living alone or with non relatives only), the median after-tax income was $23,120.

These compare to the medians in Canada of $67,044 for after-tax family income of all economic families, $72,356 for couple families, $42,401 for lone-parent families and $25,761 for persons living alone or without relatives.

Table 4 – Median after-tax income in 2010 for economic families and persons not in economic families, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows median after-tax income in 2010 by economic family structure and sex. The column headings are: economic family structure and sex, Quebec divided into number and median after-tax income in dollars and Canada divided into median after-tax income in dollars. The rows are: all economic families (couple families, lone-parent families, other economic families); persons not in economic families (males, females).

Table 4 – Median after-tax income in 2010 for economic families and persons not in economic families, Quebec, Canada
Economic family structure and sex Quebec Canada
number median after-tax income ($) median after-tax income ($)
All economic families 2,209,130 59,560 67,044
Couple families 1,823,820 64,197 72,356
Lone-parent families 337,930 41,275 42,401
Other economic families 47,380 47,097 55,484
Persons not in economic families 1,343,670 23,120 25,761
Males 650,240 25,167 28,197
Females 693,435 21,605 23,917

Figure 2 Median after-tax income in 2010 for Quebec and Canada

Figure description

The following vertical bar figure shows the median after-tax income in 2010 by economic family structure and sex. The y-axis is the median after-tax income in dollars. The x-axis is economic family structure and sex including: all economic families; couple families; lone-parent families; other economic families; persons not in economic families; males not in economic families and females not in economic families.

Families came in different sizes and larger families may have benefited from pooling of resources and economies of scale. In Quebec, based on their after-tax income adjusted for family size, 42.3% of the population was in the top half of the income distribution, below the rate of 50.0% in Canada.

In Quebec, the percentage of the population in the lowest income decile groupIncome Footnote 6 at 10.4% was similar to that in Canada (10.0%). The percentage of the population in the highest decile group was 5.6%, lower than in Canada (10.0%).

Table 5 – Population in private households by adjusted after-tax family income in 2010, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

The following table shows the population in private households by adjusted after-tax income in 2010. The column headings are: percentage of private households in decile groups of adjusted after-tax income in 2010, Quebec and Canada. The rows are: population in private households as count, decile groups.

Table 5 – Population in private households by adjusted after-tax family income in 2010, Quebec, Canada
Population in private households by decile groups of adjusted after-tax income in 2010 Quebec Canada
Population in private households (count) 7,732,520 32,852,320
In bottom half of Canadian distribution (%) 57.7 50.0
In lowest decile (%) 10.4 10.0
In second decile (%) 11.5 10.0
In third decile (%) 12.1 10.0
In fourth decile (%) 12.1 10.0
In fifth decile (%) 11.6 10.0
In top half of Canadian distribution (%) 42.3 50.0
In sixth decile (%) 10.8 10.0
In seventh decile (%) 10.1 10.0
In eighth decile (%) 8.7 10.0
In ninth decile (%) 7.1 10.0
In highest decile (%) 5.6 10.0

Low incomeIncome Footnote 7

In the NHS, a relative measure is used to classify persons by income status: the low-income measure based on after-tax income (LIM-AT). For this measure, the income threshold is half the Canadian median of after-tax household income. The income has been adjusted to account for household size. Persons in households with a household income below this thresholdIncome Footnote 8 were considered to be in low income.

Based on the after-tax income low-income measure, the proportion of the population in low income in Quebec was 16.7%, above the rate of 14.9% observed in Canada. In Quebec, compared to the population of all ages, for persons under 18, the rate was similar (16.3%) and for the population aged 65 years and over, it was higher at 20.1%.

Table 6 – Income status based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) in 2010, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows income status based on the after-tax low-income measure in 2010. The column headings are: income status, Quebec and Canada. The rows are: total - persons in private households for income status statistics (count); proportion in low income (based on LIM-AT) in percentage; under 18 years in percentage; under 6 years in percentage; 18 to 64 in percentage; 65 years and over in percentage.

Table 6 – Income status based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) in 2010, Quebec, Canada
Income status Quebec Canada
Total - Persons in private households for low income (count)Income Footnote 9 7,691,755 32,386,170
Proportion in low income (based on LIM-AT) (%) 16.7 14.9
Under 18 years (%) 16.3 17.3
Under 6 years (%) 16.8 18.1
18 to 64 years (%) 16.0 14.4
65 years and over (%) 20.1 13.4

A map showing the proportion of the population in low income within Quebec Region is also available.

Note(s):

Footnote 1

Market income includes income from all non-government sources such as employment, investments, private pensions and spousal or child support payments.

Income return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Government transfers include Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security (OAS) pension and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, Employment Insurance benefits, child benefits and other income from government sources.

Income return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

The population aged 15 years and over without income and those with negative income are included at the bottom of the distribution.

Income return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Full-year, full-time: worked 49 to 52 weeks, mainly full-time.

Income return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Only the most common occupations with at least 250 persons with earnings who worked full-year, full-time are presented here.

Income return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

The income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the economic families adjusted after-tax income distribution. The population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population.

Income return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

The low-income estimates from the National Household Survey (NHS) are not directly comparable to estimates from other sources such as earlier censuses or the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics but comparisons of different groups or geographies with sufficient sample size within the NHS are of good quality.

Income return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

A household of four with after-tax income below $38,920 would be considered low income and, for a person living alone, the threshold was $19,460.

Income return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

For the purposes of low-income statistics, households in the territories and in First Nations communities were excluded. The use of a statistic based only on money income could be misleading in areas where there are substantial in-kind transfers or non-cash activities. In Quebec, 40,765 persons in private households were excluded.

Income return to footnote 9 referrer

Housing

Housing

The number of households in Quebec was 3,395,220. The homeownership rate in Quebec was 61.2%, which was lower than the national homeownership rate of 69.0%.

Canada, provinces and territories – Homeownership rate in 2011

Figure description

The following vertical bar chart shows the homeownership rates in percentage for Canada and the provinces and territories. The y-axis is the percentage in homeownership and the x-axis is the provinces and territories from east to west. The homeownership rate for Canada is represented as a horizontal line.



Canada
69.0%
N.L.
77.5%
P.E.I.
73.4%
N.S.
70.8%
N.B.
75.7%
Que.
61.2%
Ont.
71.4%
Man.
70.1%
Sask.
72.6%
Alta.
73.6%
B.C.
70.0%
Y.T.
66.5%
N.W.T.
51.5%
Nvt.
21.0%

Table 1 – Housing tenure for all households, Canada, provinces and territories

Table summary

This table shows the number of households by housing tenure for Canada and the provinces and territories. The column headings are: geographic name; housing tenure including total households; owner; renter and band housing. The rows are: Canada and the provinces and territories from east to west.

Table 1 – Housing tenure for all households, Canada, provinces and territories
Geographic name Housing tenure
Total households Owner Renter Band housingHousing Table 1 Footnote 1
number

Table note(s):

Footnote 1

Band housing represents housing found mostly on Indian reserves or settlements that, for historical and statutory reasons, does not lend itself to the usual classification of 'owner' or 'renter'.

Housing: Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Canada 13,319,250 9,185,845 4,078,230 55,175
Newfoundland and Labrador 208,840 161,865 46,545 435
Prince Edward Island 56,455 41,455 14,910 90
Nova Scotia 390,280 276,200 111,870 2,215
New Brunswick 314,030 237,570 74,670 1,795
Quebec 3,395,220 2,077,640 1,311,200 6,380
Ontario 4,886,655 3,491,320 1,389,915 5,420
Manitoba 465,805 326,435 127,220 12,155
Saskatchewan 409,570 297,235 101,000 11,345
Alberta 1,390,285 1,022,645 357,950 9,690
British Columbia 1,764,630 1,234,715 524,995 4,925
Yukon 14,115 9,385 4,140 590
Northwest Territories 14,700 7,570 6,980 150
Nunavut 8,660 1,820 6,840 0

Quebec – AffordabilityHousing Footnote 1

Households in Quebec that paid 30% or more of household total income toward shelter costs represented 23.4% of non-farm, non-reserve households with total income greater than zero. This proportion was lower than the national proportion (25.2%).

A lower proportion of owner households paid 30% or more compared to tenant households in Quebec (14.9% for owners versus 36.8% for renters).

Households in Quebec paid an average monthly shelter cost of $839 – which was lower than the national amount of $1,050. The average monthly shelter cost for tenant households was $685. This was lower than the average monthly shelter cost for owner households of $936.

Table 2 – Housing affordability for non-farm, non-reserve households, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the percentage of households spending 30% or more of 2010 total income on shelter costs for the selected geography. The column headings are: housing indicator; housing tenure; Quebec and Canada. The rows are: percentage of households spending 30% or more of 2010 total income on shelter costs and average monthly shelter cost ($). Both are further divided into total, owner and renter.

Table 2 – Housing affordability for non-farm, non-reserve households, Quebec, Canada
Housing indicator Housing tenure Quebec Canada
Percentage of households spending 30% or more of 2010 total
income on shelter costsHousing Table 2 Footnote 1
Total 23.4 25.2
Owner 14.9 18.5
Renter 36.8 40.1
Average monthly shelter cost ($) Total 839 1,050
Owner 936 1,141
Renter 685 848

Table note(s):

Footnote 1

Excludes households with zero or negative income in 2010.

Housing: Return to footnote 2-1 referrer

Quebec – Need for major repairsHousing Footnote 2

In Quebec, 7.2% of households reported living in dwellings that required major repairs. This was lower than the national proportion of 7.4%. The proportion of households reporting major repairs requirements was lower for owners than renters (6.5% for owner-occupied dwellings and 8.0% for renter-occupied dwellings).

Table 3 – Need for major repairs by housing tenure, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows percentage of households who reported that their dwelling was in need of major repairs. The column headings are: housing indicator; housing tenure; Quebec and Canada. The row under housing indicator is: percentage of households reporting that their dwelling was in need of major repairs, which is further divided into total, owner, renter and band housing.

Table 3 – Need for major repairs by housing tenure, Quebec, Canada
Housing indicator Housing tenure Quebec Canada
Percentage of households reporting that their dwelling
was in need of major repairs
Total 7.2 7.4
Owner 6.5 6.4
Renter 8.0 9.1
Band housing 34.2 43.5

Quebec – Suitability

In Quebec, 4.8% of households in Quebec lived in dwellings that were not suitable; that is, the dwelling was crowded because there were not enough bedrooms based on the National Occupancy Standard.Housing Footnote 3 This was lower than the national proportion of 6.0%. The proportion of households in dwellings that were not suitable was lower for owners than renters (2.8% owner households and 7.8% for renter households).

Table 4 – Housing suitability by housing tenure, Quebec, Canada

Table summary

This table shows percentage of households living in dwellings that were not suitable. The column headings are: housing indicator; housing tenure; Quebec and Canada. The rows are: percentage of households living in dwellings that were not suitable, which is further divided into total, owner, renter and band housing.

Table 4 – Housing suitability by housing tenure, Quebec, Canada
Housing indicator Housing tenure Quebec Canada
Percentage of households living
in dwellings that were not suitable
Total 4.8 6.0
Owner 2.8 3.8
Renter 7.8 10.6
Band housing 22.6 25.2

Note(s):

Footnote 1

In 1986, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) and the provinces agreed to use the 30% threshold to measure affordability for the purposes of defining need for social housing. This agreement was reached during the development of the federal/provincial social housing programs.

Housing return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

The need for major repairs is based on the judgment of the respondent. Examples of major repairs provided to respondents included defective plumbing or electrical wiring, structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings, etc.

Housing return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

Housing return to footnote 3 referrer

Related data

Related data

Data quality note:

Footnote DQF

Excludes National Household Survey data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

Return to footnote ! referrer

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