NHS Focus on Geography Series – Toronto

Toronto, CMA

Global non-response rate (GNR) = 25.4%

Aboriginal Peoples

Demographic characteristics of Aboriginal people

In 2011, 0.7% (36,995) of the population of Toronto had an Aboriginal identity.Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 1 Of those, 64.7% (23,950) reported a First Nations identityAboriginal Peoples Footnote 2 only, 27.0% (9,980) reported a Métis identity only, and 1.7% (640) reported an Inuit identity only. An additional 1,930, or 5.2%, reported other Aboriginal identities and 495, or 1.3%, reported more than one Aboriginal identity.

Table 1 – Population by Aboriginal identity, Toronto, Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the population by Aboriginal identity. The column headings are: population; Toronto and Ontario. The columns Toronto and Ontario are divided into number, percentage of total population and percentage of Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population; Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian); First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian); M├ętis single identity; Inuit single identity; multiple Aboriginal identities; Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 1 – Population by Aboriginal identity, Toronto, Ontario
Population Toronto Ontario
Number % of total population % of Aboriginal identity population Number % of total population % of Aboriginal identity population
Total population in private households 5,521,235 100.0 ... 12,651,790 100.0 ...
   Aboriginal identity population 36,995 0.7 100.0 301,430 2.4 100.0
      First Nations single identity 23,950 0.4 64.7 201,100 1.6 66.7
         First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian) 9,445 0.2 25.5 125,560 1.0 41.7
         First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian) 14,505 0.3 39.2 75,545 0.6 25.1
      Métis single identity 9,980 0.2 27.0 86,020 0.7 28.5
      Inuit single identity 640 0.0 1.7 3,360 0.0 1.1
      Multiple Aboriginal identities 495 0.0 1.3 2,910 0.0 1.0
      Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere 1,930 0.0 5.2 8,045 0.1 2.7
   Non-Aboriginal identity population 5,484,240 99.3 ... 12,350,365 97.6 ...

In general, the Aboriginal population in Canada is younger than the non-Aboriginal population.

In Toronto, Aboriginal children aged 14 and under represented 21.9% of the total Aboriginal population and 0.8% of all children in Toronto. Non-Aboriginal children aged 14 and under accounted for 17.6% of the non-Aboriginal population.

The age distribution of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit is shown in table 2.

Table 2 – Age distribution by Aboriginal identity, Toronto, Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the population by Aboriginal identity and distribution by various age groups. The column headings are: population; Toronto and Ontario. The column percentage distribution by age groups is shown for Toronto and Ontario and is further divided into: total - age groups; 0 to 14 years; 15 to 24 years; 25 to 64 years; 65 years and over. The rows are: total population; Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian); First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian); Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; multiple Aboriginal identities; Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 2 – Age distribution by Aboriginal identity, Toronto, Ontario
Population Toronto Ontario
Total – Age groups 0 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total – Age groups 0 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over
Percentage (%) distribution by age groups Percentage (%) distribution by age groups
Total population in private households 100.0 17.7 13.5 56.7 12.1 100.0 17.2 13.5 55.5 13.9
   Aboriginal identity population 100.0 21.9 16.6 55.4 6.0 100.0 24.6 17.0 51.7 6.7
      First Nations single identity 100.0 23.8 16.8 53.7 5.7 100.0 26.8 16.9 49.9 6.4
         First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian) 100.0 19.5 15.1 58.9 6.4 100.0 24.9 16.7 51.1 7.2
         First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian) 100.0 26.6 17.9 50.3 5.2 100.0 29.9 17.2 48.0 5.0
      Métis single identity 100.0 17.1 16.0 60.7 6.2 100.0 19.3 17.3 56.2 7.3
      Inuit single identity 100.0 27.3 17.2 52.3 3.1 100.0 35.9 13.8 45.7 4.5
      Multiple Aboriginal identities 100.0 26.3 19.2 49.5 5.1 100.0 29.9 16.8 49.8 3.4
      Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere 100.0 20.7 16.6 51.8 10.9 100.0 21.1 16.2 50.3 12.5
   Non-Aboriginal identity population 100.0 17.6 13.5 56.7 12.1 100.0 17.0 13.4 55.6 14.0

Living arrangements of Aboriginal children

In Toronto, 56.1% of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under lived in a familyAboriginal Peoples Footnote 3 with both their parents (biological or adoptive) and 34.5% lived in a lone-parent family.Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 4 Other Aboriginal children in that age group were stepchildren,Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 5 grandchildren living in a skip-generation family,Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 6 foster childrenAboriginal Peoples Footnote 7 or children living with other relatives.

Living arrangements of First Nations, Métis and Inuit children aged 14 and under are illustrated in table 3.

Table 3 – Percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Toronto

Table summary

This table presents the percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: living arrangements; percentage distribution of the population for: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population aged 14 and under; children of both parents; stepchildren; children of lone parent; of male lone parent; of female lone parent; grandchildren in skip-generation family; foster children; children living with other relatives.

Table 3 – Percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Toronto
Living arrangements Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity Non-Aboriginal identity population
Percentage (%) distribution of the population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Includes children in a two-parent family where there may also be step siblings or half-siblings present. Also includes children in a two-parent family for whom it cannot be determined if they are stepchildren.

Return to footnote 3-1 referrer

Footnote 2

Non-relatives may be present.

Return to footnote 3-2 referrer

Footnote 3

This category excludes foster children.

Return to footnote 3-3 referrer

Total population aged 14 and under 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   Children of both parentsTable 3 Footnote 1 56.1 51.0 71.3 51.4 79.0
   Stepchildren 6.3 6.7 2.3 25.7 3.3
   Children of lone parent 34.5 38.6 24.6 20.0 17.1
      Of male lone parent 3.8 4.2 1.8 0.0 2.2
      Of female lone parent 30.7 34.4 22.9 20.0 14.9
   Grandchildren in skip-generation family 1.4 1.4 1.8 0.0 0.3
   Foster children 1.5 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.1
   Children living with other relativesTable 3 Footnote 2,Table 3 Footnote 3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3

Language and Aboriginal peoples

In Toronto, 885 Aboriginal people, or 2.4% of the population who had an Aboriginal identity, responded that they were able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language. In 2011, the Aboriginal language most frequently reported by Aboriginal people was: Ojibway (410).

In 2011, 1.2% of the Aboriginal identity population reported an Aboriginal language as mother tongue, defined as the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood.

As well, 1.3% of Aboriginal people reported speaking an Aboriginal language at home: 0.2% spoke it most often while another 1.1% spoke it on a regular basis.

Linguistic characteristics of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are shown in tables 4 to 6.

Table 4 – Number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators, Toronto

Table summary

This table presents number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators. The column headings are: selected Aboriginal language indicators; total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity. The last four columns are divided into number and percentage of population. The rows are: ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language; Aboriginal language as mother tongue; Aboriginal language spoken at least regularly at home; Aboriginal language spoken most often at home; Aboriginal language spoken regularly at home.

Table 4 – Number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators, Toronto
Selected Aboriginal language indicators Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity
numberTable 4 Footnote 1 % of population number % of population number % of population number % of population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

The estimates for the three Aboriginal groups do not add to the total Aboriginal identity population because only selected Aboriginal identity categories are shown.

Return to footnote 4-1 referrer

Footnote 2

This category excludes individuals who reported speaking one Aboriginal language most often at home and speaking another Aboriginal language regularly at home. These individuals are included only in the category 'Aboriginal language spoken most often at home.'

Return to footnote 4-2 referrer

Ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language 885 2.4 775 3.2 65 0.7 25 3.9
Aboriginal language as mother tongue 460 1.2 415 1.7 0 0.0 40 6.3
Aboriginal language spoken at least regularly at home 465 1.3 450 1.9 0 0.0 0 0.0
   Aboriginal language spoken most often at home 70 0.2 70 0.3 0 0.0 0 0.0
   Aboriginal language spoken regularly at homeTable 4 Footnote 2 400 1.1 380 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0

In Toronto, 87.8% of the Aboriginal identity population reported that they were able to conduct a conversation only in English or only in French. Additionally, 12.1% of Aboriginal people reported that they were able to conduct a conversation in both of Canada's official languages. The other 0.1%, or 45, reported that they were not able to conduct a conversation in either of these two languages.

Table 5 – Percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Toronto

Table summary

This table presents the percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: knowledge of official languages; percentage distribution of the population for: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population; English only; French only; English and French; neither English nor French.

Table 5 – Percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Toronto
Knowledge of official languages Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity Non-Aboriginal identity population
Percentage (%) distribution of the population
Total population in private households 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   English only 87.7 91.5 78.9 93.8 88.0
   French only 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1
   English and French 12.1 8.3 20.8 5.5 7.8
   Neither English nor French 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 4.2

In Toronto, among the 885 Aboriginal people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language, 40.1% reported that same language as their mother tongue. The other 59.9% reported a different language, such as English or French, as mother tongue, which suggests these individuals have acquired an Aboriginal language as a second language.

On the other hand, among the 460 Aboriginal people who reported an Aboriginal language as mother tongue, 22.8% could no longer conduct a conversation in this language, despite the fact that they still understand it.

Table 6 – Population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Toronto

Table summary

This table presents the population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and the population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: selected Aboriginal identity categories; persons reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue; persons reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language. The last two columns are divided into number and percentage of population. The rows are: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 6 – Population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Toronto
Selected Aboriginal identity categories Persons reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue Persons reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language
numberTable 6 Footnote 1 % of population numberTable 6 Footnote 1 % of population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

The estimates for the three Aboriginal groups do not add to the total Aboriginal identity population because only selected Aboriginal identity categories are shown.

Return to footnote 6-1 referrer

Total Aboriginal identity population 530 59.9 105 22.8
   First Nations single identity 440 56.8 75 18.1
   Métis single identity 70 107.7 0 ...
   Inuit single identity 0 0.0 0 0.0
Non-Aboriginal identity population 265 55.2 85 28.3

Note(s):

Footnote 1

Aboriginal identity: The term 'Aboriginal identity' refers to whether the person reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or being a Registered or Treaty Indian, (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or being a member of a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Respondents self-identified as 'First Nations (North American Indian)' on the NHS questionnaire; however, the term 'First Nations people' is used throughout this document.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Family: The term 'family' in this document refers to the census definition of 'census family,' but for simplicity, the term 'family' is used throughout this report. A census family is composed of a married or common-law couple, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling. Couples can be of the opposite sex or of the same sex.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Lone parents: Mothers or fathers, with no married spouse or common-law partner present, living in a dwelling with one or more children.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Stepchild: A stepchild is a child in a couple family who is the biological or adopted child of only one married spouse or common-law partner in the couple, and whose birth or adoption preceded the current relationship.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Skip-generation family: A census family that consists of grandparents and grandchildren without the presence of parents in the home.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

Foster children: The population in private households who have been reported as foster children on the NHS questionnaire. Foster children are considered as 'other relatives' outside of a census family.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 7 referrer

Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity

Immigrant population

According to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), 2,537,405 (46.0%) of the population of the Toronto census metropolitan area (CMA) were foreign-born (immigrants), 2,891,990 (52.4%) were Canadian-born (non-immigrants) and 91,840 (1.7%) were non-permanent residents.Ethnocultural Footnote 1 In comparison, the proportion of the population of Ontario who were immigrants was 28.5%, 70.4% were non-immigrants, and 1.1% were non-permanent residents.

Figure 1 Percentage of Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non permanent residents in Toronto (CMA)

Figure description

This vertical bar graph shows the percentage of Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non-permanent residents. The y-axis is the percentage of population and the x-axis, from left to right, shows Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non-permanent residents.

Of the immigrants living in Toronto in 2011, 381,745 came to Canada between 2006 and 2011. These recent immigrants made up 15.0% of the immigrants in Toronto.

The three most common countries of birth of immigrants living in Toronto were: India (accounting for 10.6% of the immigrant population in Toronto), China (8.9%) and Philippines (6.8%). In comparison, the top three countries of birth of immigrants living in Ontario were: India (accounting for 8.6% of the immigrant population in Ontario), United Kingdom (8.1%) and China (7.4%).

Table – Immigrants by country of birth, Toronto (CMA)

Table summary

This table shows the most common countries of birth of immigrants. The column headings are: immigrants by country of birth along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: total immigrants and the most common countries of birth of immigrants.

Table – Immigrants by country of birth, Toronto (CMA)
Immigrants by country of birth Toronto (CMA) Ontario
Count % Rank Count % Rank
Total immigrants 2,537,405 100.0 ... 3,611,365 100.0 ...
   India 268,915 10.6 1 310,405 8.6 1
   China 224,915 8.9 2 267,780 7.4 3
   Philippines 173,495 6.8 3 204,035 5.6 4

In 2011, among Toronto's immigrant population, 52.6% spoke English and/or French most often at home. Meanwhile, the three most frequently reported non-official languages spoken most often at home by immigrants in Toronto were Cantonese, Panjabi (Punjabi) and Chinese, n.o.s.. This compared to the top three non-official languages for immigrants in Ontario, which were Cantonese, Chinese, n.o.s. and Panjabi (Punjabi).Ethnocultural Footnote 2

Immigrants by non-official languages spoken most often at home, Toronto (CMA)

Table summary

This table presents the most common non-official language spoken most often at home for immigrants. The column headings are: immigrants by non-official language spoken most often at home with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common non-official language spoken most often at home.

Immigrants by non-official languages spoken most often at home, Toronto (CMA)
Immigrants by non-official language spoken most often at homeEthnocultural Footnote 2 Toronto (CMA) Ontario
Count % Rank Count % Rank
Cantonese 131,605 5.2 1 141,460 3.9 1
Panjabi (Punjabi) 103,885 4.1 2 115,810 3.2 3
Chinese, n.o.s. 101,390 4.0 3 123,015 3.4 2

The median age of immigrants in Toronto was 34.5 years in 2011, compared to 33.8 years for the immigrant population at the provincial level.

Visible minority population and ethnic origins

The 2011 NHS estimated that 2,596,420 individuals in the Toronto belonged to a visible minority group, accounting for 47.0% of its total population.Ethnocultural Footnote 1 In comparison, visible minorities comprised 25.9% of Ontario's population.

The three largest visible minority groups living in Toronto were South Asian, Chinese and Black. In Ontario, the three largest visible minority groups were South Asian, Chinese and Black.

The median age of the visible minority population in Toronto was 34.5 years in 2011, compared to 33.8 years for the visible minority population at the provincial level.

Table – Population showing visible minority groups, Toronto (CMA) , Ontario, and Canada

Table summary

This table shows the population by visible minority groups. The column headings are: population showing visible minority groups along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: total population; total visible minority population; South Asian; Chinese; Black; Filipino; Latin American; Arab; Southeast Asian; West Asian; Korean; Japanese; visible minority, n.i.e., multiple visible minorities and not a visible minority.

Table – Population showing visible minority groups, Toronto (CMA) , Ontario, and Canada
Population showing visible minority groups Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Count % Count % Count %
Total population in private households 5,521,230 100.0 12,651,795 100.0 32,852,320 100.0
   Total visible minority population 2,596,420 47.0 3,279,565 25.9 6,264,750 19.1
      South Asian 833,080 15.1 965,985 7.6 1,567,400 4.8
      Chinese 531,635 9.6 629,140 5.0 1,324,750 4.0
      Black 397,180 7.2 539,210 4.3 945,665 2.9
      Filipino 230,075 4.2 275,385 2.2 619,310 1.9
      Latin American 117,005 2.1 172,560 1.4 381,280 1.2
      Arab 74,985 1.4 151,640 1.2 380,620 1.2
      Southeast Asian 90,990 1.6 137,875 1.1 312,080 0.9
      West Asian 96,650 1.8 122,530 1.0 206,840 0.6
      Korean 61,300 1.1 78,290 0.6 161,125 0.5
      Japanese 20,010 0.4 29,090 0.2 87,265 0.3
      Visible minority, n.i.e. 68,660 1.2 81,125 0.6 106,475 0.3
      Multiple visible minorities 74,835 1.4 96,735 0.8 171,935 0.5
   Not a visible minority 2,924,815 53.0 9,372,225 74.1 26,587,575 80.9

The three most frequently reported ethnic origins in Toronto, for people reporting either one or multiple ethnic origins, were English, Canadian and Chinese. This compared to the top three in Ontario, which were Canadian, English and Scottish.

Table – Most frequently reported ethnic origins, Toronto (CMA)

Table summary

This table shows the most common ethnic origins. The column headings are: ethnic origin along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common ethnic origins.

Table – Most frequently reported ethnic origins, Toronto (CMA)
Most frequently reported ethnic origins Toronto (CMA) Ontario
Count % Rank Count % Rank
   English 777,115 14.1 1 2,925,660 23.1 2
   Canadian 728,745 13.2 2 2,946,095 23.3 1
   Chinese 594,735 10.8 3 713,245 5.6 8

Religion

According to the 2011 NHS, 78.9% of the population in the Toronto reported a religious affiliation, while 21.1% said they had no religious affiliation.Ethnocultural Footnote 1 At the provincial level, 76.9% of the population reported a religious affiliation, while 23.1% had no religious affiliation.

The most frequently reported religious affiliation in Toronto was Roman Catholic, reported by 1,664,055 (30.1%) of the population. Other frequently reported religions included: Muslim (7.7%) and Hindu (5.9%). In comparison, the top three most frequently reported religions in Ontario were: Roman Catholic (reported by 31.2% of the population of Ontario), United Church (7.5%) and Anglican (6.1%).

Table – Most frequently reported religions, Toronto (CMA)

Table summary

This table shows the most common religions. The column headings are: religion along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common religions.

Table – Most frequently reported religions, Toronto (CMA)
Most frequently reported religions Toronto (CMA) Ontario
Count % Rank Count % Rank
Total population in private households 5,521,230 100.0 ... 12,651,795 100.0 ...
   Total reporting a religious affiliation 4,356,220 78.9 ... 9,724,000 76.9 ...
      Roman Catholic 1,664,055 30.1 1 3,948,975 31.2 1
      Muslim 424,930 7.7 2 581,950 4.6 5
      Hindu 325,420 5.9 3 366,720 2.9 6
   Total not reporting a religious affiliation 1,165,010 21.1 ... 2,927,795 23.1 ...

Note(s):

Footnote 1

For details on the concepts, definitions, universes, variables and geographic terms used in the 2011 National Household Survey, please consult the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For detailed explanations on concepts and for information on data quality, please refer to the reference guides found on the NHS website.

Ethnocultural Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

These counts include both single non-official language responses and multiple language responses. A multiple language response is a combination of non-official language response with a response of English and/or French.

Ethnocultural Return to footnote 2 referrer

Education

Educational attainment Education Footnote 1

In 2011, 63.9% of the 3,798,755 adults aged 25 years and over in Toronto had completed some form of postsecondary education, compared with 59.6% at the national level.

Of the population aged 25 years and over in Toronto, 39.2% had a university certificate or degree. An additional 18.5% had a college diploma and 6.2% had a trades certificate.

The share of the adult population that had completed a high school diploma as their highest level of educational attainment was 21.9%, and 14.1% had completed neither high school nor any postsecondary certificates, diplomas or degrees.

Table 1 – Population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainmentEducation Footnote 1, Toronto (CMA), Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population aged 25 years and over by highest level of educational attainment. The column headings are: highest level of educational attainment; Toronto, Ontario and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total population aged 25 years and over; no certificate, diploma or degree; high school diploma; a subtotal for postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree: trades certificate which is a subtotal of the rows for trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship) and registered apprenticeship certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; university degree which is a subtotal of the rows for bachelor's degree; university certificate above bachelor; degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry; master's degree; earned doctorate.

Table 1 – Population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainment
Highest level of educational attainment Toronto Ontario Canada
Number % Number % Number %
Total – Population aged 25 years and over 3,798,755 100.0 8,771,320 100.0 22,935,460 100.0
No certificate, diploma or degree 537,085 14.1 1,366,620 15.6 3,956,620 17.3
High school diplomaEducation Footnote 2 833,230 21.9 2,111,855 24.1 5,300,080 23.1
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 2,428,435 63.9 5,292,840 60.3 13,678,765 59.6
Trades certificateEducation Footnote 3 237,400 6.2 730,670 8.3 2,744,380 12.0
Trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship) 135,780 3.6 396,140 4.5 1,596,595 7.0
Registered Apprenticeship certificateEducation Footnote 4 101,620 2.7 334,525 3.8 1,147,790 5.0
College diplomaEducation Footnote 5 701,595 18.5 1,895,340 21.6 4,487,520 19.6
University certificate below bachelorEducation Footnote 6 223,085 5.9 387,200 4.4 1,100,325 4.8
University degreeEducation Footnote 7 1,266,360 33.3 2,279,630 26.0 5,346,530 23.3
Bachelor's degree 766,420 20.2 1,376,455 15.7 3,347,425 14.6
University certificate above bachelorEducation Footnote 8 148,440 3.9 272,180 3.1 571,525 2.5
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 34,200 0.9 63,675 0.7 151,715 0.7
Master's degree 276,070 7.3 481,165 5.5 1,068,190 4.7
Earned doctorate 41,230 1.1 86,155 1.0 207,680 0.9

Overall, successive generations of Canadians have been completing high school and attaining postsecondary qualifications in increasing proportions. In 2011, 41.7% of Canadians aged 65 years and over had a postsecondary credential; this compares with 69.5% among adults between the ages of 25 and 44. As well, 35.7% of those aged 65 years and over had not completed any certificate, diploma or degree compared with 9.5% of individuals aged 25 to 44.

In Toronto, 42.4% of those aged 65 years and over had a postsecondary credential, compared to 73.8% of adults aged 25 to 44; 34.2% of individuals aged 65 years and over had no certificate, diploma or degree, compared to 6.8% of 25 to 44 year-olds.

Toronto (CMA) – Proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups

Figure description

This vertical bar graph shows the proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups. The age groups are: 25 to 44, 45 to 64 and 65 and over. The y-axis is the percentage of the population and the x-axis is level of educational attainment including: no certificate, diploma or degree; high school diploma; trades certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; bachelor's degree; university above bachelor.

Major field of study

Table 2 – Most common fields of studyEducation Footnote 9 for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainmentEducation Footnote 1, Toronto (CMA), Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the five most common fields of study by level of educational attainment for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications. The column headings are: field of study; Toronto, Ontario and Canada, which are divided in number, percentage and rank. The rows are: the five most common fields of study under the educational attainment levels of: trades certificate; college diploma; university.

Toronto (CMA) – Proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups Table 2 Canada, #currentGeo# – Most common fields of study for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainment
Field of study Toronto Ontario Canada
Number % Rank Number % Rank Number % Rank
Trades certificate
Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 37,425 15.8 1 135,165 18.5 1 485,755 17.7 1
Construction trades 35,675 15.0 2 119,725 16.4 2 434,090 15.8 2
Personal and culinary services 32,725 13.8 3 88,945 12.2 3 328,125 12.0 4
Business, management, marketing and related support services 27,565 11.6 4 68,980 9.4 6 329,330 12.0 3
Health professions and related programs 24,145 10.2 5 77,310 10.6 5 283,665 10.3 6
College diploma
Business, management, marketing and related support services 213,090 30.4 1 507,500 26.8 1 1,242,870 27.7 1
Health professions and related programs 97,015 13.8 2 336,015 17.7 2 787,660 17.6 2
Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 61,810 8.8 3 176,515 9.3 3 413,205 9.2 3
Computer and information sciences and support services 42,025 6.0 4 91,155 4.8 4 212,800 4.7 5
Visual and performing arts 39,965 5.7 5 75,965 4.0 7 170,725 3.8 6
UniversityEducation Footnote 10
Business, management, marketing and related support services 319,995 21.5 1 477,840 17.9 1 1,215,210 18.8 1
Engineering 196,230 13.2 2 311,045 11.7 3 686,100 10.6 4
Health professions and related programs 133,370 9.0 3 260,335 9.8 4 702,280 10.9 3
Education 130,195 8.7 4 319,395 12.0 2 921,390 14.3 2
Social sciences 114,980 7.7 5 218,465 8.2 5 429,185 6.7 5

Location of studyEducation Footnote 11

In 2011, there were 2,428,435 residents of Toronto aged 25 years and over with postsecondary credentials. Of these graduates, 60.8% had studied in Ontario, 5.4% had studied in another province or territory and 33.8% had studied outside Canada. Nationally, 72.5% of graduates had studied in the same province/territory in which they lived in 2011, 10.4% had studied in another province or territory and 17.1% had studied outside Canada.

In all provinces, individuals with trades or college certificates were more likely than those with university credentials to have earned their highest certificate, diploma or degree in the province in which they lived in 2011.

Table 3 – Population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by location of study and by level of educational attainment, Toronto (CMA)

Table summary

This table presents location of study compared with the province or territory of residence in 2011 for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainment. The column headings are: educational attainment; location of study divided into studied in Ontario, studied in another province / territory, studied outside Canada further divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications; trades certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; bachelor's degree; university above bachelor.

Table 3 – Population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by location of study and by level of educational attainment, Toronto
Educational attainment Location of study
Studied in Ontario Studied in another province/territory Studied outside Canada
number % number % number %
Total population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications 1,475,930 60.8 130,755 5.4 821,755 33.8
Trades certificate 164,040 69.1 8,605 3.6 64,755 27.3
College diploma 523,735 74.6 27,670 3.9 150,185 21.4
University certificate below bachelor 112,000 50.2 9,920 4.4 101,165 45.3
Bachelor's degree 440,525 57.5 55,120 7.2 270,770 35.3
University above bachelor 235,630 47.1 29,440 5.9 234,875 47.0

Note(s):

Footnote 1

The terms 'Educational attainment,' 'level of educational attainment' and 'highest level of educational attainment' used in this document refer to the Highest certificate, diploma or degree completed by a person. The portion of the population that completed each type of education noted is the portion that completed it as their highest certificate, diploma or degree.

Education return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

'Trades certificate' includes registered apprenticeship certificates and journeyperson's designations (including certificate of qualification) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

Education return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

'Trades certificate' refers to 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' and is an aggregation which includes both 'Registered Apprenticeship certificate' as well as 'trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship).'

Education return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

'Registered Apprenticeship certificate' includes those with a certificate of qualification/journeyperson's designation.

Education return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

'College diploma' refers to 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma.'

Education return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

'University certificate below bachelor' refers to 'university certificate or diploma below bachelor level.' Comparisons with other data sources suggest that this category was over-reported in the NHS. It is recommended that users interpret the results for this category with caution. For further information, please refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey.

Education return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

'University degree' refers to 'university certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above.'

Education return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

'University certificate above bachelor' refers to 'university certificate or diploma above bachelor level'.

Education return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

'Field of study' in this table is classified based on the 2-digit series from the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. It is the major field of study for the highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree completed by the person.

Education return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

'University' in this table refers to 'university certificate, diploma or degree,' and includes all university certificates, diplomas and degrees including university certificates below the bachelor level, bachelor's degrees and university certificates and degrees above the bachelor level.

Education return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree was completed. Here, location of study is compared with province or territory of residence to indicate whether the location of study is the same province or territory as the person's residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada.

Education return to footnote 11 referrer

Labour

Labour

In Toronto, 2,780,685 people were employed and 261,960 were unemployed for a total labour force of 3,042,645 in May 2011. The employment rate was at 61.2% and the unemployment rate was at 8.6%.

Table 1 Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force status, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the labour force status for the population aged 15 years and over. The column headings are: labour force status; Toronto and Ontario. The rows are: total population aged 15 years and over with sub-totals of: in the labour force (number) and not in the labour force (number). In the labour force (number) there are two components: employed (number) and unemployed (number). Rates are also presented for: participation rate (%); employment rate (%); and unemployment rate (%).

Table 1 Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force status
Labour force status Toronto Ontario
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

Labour: Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Total population aged 15 years and overLabour Table 1 Footnote 1 4,546,140 10,473,665
In the labour force 3,042,645 6,864,985
Employed 2,780,685 6,297,000
Unemployed 261,960 567,985
Not in the labour force 1,503,495 3,608,680
Participation rate 66.9 65.5
Employment rate 61.2 60.1
Unemployment rate 8.6 8.3

Within Toronto, 11.1% of the employed labour force was aged 15 to 24 and 14.6% was aged 55 to 64. This compares to 12.6% and 15.2% respectively for Ontario.

Table 2 Employed labour force by age groups, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the employed labour force by selected age groups. The column headings are: age groups and Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; age groups; 15 to 24 years; 25 to 34 years; 35 to 54 years; 55 to 64 years; 65 years and over.

Table 2 Employed labour force by age groups
Age groups Toronto Ontario
number % number %
Total 2,780,685 100.0 6,297,000 100.0
15 to 24 years 309,820 11.1 795,585 12.6
25 to 34 years 596,880 21.5 1,251,265 19.9
35 to 54 years 1,375,960 49.5 3,067,335 48.7
55 to 64 years 406,620 14.6 959,560 15.2
65 years and over 91,410 3.3 223,260 3.5

Within Toronto, the top occupations were: Retail salespersons; Retail and wholesale trade managers; Elementary school and kindergarten teachers. For Ontario as a whole the top occupations were: Retail salespersons; Retail and wholesale trade managers; Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations.

Table 3 Top occupations for the employed labour force, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the top occupations. The column headings are: occupation, Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the top occupations.

Table 3 Top occupations for the employed labour force
Occupation Toronto Ontario
number % Rank number % Rank
Retail salespersons 109,655 3.9 1 251,020 4.0 1
Retail and wholesale trade managers 58,990 2.1 2 138,125 2.2 2
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers 49,220 1.8 3 117,785 1.9 4
Financial auditors and accountants 48,965 1.8 4 78,835 1.3 12
Information systems analysts and consultants 46,825 1.7 5 72,425 1.2 15
Administrative assistants 44,690 1.6 6 104,880 1.7 6
Cashiers 44,225 1.6 7 111,320 1.8 5
Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations 43,940 1.6 8 124,450 2.0 3
Administrative officers 42,410 1.5 9 93,700 1.5 8
General office support workers 40,360 1.5 10 87,325 1.4 10

Within Toronto, the top industries were: Elementary and secondary schools; Depository credit intermediation; Hospitals. For Ontario as a whole the top industries were: Elementary and secondary schools; Hospitals; Local, municipal and regional public administration.

Table 4 Top industries for the employed labour force, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the top industries. The column headings are: industry, Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the top industries.

Table 4 Top industries for the employed labour force
Industry Toronto Ontario
number % Rank number % Rank
Elementary and secondary schools 121,210 4.4 1 302,315 4.8 1
Depository credit intermediation 101,670 3.7 2 148,750 2.4 6
Hospitals 76,290 2.7 3 196,795 3.1 2
Computer systems design and related services 64,965 2.3 4 101,745 1.6 11
Local, municipal and regional public administration 60,735 2.2 5 158,605 2.5 3
Full-service restaurants 59,910 2.2 6 137,175 2.2 8
Limited-service restaurants 58,340 2.1 7 152,045 2.4 4
Grocery stores 55,730 2.0 8 137,630 2.2 7
Services to buildings and dwellings 43,375 1.6 9 102,460 1.6 10
Architectural, engineering and related services 41,845 1.5 10 80,955 1.3 17

The number of self-employed in Toronto amounted to 315,385 or 11.3% of all total employed workers.

Table 5 Employed labour force by class of workers, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents class of worker. The column headings are: class of worker; Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total employed labour force; with subtotals of employee (number and percent) and total – self-employed (number and percent). The total – self-employed there are two components: self-employed (incorporated or unincorporated) and unpaid family worker.

Table 5 Employed labour force by class of workers
Class of worker Toronto Ontario
number % number %
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

Return to footnote 5-1 referrer

Total employed labour force 2,780,685 100.0 6,297,000 100.0
Employee 2,465,295 88.7 5,611,200 89.1
Total – Self-employedTable 5 Footnote 1 315,385 11.3 685,800 10.9
Self-employed (incorporated or unincorporated) 308,965 11.1 668,225 10.6
Unpaid family worker 6,420 0.2 17,575 0.3

In 2011, 23.3% of commuters within Toronto used public transit to get to work. This compares to Ontario at 14.0%. 64.5% of the population used a car, truck or van as a driver, while 5.4% used a car, truck or van as a passenger. The average commuting time to work in Toronto was 32.8 minutes, this compares to Ontario at 27.6 minutes.

Within Toronto, 81.9% of the employed labour force aged 15 years and over worked at their usual place, 6.6% worked at home and 10.9% had no fixed workplace address.

Table 6 Employed labour force by mode of transportation, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the employed labour force by mode of transportation. The column headings are: mode of transportation; Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total employed labour force with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address; car, truck or van as driver; car, truck or van as passenger; public transit; walked; bicycle; other.

Table 6 Employed labour force by mode of transportation
Mode of transportation Toronto Ontario
number % number %
Total employed labour force with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address 2,582,780 100.0 5,841,815 100.0
Car, truck or van as driver 1,666,420 64.5 4,235,315 72.5
Car, truck or van as passenger 140,100 5.4 357,110 6.1
Public transit 601,365 23.3 818,265 14.0
Walked 117,665 4.6 299,095 5.1
Bicycle 30,135 1.2 69,885 1.2
Other 27,105 1.0 62,145 1.1

Table 7 Average commuting duration for the employed labour force, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the average commuting duration. The column headings are: average commuting duration; Toronto and Ontario. The row includes the average commuting duration.

Table 7 Average commuting duration for the employed labour force
Commuting duration Toronto Ontario
Average 32.8 27.6

Table 8 Employed Labour force by time leaving for work, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents time leaving for work. The column headings are: time leaving for work; Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; 5 to 5:59 a.m.; 6 to 6:59 a.m.; 7 to 7:59 a.m.; 8 to 8:59 a.m.; 9 to 11:59 a.m.; 12 p.m. to 4:59 a.m.

Table 8 Employed Labour force by time leaving for work
Time leaving for work Toronto Ontario
number % number %
Total 2,582,780 100.0 5,841,815 100.0
5 to 5:59 a.m. 135,000 5.2 361,445 6.2
6 to 6:59 a.m. 402,585 15.6 1,024,410 17.5
7 to 7:59 a.m. 695,030 26.9 1,575,420 27.0
8 to 8:59 a.m. 643,970 24.9 1,376,540 23.6
9 to 11:59 a.m. 349,360 13.5 653,985 11.2
12 p.m. to 4:59 a.m. 356,830 13.8 850,010 14.6

Table 9 Employed labour force by place of work status, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents place of work. The column headings are: place of work; Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; usual place of work; worked at home; worked outside Canada; no fixed workplace address.

Table 9 Employed labour force by place of work status
Place of work Toronto Ontario
number % number %
Total employed labour force 2,780,685 100.0 6,297,000 100.0
Usual place of work 2,278,375 81.9 5,170,975 82.1
Worked at home 184,345 6.6 423,795 6.7
Worked outside Canada 13,555 0.5 31,395 0.5
No fixed workplace address 304,410 10.9 670,840 10.7

In Toronto, 95.3% (3,038,985) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported English only as the language used most often at work, 0.3% (10,285) reported French only and 0.4% (12,485) said they used both official languages (English and French) equally. In addition, 1.3% of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language equally most often at work and 2.7% a non-official language only.

Furthermore, 1.1% (36,005) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported working in English on a regular basis, 1.4% (45,735) in French on a regular basis and 0.0% (70) in the country's two official languages on a regular basis. In addition, 0.2% (4,850) of of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language on a regular basis at work and 4.4% (141,440) a non-official language only.

In Ontario, 95.8% (6,946,430) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported English only as the language used most often at work, 1.3% (94,475) reported French only and 0.7 (54,120) said they used both official languages (English and French) equally. Furthermore, 0.7% of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language equally most often at work.

As for the language used at work on a regular basis in Ontario, the proportions are as follows: 1.3% (96,395) reported using English; 3.3% (239,920) use French; 0.0% (305) use both official languages; 0.1% (8,550) reported using an official language and a non-official language; and 2.6% (189,765) a non-official language only.

Table 10 Languages used at work, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents the languages used most often and regularly at work. The column headings are: languages used at work; language used most often at work and language used regularly at work for Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: Total population 15 years and over who worked since 2010; English only; French only; other language only; English and French; English and other language; French and other language; English, French and other language.

Table 10 Languages used at work
Languages used at work Language used most often Language used regularlyTable 1 Footnote 1
Toronto Ontario Toronto Ontario
number % number % number % number %
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Other than the language spoken most often.

Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Total population aged 15 years and over who worked since 2010 3,187,240 100.0 7,251,570 100.0 228,100 7.2 534,930 7.4
English only 3,038,985 95.3 6,946,430 95.8 36,005 1.1 96,395 1.3
French only 10,285 0.3 94,475 1.3 45,735 1.4 239,920 3.3
Other language only 85,285 2.7 105,920 1.5 141,440 4.4 189,765 2.6
English and French 12,485 0.4 54,120 0.7 70 0.0 305 0.0
English and other language 39,155 1.2 48,700 0.7 860 0.0 1,170 0.0
French and other language 160 0.0 275 0.0 3,975 0.1 7,345 0.1
English, French and other language. 880 0.0 1,645 0.0 15 0.0 35 0.0
None ... ... ... ... 2,959,145 92.8 6,716,645 92.6

In Toronto, the non-official languages most used, most often or regularly, with or without an official language, are Chinese languages, Spanish and Panjabi (Punjabi), which account respectively for 1.4% (91,715), 0.3% (21,630) and 0.3% (19,680) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011.

In Ontario, the non-official languages most used, most often or regularly, with or without an official language, are Chinese languages, Spanish and Portuguese, which account respectively for 0.7% (101,080), 0.2% (31,845) and 0.1% (21,645) of the population aged 15 years and older who worked in 2010 or 2011.

Table 11 Non-official languages used at work, Toronto (CMA), Ontario

Table summary

This table presents non-official languages used at work. The column headings are: languages used at work; language used at least regularly at work, language used most often at work and language used regularly at work for Toronto and Ontario, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are the top non-official languages used at least regularly at work.

Table 11 Non-official languages used at work
Languages used at work Language used at least regularlyTable 2 Footnote 2 Language used most oftenTable 2 Footnote 2 Language used regularlyTable 2 Footnote 1,Table 2 Footnote 3
Toronto Ontario Toronto Ontario Toronto Ontario
number % rank number % rank number % rank number % rank number % rank number % rank
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Other than the language spoken most often.

Return to footnote 2-1 referrer

Footnote 2

Percentages calculated over the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011.

Return to footnote 2-2 referrer

Footnote 3

Percentages calculated over the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 and who declared one or more languages used regularly at work.

Return to footnote 2-3 referrer

Chinese languages 91,715 1.4 1 101,080 0.7 1 56,960 1.8 1 61,415 0.8 1 34,760 15.2 1 39,660 7.4 1
Spanish 21,630 0.3 2 31,845 0.2 2 7,265 0.2 4 10,105 0.1 2 14,365 6.3 2 21,740 4.1 2
Panjabi (Punjabi) 19,680 0.3 3 21,190 0.1 4 9,095 0.3 2 9,705 0.1 3 10,580 4.6 4 11,485 2.1 5
Portuguese 17,105 0.3 4 21,645 0.1 3 7,475 0.2 3 8,920 0.1 4 9,630 4.2 5 12,730 2.4 4
Italian 14,510 0.2 5 19,665 0.1 5 2,935 0.1 10 3,675 0.1 11 11,580 5.1 3 15,985 3.0 3

Income

Income composition

The total income for the population in private households can be broken down into two basic components: market incomeIncome Footnote 1 and government transfers.Income Footnote 2 In Toronto, 89.5% of total income was from market income in 2010 and 10.5% was from government transfers. (Aggregate total income for Toronto was 189.7 billion dollars in 2010.)

Figure 1 Income composition for the population in private households in 2010

Figure description

This stacked horizontal bar figure shows income composition for the population in private households. The y-axis is Canada, Ontario and Toronto. The x-axis is percentage of income composition (market income and government transfer payments).

Market income's main component was employment income. In Toronto, it accounted for $87.70 of every $100 of market income, above the figure for Ontario of $85.30. For the two components of employment income, wages and salaries represented $81.70 and net income from self-employment, $6.10.

The other components of market income were smaller than employment income: in Toronto, investment income represented $5.30 per $100 of market income, retirement income, $5.10 and $1.90 came from other private sources of money.

The government transfers received in Toronto were Other income from government sources with $27.50 of every $100 of total government transfers received, Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan ($23.60), Old Age Security (OAS) pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement ($22.90), Child benefits ($13.50), and Employment Insurance benefits ($12.50).

Table 1 – Income composition for the population in private households in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows income composition for the population in private households in 2010. The column headings are: income composition, Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The rows are: aggregate total income in millions of dollars which has main components of market income and government transfer payments. Market income is further divided into: employment income in percentage (including wages and salaries in percentage and self-employment income in percentage); investment income in percentage; retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities in percentage; other money income. Government transfer payments is further divided into: Canada / Quebec pension plan benefits in percentage; Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement in percentage; employment insurance benefits in percentage; child benefits in percentage and other income from government sources in percentage. Also included are income taxes paid (as a percent of total income) and after-tax income (as a percent of total income).

Table 1 – Income composition for the population in private households in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Income composition Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Aggregate total income (million $) 189,669.3 419,136.5 1,053,582.1
Composition of total income in 2010 (%) 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%) 89.5 87.7 87.6
Employment income (%) 78.5 74.8 74.7
Wages and salaries (%) 73.1 70.1 70.3
Self-employment income (%) 5.4 4.6 4.4
Investment income (%) 4.7 4.2 4.6
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (%) 4.5 7.0 6.7
Other money income (%) 1.7 1.7 1.7
Government transfer payments (%) 10.5 12.3 12.4
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (%) 2.5 3.4 3.5
Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement (%) 2.4 2.8 3.1
Employment Insurance benefits (%) 1.3 1.4 1.8
Child benefits (%) 1.4 1.4 1.5
Other income from government sources (%) 2.9 3.3 2.6
Income taxes paid – as a % of total income 18.0 16.6 16.4
After-tax income – as a % of total income 82.0 83.4 83.6

High total income

Among the Canadian population in private households aged 15 years and over, ten percent had total incomes of more than $80,400 in 2010. To be in the top five percent, Canadians needed to have a total income of slightly above $102,300 and to be in the top one percent required just over $191,100, nearly seven times the national median income of $27,800.Income Footnote 3

In Toronto, 6.4% percent of the population aged 15 years and over had total income that put them in the top five percent and 1.6% in the top one percent. This compared with 5.5% and 1.1% in Ontario and 5.0% and 1.0% in Canada.

Table 2 – Population aged 15 years and over by total income, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

The following table presents the population aged 15 years and over by total income. The column headings are: total income, Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The rows are: population aged 15 years and over by total income (count); without income or less than $27,815 in percentage; without income or less than $12,025 in percentage; $12,025 to $27,814 in percentage; $27,815 and over in percentage; $27,815 to $51,304 in percentage; $51,305 and over in percentage; $80,420 and over (top 10 percent) in percentage; $102,305 and over top 5 percent) in percentage and $191,150 and over (top 1 percent) in percentage.

Table 2 – Population aged 15 years and over by total income, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Total income Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Population 15 years and over by total income (count) 4,546,145 10,473,665 27,259,525
Without income or less than $27,815 (%) 51.3 49.6 50.0
Without income or less than $12,025 (%) 27.9 25.6 25.0
$12,025 to $27,814 (%) 23.4 24.0 25.0
$27,815 and over (%) 48.7 50.4 50.0
$27,815 to $51,304 (%) 22.0 23.8 25.0
$51,305 and over (%) 26.8 26.6 25.0
$80,420 and over (top 10 percent) (%) 12.1 11.3 10.0
$102,305 and over (top 5 percent) (%) 6.4 5.5 5.0
$191,150 and over (top 1 percent) (%) 1.6 1.1 1.0

A national map showing the spatial distribution of persons with total income in the top five percent of persons with the highest total income is also available. Canada. Percentage of population in top five percent of total income in 2010 by 2011 census division (CD)

Employment income

Of those persons with employment income in Toronto, 53.4% worked full year, full timeIncome Footnote 4 in 2010 compared to 52.2% in Ontario. The median employment income was $50,787 for these workers ($50,116 for those in Ontario).

The top three most common occupations for those working full-year full-time in 2010 in Toronto were Retail and wholesale trade managers; Retail salespersons; and Financial auditors and accountants.

Table 3 – Median earnings of the most common full-year, full-time occupations in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

The following table presents the most common occupations for full-year, full-time workers in 2010. The column headings are: population with earnings who worked full-year, full-time in 2010, Toronto divided into number and median earnings in dollars and Ontario and Canada divided in median earnings in dollars. The rows are the most common occupations.

Table 3 – Median earnings of the most common full-year, full-time occupations in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Population with earnings who worked full-year, full-time in 2010Income Footnote 5 Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
number median earnings ($) median earnings ($) median earnings ($)
Retail and wholesale trade managers 43,745 44,017 43,522 42,697
Retail salespersons 39,765 31,760 30,927 30,249
Financial auditors and accountants 35,455 64,916 66,394 62,765

Family income

The median after-tax income of economic families in Toronto in 2010 was $73,947, the median for couple families was $80,551 and for lone-parent families, $46,567. For persons not in economic families (persons living alone or with non relatives only), the median after-tax income was $28,401.

These compare to the medians in Ontario of $71,128 for after-tax family income of all economic families, $76,951 for couple families, $44,398 for lone-parent families and $27,319 for persons living alone or without relatives.

Table 4 – Median after-tax income in 2010 for economic families and persons not in economic families, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows median after-tax income in 2010 by economic family structure and sex. The column headings are: economic family structure and sex, Toronto divided into number and median after-tax income in dollars and Ontario and Canada divided into median after-tax income in dollars. The rows are: all economic families (couple families, lone-parent families, other economic families); persons not in economic families (males, females).

Table 4 – Median after-tax income in 2010 for economic families and persons not in economic families, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Economic family structure and sex Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
number median after-tax income ($) median after-tax income ($) median after-tax income ($)
All economic families 1,467,245 73,947 71,128 67,044
Couple families 1,195,595 80,551 76,951 72,356
Lone-parent families 227,990 46,567 44,398 42,401
Other economic families 43,660 63,099 59,837 55,484
Persons not in economic families 667,375 28,401 27,319 25,761
Males 309,955 30,138 29,422 28,197
Females 357,425 27,076 25,823 23,917

Figure 2 Median after-tax income in 2010 for Toronto, Ontario and Canada

Figure description

The following vertical bar figure shows the median after-tax income in 2010 by economic family structure and sex. The y-axis is the median after-tax income in dollars. The x-axis is economic family structure and sex including: all economic families; couple families; lone-parent families; other economic families; persons not in economic families; males not in economic families and females not in economic families.

Families came in different sizes and larger families may have benefited from pooling of resources and economies of scale. In Toronto, based on their after-tax income adjusted for family size, 53.7% of the population was in the top half of the income distribution, similar to the rate of 53.5% in Ontario.

In Toronto, the percentage of the population in the lowest income decile groupIncome Footnote 6 at 10.0% was similar to that in Ontario (9.3%). The percentage of the population in the highest decile group was 13.8%, higher than in Ontario (11.6%).

Table 5 – Population in private households by adjusted after-tax family income in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

The following table shows the population in private households by adjusted after-tax income in 2010. The column headings are: percentage of private households in decile groups of adjusted after-tax income in 2010, Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The rows are: population in private households as count, decile groups.

Table 5 – Population in private households by adjusted after-tax family income in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Population in private households by decile groups of adjusted after-tax income in 2010 Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Population in private households (count) 5,521,235 12,651,795 32,852,320
In bottom half of Canadian distribution (%) 46.3 46.5 50.0
In lowest decile (%) 10.0 9.3 10.0
In second decile (%) 9.5 9.1 10.0
In third decile (%) 9.0 9.3 10.0
In fourth decile (%) 8.8 9.3 10.0
In fifth decile (%) 8.9 9.5 10.0
In top half of Canadian distribution (%) 53.7 53.5 50.0
In sixth decile (%) 9.1 9.8 10.0
In seventh decile (%) 9.5 10.1 10.0
In eighth decile (%) 10.1 10.7 10.0
In ninth decile (%) 11.3 11.3 10.0
In highest decile (%) 13.8 11.6 10.0

Low incomeIncome Footnote 7

In the NHS, a relative measure is used to classify persons by income status: the low-income measure based on after-tax income (LIM-AT). For this measure, the income threshold is half the Canadian median of after-tax household income. The income has been adjusted to account for household size. Persons in households with a household income below this thresholdIncome Footnote 8 were considered to be in low income.

Based on the after-tax income low-income measure, the proportion of the population in low income in Toronto was 14.9%, above the rate of 13.9% observed in Ontario. In Toronto, compared to the population of all ages, for persons under 18, the rate was higher (18.3%) and for the population aged 65 years and over, it was lower at 9.7%.

Table 6 – Income status based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows income status based on the after-tax low-income measure in 2010. The column headings are: income status, Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The rows are: total - persons in private households for income status statistics (count); proportion in low income (based on LIM-AT) in percentage; under 18 years in percentage; under 6 years in percentage; 18 to 64 in percentage; 65 years and over in percentage.

Table 6 – Income status based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) in 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Income status Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Total - Persons in private households for low income (count)Income Footnote 9 5,521,000 12,600,230 32,386,170
Proportion in low income (based on LIM-AT) (%) 14.9 13.9 14.9
Under 18 years (%) 18.3 17.3 17.3
Under 6 years (%) 18.5 18.4 18.1
18 to 64 years (%) 14.7 13.9 14.4
65 years and over (%) 9.7 8.3 13.4

A map showing the proportion of the population in low income within Toronto CMA is also available.

Note(s):

Footnote 1

Market income includes income from all non-government sources such as employment, investments, private pensions and spousal or child support payments.

Income return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Government transfers include Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security (OAS) pension and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, Employment Insurance benefits, child benefits and other income from government sources.

Income return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

The population aged 15 years and over without income and those with negative income are included at the bottom of the distribution.

Income return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Full-year, full-time: worked 49 to 52 weeks, mainly full-time.

Income return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Only the most common occupations with at least 250 persons with earnings who worked full-year, full-time are presented here.

Income return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

The income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the economic families adjusted after-tax income distribution. The population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population.

Income return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

The low-income estimates from the National Household Survey (NHS) are not directly comparable to estimates from other sources such as earlier censuses or the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics but comparisons of different groups or geographies with sufficient sample size within the NHS are of good quality.

Income return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

A household of four with after-tax income below $38,920 would be considered low income and, for a person living alone, the threshold was $19,460.

Income return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

For the purposes of low-income statistics, households in the territories and in First Nations communities were excluded. The use of a statistic based only on money income could be misleading in areas where there are substantial in-kind transfers or non-cash activities. In Toronto, 235 persons in private households were excluded.

Income return to footnote 9 referrer

Housing

Housing

The number of households in Toronto was 1,989,695. The homeownership rate in Toronto was 68.3% - which was lower than the Ontario homeownership rate of 71.4%.

Table 1 – Housing tenure for all households, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the number and percentage of households by housing tenure for Toronto, Ontario. The column headings are: housing tenure; Toronto, Ontario and Canada showing number and percentage. The rows are: total households; owner and renter.

Table 1 – Housing tenure for all households, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Housing tenure Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
number percentage percentage percentage
Total households 1,989,695 100.0 100.0 100.0
Owner 1,358,620 68.3 71.4 69.0
Renter 631,070 31.7 28.4 30.6

Toronto – AffordabilityHousing Footnote 1

Households in Toronto that paid 30% or more of household total income toward shelter costs represented 31.8% of non-farm, non-reserve households with total income greater than zero. This proportion was higher than the Ontario proportion (27.0%).

A lower proportion of owner households paid 30% or more compared to tenant households in Toronto (26.6% for owners versus 43.2% for renters).

Households in Toronto paid an average monthly shelter cost of $1,366 – which was higher than the Ontario amount of $1,181. The average monthly shelter cost for tenant households was $1,043, this was lower than the average monthly shelter cost for owner households of $1,516.

Table 2 – Housing affordability for non-farm, non-reserve households, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the percentage of households spending 30% or more of 2010 total income on shelter costs for the selected geography. The column headings are: housing indicator; housing tenure; Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The rows are: percentage of households spending 30% or more of 2010 total income on shelter costs and average monthly shelter cost ($). Both are further divided into total, owner and renter.

Table 2 – Housing affordability for non-farm, non-reserve households, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Housing indicator Housing tenure Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Percentage of households spending 30% or more of 2010 total
income on shelter costsHousing Table 2 Footnote 1
Total 31.8 27.0 25.2
Owner 26.6 20.9 18.5
Renter 43.2 42.3 40.1
Average monthly shelter cost ($) Total 1,366 1,181 1,050
Owner 1,516 1,284 1,141
Renter 1,043 926 848

Table note(s):

Footnote 1

Excludes households with zero or negative income in 2010.

Housing: Return to footnote 2-1 referrer

Toronto – Need for major repairsHousing Footnote 2

In Toronto, 6.0% of households reported living in dwellings that required major repairs. This was lower than the Ontario proportion of 6.6%. The proportion of households reporting major repair requirements was lower for owners than renters (4.5% for owner-occupied dwellings and 9.2% for renter-occupied dwellings).

Table 3 – Need for major repairs by housing tenure, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows percentage of households who reported that their dwelling was in need of major repairs. The column headings are: housing indicator; housing tenure; Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The row under housing indicator is: percentage of households reporting that their dwelling was in need of major repairs, which is further divided into total, owner and renter.

Table 3 – Need for major repairs by housing tenure, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Housing indicator Housing tenure Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Percentage of households reporting that their dwelling
was in need of major repairs
Total 6.0 6.6 7.4
Owner 4.5 5.4 6.4
Renter 9.2 9.6 9.1

Toronto – Suitability

In Toronto, 11.2% of households lived in dwellings that were not suitable; that is, the dwelling was crowded because there were not enough bedrooms based on the National Occupancy Standard.Housing Footnote 3 This was higher than the Ontario proportion of 7.2%. The proportion of households living in dwellings that were not suitable was lower for owners than renters (7.2% for owner households and 19.9% for renter households).

Table 4 – Housing suitability by housing tenure, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Table summary

This table shows percentage of households living in dwellings that were not suitable. The column headings are: housing indicator; housing tenure; Toronto, Ontario and Canada. The rows are: percentage of households living in dwellings that were not suitable, which is further divided into total, owner and renter.

Table 4 – Housing suitability by housing tenure, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Housing indicator Housing tenure Toronto (CMA) Ontario Canada
Percentage of households living
in dwellings that were not suitable
Total 11.2 7.2 6.0
Owner 7.2 4.7 3.8
Renter 19.9 13.5 10.6

Toronto – Condominium by period of construction

Out of the 1,989,695 households in Toronto, 371,750 lived in condominium dwellings.

Of dwellings built between 2001 and 2011, 136,165 (35.1%) were condominiums. Of dwellings built between 1991 and 2000, 63,540 (24.4%) were condominiums. Between 1981 and 1990, 68,880 (20.9%) were condominiums, and, for 1980 or before, 103,160 (10.2%) were condominiums.

Figure description

This stacked vertical bar chart shows the percentage of condominiums and non-condominiums by period of construction. The y-axis is percentage and x-axis is period of construction including: 1980 or before; 1981 to 1990; 1991 to 2000; 2001 to 2011 and total.

Note(s):

Footnote 1

In 1986, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) and the provinces agreed to use the 30% threshold to measure affordability for the purposes of defining need for social housing. This agreement was reached during the development of the federal/provincial social housing programs.

Housing return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

The need for major repairs is based on the judgment of the respondent. Examples of major repairs provided to respondents included defective plumbing or electrical wiring, structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings, etc.

Housing return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

Housing return to footnote 3 referrer

Symbol(s):

Footnote Symbols

... not applicable

.. not available for a specific reference period