2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Selected Demographic, Sociocultural and Labour Characteristics (168), Income Statistics in 2010 (3B) and Total Income Groups (7) for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 2011 National Household Survey

Data table

Select data categories for this table


This table details selected demographic, sociocultural and labour characteristics , income statistics in 2010 and total income groups for the population aged 15 years and over in private households in CanadaFootnote 2
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 3 = 26.1 %
Selected demographic, sociocultural and labour characteristics (168) Total income groups (7)
Total - Total income groupsFootnote 4 Lowest 90 percentFootnote 5 Highest 10 percent Lowest 95 percentFootnote 6 Highest 5 percent Lowest 99 percentFootnote 7 Highest 1 percent
Total - SexFootnote 8 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,545 1,362,975 26,986,925 272,600
Male 13,295,350 11,411,540 1,883,815 12,280,910 1,014,445 13,078,550 216,805
Female 13,964,170 13,122,035 842,135 13,615,640 348,535 13,908,375 55,795
Total - Age groupsFootnote 9 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,545 1,362,975 26,986,925 272,600
15 to 24 years 4,324,065 4,309,190 14,875 4,318,665 5,400 4,323,705 365
25 to 54 years 14,044,940 12,134,215 1,910,730 13,121,290 923,645 13,875,080 169,865
25 to 34 years 4,293,950 4,008,240 285,715 4,182,405 111,550 4,282,340 11,605
35 to 44 years 4,461,430 3,757,310 704,125 4,127,445 333,990 4,402,170 59,265
45 to 54 years 5,289,560 4,368,670 920,890 4,811,445 478,115 5,190,570 98,995
55 to 64 years 4,338,980 3,760,540 578,440 4,025,060 313,915 4,269,330 69,645
65 years and over 4,551,540 4,329,630 221,910 4,431,525 120,010 4,518,805 32,730
65 to 74 years 2,624,535 2,473,695 150,840 2,541,010 83,525 2,601,405 23,135
75 years and over 1,927,000 1,855,930 71,075 1,890,520 36,485 1,917,405 9,600
Population in private households by marital statusFootnote 10 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,950 25,896,545 1,362,980 26,986,925 272,600
Married or living with a common-law partner 16,005,320 13,843,310 2,162,015 14,893,600 1,111,720 15,774,365 230,955
Married (and not separated) 12,878,850 11,025,405 1,853,445 11,910,195 968,660 12,671,905 206,945
Living common law 3,126,475 2,817,900 308,570 2,983,410 143,065 3,102,465 24,010
Not married and not living with a common-law partner 11,254,200 10,690,260 563,940 11,002,945 251,255 11,212,555 41,645
Single (never legally married) 7,596,680 7,326,645 270,035 7,485,150 111,535 7,581,160 15,525
Separated 662,580 593,400 69,180 629,430 33,150 656,765 5,815
Divorced 1,647,790 1,483,390 164,395 1,570,660 77,130 1,633,945 13,840
Widowed 1,347,150 1,286,820 60,325 1,317,705 29,445 1,340,685 6,460
Total - Household living arrangementsFootnote 11 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,550 1,362,980 26,986,925 272,600
Total persons in households with at least one census family 22,371,210 20,030,800 2,340,415 21,184,695 1,186,510 22,129,580 241,635
Married spouses, common-law partners 15,776,200 13,631,935 2,144,265 14,673,985 1,102,220 15,547,615 228,585
Lone parents 1,499,375 1,370,815 128,565 1,442,710 56,665 1,490,120 9,260
Children in families with two parents present 3,154,735 3,129,100 25,630 3,145,035 9,700 3,153,620 1,115
Children in families with one parent present 1,248,310 1,230,035 18,275 1,241,065 7,240 1,247,235 1,075
Persons not in census families, living with relativesFootnote 12 415,510 403,960 11,550 410,235 5,275 414,605 900
Persons not in census families, living with non-relatives only 277,085 264,950 12,135 271,670 5,415 276,390 695
Total persons in non-census family households 4,888,315 4,502,770 385,540 4,711,850 176,465 4,857,345 30,970
Living with relativesFootnote 13 261,895 250,400 11,500 257,210 4,685 261,205 685
Living with non-relatives only 963,620 919,695 43,920 944,565 19,055 961,000 2,615
Living alone 3,662,800 3,332,680 330,120 3,510,075 152,725 3,635,130 27,670
Total - Economic family status and economic family structureFootnote 14 27,259,525 24,533,575 2,725,955 25,896,550 1,362,975 26,986,920 272,600
Economic family persons 22,356,025 20,016,250 2,339,775 21,170,240 1,185,785 22,114,400 241,625
Couple family 19,214,360 17,040,655 2,173,700 18,100,860 1,113,500 18,984,385 229,975
Couple only 6,939,095 6,217,040 722,060 6,570,230 368,865 6,861,970 77,125
Couple with children 11,980,455 10,549,490 1,430,960 11,245,840 734,610 11,829,250 151,200
Couple with other relatives only 294,810 274,130 20,680 284,780 10,025 293,165 1,640
Lone-parent family 2,596,275 2,454,110 142,160 2,533,930 62,340 2,586,005 10,270
Female-parent family 2,053,010 1,964,170 88,835 2,018,390 34,615 2,048,005 5,005
Female-parent family with no other relatives 1,921,935 1,837,270 84,660 1,889,005 32,930 1,917,145 4,785
Male-parent family 543,265 489,935 53,325 515,540 27,730 538,000 5,265
Male-parent family with no other relatives 509,015 457,430 51,585 482,065 26,945 503,905 5,110
Other economic familyFootnote 15 545,390 521,475 23,910 535,455 9,935 544,010 1,380
Persons not in an economic family 4,903,500 4,517,325 386,180 4,726,305 177,190 4,872,525 30,980
Total - Population by Aboriginal identity 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,950 25,896,550 1,362,980 26,986,925 272,600
Aboriginal identityFootnote 16 1,008,580 953,120 55,460 985,125 23,460 1,005,855 2,730
First Nations (North American Indian) single identityFootnote 17 592,760 569,300 23,460 583,595 9,170 591,785 975
Métis single identity 347,380 320,980 26,405 335,600 11,780 345,895 1,480
Inuk (Inuit) single identity 39,285 35,925 3,360 37,800 1,475 39,190 85
Multiple Aboriginal identitiesFootnote 18 7,690 7,295 395 7,510 180 7,665 25
Aboriginal identities not included elsewhereFootnote 19 21,465 19,625 1,840 20,615 850 21,310 155
Non-Aboriginal identity 26,250,945 23,580,445 2,670,495 24,911,425 1,339,520 25,981,070 269,870
Total - Population by Registered or Treaty Indian statusFootnote 20 27,259,520 24,533,575 2,725,950 25,896,545 1,362,980 26,986,925 272,600
Registered or Treaty IndianFootnote 21 489,705 471,260 18,445 482,190 7,515 488,835 870
Not a Registered or Treaty Indian 26,769,825 24,062,315 2,707,510 25,414,355 1,355,465 26,498,095 271,730
Total - Population by Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 22 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,550 1,362,975 26,986,925 272,600
Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 23 1,329,985 1,246,815 83,170 1,293,665 36,320 1,325,310 4,675
First Nations (North American Indian) ancestryFootnote 24 988,640 934,480 54,165 965,185 23,455 985,485 3,160
Métis ancestry 329,650 302,195 27,455 317,500 12,155 328,155 1,495
Inuit ancestry 47,815 43,615 4,200 45,890 1,925 47,665 150
Non-Aboriginal ancestry onlyFootnote 25 25,929,535 23,286,755 2,642,785 24,602,880 1,326,655 25,661,615 267,925
Total - Generation statusFootnote 26 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,950 25,896,545 1,362,975 26,986,925 272,600
First generationFootnote 27 6,777,370 6,169,375 607,995 6,463,945 313,430 6,712,325 65,045
Second generationFootnote 28 4,207,485 3,699,375 508,110 3,949,990 257,490 4,151,845 55,640
Third generation or moreFootnote 29 16,274,670 14,664,820 1,609,845 15,482,610 792,055 16,122,755 151,920
Total - Population by visible minorityFootnote 30 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,950 25,896,550 1,362,975 26,986,920 272,600
Total visible minority populationFootnote 31 4,917,190 4,565,595 351,595 4,747,410 169,775 4,887,180 30,010
South AsianFootnote 32 1,204,905 1,111,260 93,645 1,157,855 47,050 1,195,845 9,055
Chinese 1,115,085 1,016,015 99,070 1,066,155 48,930 1,106,345 8,740
Black 690,715 652,405 38,305 674,925 15,785 688,645 2,070
Filipino 491,710 463,785 27,925 480,985 10,720 490,520 1,190
Latin American 313,065 296,720 16,350 305,350 7,715 311,980 1,090
Arab 281,105 261,855 19,245 270,500 10,600 278,720 2,380
Southeast AsianFootnote 33 252,005 235,815 16,185 244,240 7,765 250,605 1,400
West AsianFootnote 34 168,175 156,490 11,690 161,975 6,205 166,950 1,225
Korean 133,245 125,570 7,675 128,995 4,250 132,360 890
Japanese 69,865 61,875 7,985 65,545 4,315 68,825 1,035
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 35 82,625 77,345 5,285 80,165 2,460 82,205 420
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 36 114,695 106,470 8,220 110,720 3,975 114,190 505
Not a visible minorityFootnote 37 22,342,335 19,967,970 2,374,360 21,149,135 1,193,200 22,099,745 242,590
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 38 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,550 1,362,980 26,986,925 272,600
Non-immigrantsFootnote 39 20,543,695 18,415,900 2,127,800 19,488,585 1,055,110 20,334,950 208,745
ImmigrantsFootnote 40 6,398,850 5,817,455 581,390 6,100,640 298,210 6,338,355 60,495
Before 1981 2,131,835 1,880,245 251,585 1,994,310 137,525 2,099,770 32,065
1981 to 1990 949,895 846,480 103,410 897,685 52,210 939,790 10,100
1991 to 2000 1,510,065 1,386,560 123,505 1,451,620 58,440 1,500,710 9,355
2001 to 2009 1,565,025 1,468,570 96,455 1,518,505 46,525 1,556,775 8,250
2001 to 2005 866,860 804,075 62,785 837,715 29,150 861,970 4,895
2006 to 2009 698,160 664,495 33,670 680,790 17,370 694,805 3,355
Total - Mother tongueFootnote 41 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,550 1,362,975 26,986,925 272,600
English 15,258,565 13,456,995 1,801,565 14,345,900 912,665 15,071,675 186,890
French 5,889,225 5,460,825 428,395 5,686,030 203,190 5,851,020 38,205
Non-official language 5,756,460 5,287,785 468,670 5,522,470 233,990 5,711,220 45,235
Aboriginal 149,965 144,260 5,710 147,655 2,315 149,805 165
Non-Aboriginal 5,606,485 5,143,525 462,965 5,374,815 231,670 5,561,425 45,070
English and French 42,640 39,805 2,835 41,215 1,420 42,360 275
English and non-official language 260,870 239,375 21,500 250,570 10,305 259,080 1,790
French and non-official language 47,630 44,830 2,805 46,310 1,320 47,440 190
English, French and non-official language 4,140 3,955 185 4,055 80 4,130 0
Total - First official language spokenFootnote 42 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,550 1,362,975 26,986,925 272,600
English 20,277,305 18,021,070 2,256,235 19,138,045 1,139,265 20,047,010 230,300
French 6,252,555 5,808,365 444,190 6,041,870 210,690 6,212,740 39,815
English and French 289,905 270,975 18,930 280,230 9,680 288,050 1,860
Neither English nor French 439,755 433,160 6,595 436,405 3,345 439,125 630
Total - Highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 43 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,545 1,362,980 26,986,920 272,600
No certificate, diploma or degree 5,485,395 5,379,485 105,915 5,437,020 48,380 5,477,235 8,165
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 44 6,968,935 6,628,805 340,130 6,809,845 159,090 6,942,715 26,225
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 45 14,805,195 12,525,285 2,279,910 13,649,685 1,155,505 14,566,980 238,210
Postsecondary certificate or diploma below bachelor level 9,120,835 8,210,805 910,030 8,709,505 411,335 9,065,545 55,290
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 46 2,950,685 2,697,210 253,475 2,834,905 115,780 2,937,545 13,140
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 4,970,020 4,465,415 504,610 4,746,905 223,115 4,940,320 29,700
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 47 1,200,130 1,048,180 151,950 1,127,690 72,440 1,187,675 12,450
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 5,684,360 4,314,480 1,369,880 4,940,185 744,175 5,501,435 182,920
Bachelor's degree 3,634,425 2,884,760 749,660 3,249,595 384,830 3,547,810 86,615
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 48 2,049,935 1,429,720 620,215 1,690,590 359,345 1,953,625 96,310
Total - Major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 49 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,545 1,362,975 26,986,920 272,600
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 50 12,454,335 12,008,290 446,045 12,246,860 207,470 12,419,945 34,385
Education 1,109,455 936,540 172,920 1,063,130 46,325 1,104,550 4,910
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 548,630 511,085 37,545 532,200 16,425 546,130 2,500
Humanities 821,590 725,165 96,425 775,920 45,675 812,800 8,795
Social and behavioural sciences and law 1,497,755 1,260,145 237,610 1,362,500 135,250 1,462,165 35,590
Business, management and public administration 3,187,570 2,689,645 497,930 2,900,860 286,710 3,116,930 70,645
Physical and life sciences and technologies 554,675 444,870 109,810 495,395 59,285 543,195 11,485
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 601,705 485,445 116,260 546,305 55,395 594,470 7,240
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 3,193,970 2,596,750 597,220 2,882,800 311,170 3,145,225 48,745
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 326,230 285,200 41,030 307,200 19,030 323,675 2,555
Health and related fieldsFootnote 51 2,060,605 1,766,675 293,930 1,914,060 146,540 2,018,020 42,585
Personal, protective and transportation services 900,005 821,020 78,985 866,415 33,585 896,840 3,165
Other fields of studyFootnote 52 2,995 2,740 250 2,880 110 2,990 0
Total - Industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 53 27,259,525 24,533,570 2,725,955 25,896,545 1,362,980 26,986,920 272,600
Industry - Not applicableFootnote 54 8,126,220 7,980,860 145,355 8,058,115 68,100 8,110,900 15,315
All industriesFootnote 55 19,133,310 16,552,705 2,580,600 17,838,430 1,294,880 18,876,020 257,285
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 485,495 459,065 26,425 472,920 12,570 482,985 2,510
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 276,345 149,295 127,045 191,305 85,040 256,745 19,600
22 Utilities 158,935 87,710 71,225 117,915 41,025 154,805 4,130
23 Construction 1,309,595 1,149,825 159,770 1,230,230 79,365 1,295,480 14,115
31-33 Manufacturing 1,722,465 1,470,955 251,510 1,600,760 121,710 1,703,040 19,430
41 Wholesale trade 776,805 633,425 143,385 692,670 84,135 758,760 18,050
44-45 Retail trade 2,244,470 2,132,950 111,520 2,186,655 57,815 2,233,650 10,830
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 884,070 787,930 96,140 837,770 46,295 877,260 6,810
51 Information and cultural industries 450,110 368,580 81,530 409,670 40,440 442,700 7,415
52 Finance and insurance 811,990 631,470 180,520 704,485 107,500 780,660 31,325
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 349,595 297,820 51,780 319,045 30,545 341,135 8,465
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1,339,015 1,029,590 309,425 1,149,955 189,055 1,292,680 46,330
55 Management of companies and enterprises 19,075 14,365 4,710 15,965 3,110 17,750 1,325
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 812,155 771,230 40,920 790,815 21,340 807,695 4,460
61 Educational services 1,432,160 1,175,265 256,895 1,349,040 83,115 1,423,760 8,400
62 Health care and social assistance 2,089,385 1,835,320 254,070 1,971,375 118,010 2,053,585 35,800
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 436,280 417,575 18,710 427,350 8,930 434,610 1,675
72 Accommodation and food services 1,289,260 1,268,460 20,800 1,278,730 10,530 1,286,980 2,280
81 Other services (except public administration) 882,275 822,265 60,005 853,615 28,655 878,090 4,185
91 Public administration 1,363,830 1,049,610 314,220 1,238,150 125,680 1,353,665 10,165
Total - Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 56 27,259,520 24,533,570 2,725,950 25,896,545 1,362,975 26,986,920 272,600
Occupation - Not applicableFootnote 57 8,126,220 7,980,860 145,355 8,058,115 68,100 8,110,900 15,315
All occupationsFootnote 58 19,133,305 16,552,710 2,580,600 17,838,435 1,294,875 18,876,020 257,290
0 Management occupations 2,056,205 1,390,455 665,750 1,638,450 417,750 1,956,390 99,815
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 3,143,880 2,820,835 323,045 2,981,375 162,505 3,108,665 35,225
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 1,306,595 933,760 372,835 1,121,820 184,770 1,281,235 25,360
3 Health occupations 1,175,800 952,555 223,245 1,064,220 111,585 1,138,890 36,910
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 2,249,275 1,835,965 413,305 2,093,305 155,970 2,221,050 28,220
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 591,345 556,790 34,555 576,340 15,005 588,775 2,570
6 Sales and service occupations 4,560,915 4,408,315 152,605 4,483,310 77,605 4,546,980 13,935
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,717,625 2,442,445 275,180 2,606,720 110,905 2,708,790 8,830
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 460,940 418,215 42,730 436,730 24,220 457,755 3,190
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 870,730 793,375 77,355 836,160 34,570 867,500 3,230

Symbol(s)

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not available for a specific reference period

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not applicable

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suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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too unreliable to be published

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, Old Age Security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employers contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excluded gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions, as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median.

Exceptionally, in this table, median income is calculated from all the individuals in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54) either with or without income.

Average income of individuals - Exceptionally, in this table, refers to the weighted mean total income of all individuals aged 15 and over whether they reported income for 2010 or not.

Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54) by the number of individuals in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated in this table for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age whether they have an income (positive or negative) or not.

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Footnote 2

Excludes National Household Survey data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 3

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, Old Age Security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

The percentiles of the distribution were calculated for the population aged 15 years and over in private households of Canada with income and without income (with an income of zero). The total income groups are such that the indicated percentage of the Canadian population aged 15 years and over in private households is in each group.

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Footnote 5

A total income of less than $80,420 is required to be in the lowest 90 percent.

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Footnote 6

A total income of less than $102,305 is required to be in the lowest 95 percent.

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Footnote 7

A total income of less than $191,147 is required to be in the lowest 99 percent.

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Footnote 8

Sex
Part A - Short definition
Not applicable

Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to whether the person is male or female.

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Footnote 9

Age
Part A - Short definition
Not applicable

Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Marital status
Refers to the marital status of the person, taking into account his/her common-law status. Persons who are married or living common law may be of opposite sex or of the same sex. The classification is as follows:
Married (and not separated): A person who is married and has not separated or obtained a divorce, and whose spouse is living.

Common-law: A person who is living with another person as a couple but who is not legally married to that person.

Separated: A person who is married but who no longer lives with his/her spouse (for any reason other than illness, work or school) and who has not obtained a divorce. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Divorced: A person who has obtained a legal divorce and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Widowed: A person who has lost his/her spouse through death and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Single (never legally married): A person who has never married or a person whose marriage has been annulled and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Household living arrangements
Part A - Short definition
Refers to the classification of persons as members of a family household or of a non-family household, and whether they are family persons or persons not in a census family.

Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to the classification of persons as members of a family household or of a non-family household, that is, whether or not they are living in a household that contains at least one census family, and whether they are members of a census family or not in a census family. Persons not in census families are further classified as living with relatives, living with non-relatives (only) or living alone.

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Footnote 12

Non-relatives may be present.

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Footnote 13

Non-relatives may be present.

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Footnote 14

Economic family status - Refers to the classification of the population according to whether or not the persons are members of an economic family.

Economic family persons refer to two or more household members who are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship, and thereby constitute an economic family.

Persons not in economic families refer to household members who do not belong to an economic family, including persons living alone.

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.

Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.

Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.

Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 15

This category includes economic families where the reference person does not have a spouse or partner, nor a child in the family, only other relatives.

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Footnote 16

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 17

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey, 2011.


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Footnote 18

'Multiple Aboriginal identities' includes persons who reported being any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 19

'Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere' includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who did report Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 20

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey, 2011.

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Footnote 21

Registered or Treaty Indian Status refers to whether or not a person reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian.
'Registered or Treaty Indian' includes persons who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian in Question 20. Registered Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada. Treaty Indians are persons who belong to a First Nation or Indian band that signed a treaty with the Crown. Registered or Treaty Indians are sometimes also called Status Indians.

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Footnote 22

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ancestries in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ancestry (ethnic origin) in the NHS.

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Footnote 23

'Aboriginal ancestry' includes persons who reported one or more than one of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17, either with or without also reporting a non-Aboriginal ancestry. The sum of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry', 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' is thus greater than the sum of the total for 'Aboriginal ancestry' because persons who reported more than one Aboriginal ancestry are included in the response category for each Aboriginal ancestry they reported. All respondents with Aboriginal ancestry are counted in at least one of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry,' 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' and also in the category 'Aboriginal ancestry.'
Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent's ancestors, an ancestor being usually more distant than a grandparent. A person can have more than one ethnic or cultural origin.

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Footnote 24

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey, 2011.

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Footnote 25

'Non-Aboriginal ancestry only' includes persons who did not report First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17.

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Footnote 26

Generation status
Part A - Short definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 27

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 28

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 29

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 30

Visible minority
Part A - Short definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed definition
Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.' The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups:  South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

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Footnote 31

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 32

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

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Footnote 33

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Malaysian,' 'Laotian,' etc.

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Footnote 34

For example, 'Iranian,' 'Afghan,' etc.

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Footnote 35

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 36

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 37

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 38

Immigrant status refers to whether the respondent is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status.

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Non-permanent residents are not included elsewhere in this table.

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Footnote 39

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 40

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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The income data for the National Household Survey are for the year 2010. By agreement, landed immigrants who arrived in Canada between January 1, 2011 and May 10, 2011 have an income equal to zero. It is also possible that landed immigrants who arrived during the course of the year 2010 did not have a complete year of applicable revenues. Consequently, these two groups of immigrants are excluded from the detailed distribution by period of immigration. They are, however included in the category 'Immigrants.'

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Footnote 41

Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 42

First official language spoken
Part A - Short definition
Not applicable

Part B - Detailed definition
Refers to a variable specified within the framework of the Official Languages Act.

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Footnote 43

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 44

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 45

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 46

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 47

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below bachelor level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below bachelor level' category with caution.

For any other comments on data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 48

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 49

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.

For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.

We recommend that users not make comparisons between categories of the CIP Canada 2011 and the CIP Canada 2000 classification systems on the basis of their labels. Even though many entries in the two classifications are similar, direct comparison could be inappropriate, given the numerous changes made at the detailed level to update the classification.

For comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 50

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 51

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 52

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 53

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 54

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 55

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 56

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

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Footnote 57

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 58

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011036.

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