2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Visible Minority (15), Age Groups (10), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (315) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey

Data table

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This table details visible minority , age groups , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households in CanadaFootnote 1
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 2 = 26.1 %
Selected demographic, cultural, educational, labour force and income characteristics (315) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total population aged 15 years and over in private households by marital statusFootnote 3 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,175
Married or living with a common-law partner 16,005,325 8,000,270 8,005,050
Married (and not separated) 12,878,845 6,432,395 6,446,450
Living common law 3,126,470 1,567,875 1,558,595
Not married and not living with a common-law partner 11,254,205 5,295,080 5,959,125
Single (never legally married) 7,596,685 4,097,675 3,499,010
Separated 662,585 278,435 384,145
Divorced 1,647,790 650,715 997,080
Widowed 1,347,150 268,260 1,078,890
Total - Census family statusFootnote 4 32,852,320 16,163,110 16,689,210
Married spouses 12,649,725 6,327,325 6,322,400
Common-law partners 3,126,475 1,567,875 1,558,600
Lone parents 1,499,380 312,860 1,186,520
Children in census families 9,950,695 5,294,085 4,656,610
Persons not in census familiesFootnote 5 5,626,050 2,660,970 2,965,085
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 6 32,485,220 15,975,755 16,509,460
Non-movers 28,443,525 13,983,140 14,460,390
Movers 4,041,695 1,992,620 2,049,070
Non-migrants 2,380,370 1,173,165 1,207,210
Migrants 1,661,320 819,455 841,860
Internal migrants 1,359,105 670,375 688,735
Intraprovincial migrants 1,116,780 548,335 568,445
Interprovincial migrants 242,325 122,035 120,285
External migrants 302,215 149,085 153,130
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 7 30,978,635 15,204,695 15,773,935
Non-movers 19,010,730 9,329,115 9,681,615
Movers 11,967,905 5,875,585 6,092,320
Non-migrants 6,467,765 3,172,145 3,295,620
Migrants 5,500,140 2,703,440 2,796,700
Internal migrants 4,297,730 2,115,465 2,182,270
Intraprovincial migrants 3,442,065 1,683,045 1,759,020
Interprovincial migrants 855,670 432,420 423,250
External migrants 1,202,410 587,975 614,435
Total population by mother tongueFootnote 8 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
English 18,850,405 9,350,965 9,499,440
French 6,967,455 3,424,400 3,543,055
Non-official language 6,551,520 3,152,265 3,399,250
English and French 57,820 28,175 29,640
English and non-official language 353,530 171,050 182,480
French and non-official language 65,315 32,995 32,320
English, French and non-official language 6,280 3,255 3,025
Total population by language spoken most often at homeFootnote 9 32,852,325 16,163,110 16,689,210
English 21,468,335 10,601,675 10,866,660
French 6,790,375 3,343,720 3,446,650
Non-official language 3,710,730 1,787,310 1,923,420
English and French 60,520 29,240 31,285
English and non-official language 714,595 348,275 366,320
French and non-official language 96,315 47,220 49,090
English, French and non-official language 11,460 5,675 5,785
Total population by knowledge of official languagesFootnote 10 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
English only 22,415,260 11,162,245 11,253,010
French only 4,108,885 1,907,555 2,201,330
English and French 5,772,255 2,870,295 2,901,955
Neither English nor French 555,920 223,010 332,910
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 11 19,133,310 9,920,580 9,212,730
English 14,622,905 7,610,350 7,012,555
French 3,831,535 1,963,650 1,867,885
Non-official language 251,020 129,225 121,790
Aboriginal 23,825 11,990 11,835
Non-Aboriginal 227,190 117,230 109,960
English and French 317,135 162,430 154,710
English and non-official language 94,100 46,725 47,375
French and non-official language 5,180 2,420 2,760
English, French and non-official language 11,440 5,785 5,655
Total population by citizenshipFootnote 12 32,852,325 16,163,110 16,689,210
Canadian citizens 30,895,310 15,232,595 15,662,715
Canadian citizens only 29,962,645 14,773,635 15,189,010
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 932,665 458,965 473,705
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 13 1,957,015 930,520 1,026,500
Total population in private households by immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 14 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
Non-immigrantsFootnote 15 25,720,175 12,753,230 12,966,940
ImmigrantsFootnote 16 6,775,770 3,231,365 3,544,400
Before 1971 1,261,060 605,430 655,625
1971 to 1980 870,775 416,675 454,100
1981 to 1990 949,895 454,565 495,330
1991 to 2000 1,539,055 724,905 814,150
2001 to 2011Footnote 17 2,154,990 1,029,790 1,125,200
2001 to 2005 992,075 474,545 517,530
2006 to 2011Footnote 18 1,162,915 555,245 607,670
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 19 356,380 178,510 177,870
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationFootnote 20 6,775,770 3,231,365 3,544,400
Under 5 years 671,795 332,650 339,145
5 to 14 years 1,186,050 601,425 584,620
15 to 24 years 1,540,430 698,480 841,945
25 to 44 years 2,767,110 1,320,925 1,446,185
45 years and over 610,385 277,885 332,500
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthFootnote 21 32,852,325 16,163,110 16,689,210
Non-immigrantsFootnote 22 25,720,175 12,753,235 12,966,935
Born in province of residence 21,853,870 10,848,700 11,005,170
Born outside province of residence 3,866,305 1,904,535 1,961,770
ImmigrantsFootnote 23 6,775,770 3,231,370 3,544,400
Americas 1,060,235 478,150 582,080
United States 263,470 117,030 146,440
Jamaica 126,035 52,650 73,380
Guyana 87,945 39,110 48,840
Haiti 80,100 34,785 45,310
Mexico 69,690 32,765 36,930
Trinidad and Tobago 67,205 30,150 37,055
Colombia 60,550 28,555 32,000
El Salvador 43,660 21,995 21,660
Peru 26,715 11,745 14,965
Chile 25,195 12,390 12,805
Other places of birth in Americas 209,665 96,970 112,695
Europe 2,127,785 1,033,835 1,093,955
United KingdomFootnote 24 537,040 257,285 279,755
Italy 256,820 129,970 126,855
Germany 152,345 72,335 80,015
Poland 152,290 68,850 83,435
Portugal 138,520 67,895 70,630
Netherlands 98,510 50,195 48,315
France 90,445 46,900 43,545
Romania 82,595 39,640 42,955
Russian Federation 73,030 32,945 40,085
Greece 66,475 34,090 32,385
Ukraine 65,450 29,340 36,115
Croatia 40,015 19,470 20,540
Hungary 38,985 19,190 19,790
Bosnia and Herzegovina 35,885 18,290 17,595
Serbia 32,600 15,780 16,820
Ireland, Republic of 28,035 13,480 14,555
Other places of birth in Europe 238,740 118,175 120,565
Africa 492,025 251,025 241,000
Morocco 56,275 29,560 26,715
Algeria 51,085 27,350 23,735
Egypt 49,935 26,630 23,300
South Africa, Republic of 40,550 20,075 20,480
Nigeria 27,620 14,515 13,105
Ethiopia 24,535 11,840 12,695
Kenya 24,510 11,485 13,030
Other places of birth in Africa 217,505 109,565 107,940
Asia 3,041,100 1,441,675 1,599,430
India 547,885 271,495 276,400
ChinaFootnote 25 545,535 247,815 297,715
Philippines 454,340 190,120 264,215
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 205,430 97,010 108,420
Viet NamFootnote 26 165,125 77,950 87,180
Pakistan 156,865 80,410 76,455
Sri Lanka 132,130 65,650 66,480
IranFootnote 27 120,685 61,780 58,905
Korea, SouthFootnote 28 112,400 52,815 59,585
Lebanon 81,105 43,415 37,695
Taiwan 66,455 30,555 35,895
Iraq 49,520 25,635 23,885
Bangladesh 45,325 23,405 21,915
Afghanistan 40,945 20,655 20,290
Japan 25,805 8,000 17,805
Turkey 25,270 13,425 11,855
Other places of birth in Asia 266,280 131,540 134,745
Oceania and otherFootnote 29 54,620 26,690 27,935
Fiji 24,290 11,415 12,870
Other places of birthFootnote 30 30,330 15,275 15,055
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 31 356,380 178,510 177,870
Total population in private households by generation statusFootnote 32 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
First generationFootnote 33 7,217,295 3,454,230 3,763,075
Second generationFootnote 34 5,702,725 2,840,865 2,861,865
Third generation or moreFootnote 35 19,932,300 9,868,025 10,064,275
Total population by selected religionsFootnote 36 32,852,325 16,163,115 16,689,210
Buddhist 366,830 168,465 198,365
Christian 22,102,750 10,497,770 11,604,975
Anglican 1,631,845 752,945 878,900
Baptist 635,840 293,905 341,935
Catholic 12,810,705 6,167,295 6,643,415
Christian Orthodox 550,690 270,205 280,480
Lutheran 478,185 221,525 256,660
Pentecostal 478,700 217,850 260,855
Presbyterian 472,380 218,950 253,430
United Church 2,007,610 912,550 1,095,065
Other Christian 3,036,780 1,442,550 1,594,230
Hindu 497,965 250,435 247,525
Jewish 329,495 161,265 168,235
Muslim 1,053,945 540,555 513,395
Sikh 454,960 229,435 225,530
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 64,935 31,800 33,135
Other religions 130,830 57,745 73,090
No religious affiliation 7,850,605 4,225,640 3,624,965
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 37 18,383,920 8,984,385 9,399,530
No certificate, diploma or degree 2,330,580 1,238,845 1,091,730
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 38 4,270,665 2,049,355 2,221,310
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 39 11,782,680 5,696,190 6,086,495
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 40 2,218,800 1,435,395 783,410
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 3,913,710 1,674,815 2,238,895
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 41 894,750 385,980 508,770
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 4,755,415 2,200,000 2,555,420
Bachelor's degree 3,032,225 1,358,965 1,673,255
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 42 1,723,195 841,030 882,165
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 43 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,175
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 44 12,454,330 6,048,300 6,406,035
Education 1,109,455 275,765 833,695
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 548,625 254,785 293,845
Humanities 821,590 326,875 494,720
Social and behavioural sciences and law 1,497,755 512,795 984,965
Business, management and public administration 3,187,570 1,188,985 1,998,590
Physical and life sciences and technologies 554,680 291,865 262,810
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 601,705 380,195 221,510
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 3,193,975 2,929,940 264,030
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 326,225 220,390 105,840
Health and related fieldsFootnote 45 2,060,600 393,035 1,667,570
Personal, protective and transportation services 900,000 471,705 428,300
Other fields of studyFootnote 46 2,995 725 2,270
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceFootnote 47 27,259,525 13,295,355 13,964,170
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 12,454,330 6,048,295 6,406,035
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 14,805,190 7,247,055 7,558,140
Location of study inside Canada 12,404,670 6,034,100 6,370,575
Same as province or territory of residence 10,920,860 5,283,600 5,637,260
Another province or territory 1,483,810 750,500 733,310
Location of study outside Canada 2,400,520 1,212,955 1,187,565
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusFootnote 48 27,259,520 13,295,355 13,964,175
In the labour force 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,510
Employed 16,595,035 8,634,310 7,960,725
Unemployed 1,395,050 754,260 640,790
Not in the labour force 9,269,440 3,906,785 5,362,655
Participation rate 66.0 70.6 61.6
Employment rate 60.9 64.9 57.0
Unemployment rate 7.8 8.0 7.4
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 49 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,515
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 50 402,465 197,390 205,075
All classes of workerFootnote 51 17,587,615 9,191,175 8,396,440
Employee 15,660,625 7,957,490 7,703,130
Self-employedFootnote 52 1,926,990 1,233,685 693,310
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 53 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,515
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 54 402,465 197,390 205,075
All occupationsFootnote 55 17,587,615 9,191,175 8,396,440
0 Management occupations 1,963,600 1,229,460 734,140
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 2,902,045 854,190 2,047,855
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 1,237,770 966,355 271,415
3 Health occupations 1,107,195 217,520 889,675
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 2,064,675 676,550 1,388,125
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 503,410 232,535 270,880
6 Sales and service occupations 4,068,170 1,745,710 2,322,465
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,537,775 2,385,610 152,165
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 397,925 318,945 78,980
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 805,040 564,300 240,740
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 56 17,990,080 9,388,570 8,601,510
Industry - not applicableFootnote 57 402,465 197,395 205,075
All industriesFootnote 58 17,587,615 9,191,175 8,396,440
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 437,650 307,370 130,280
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 261,045 211,695 49,355
22 Utilities 149,940 110,765 39,175
23 Construction 1,215,380 1,068,710 146,670
31-33 Manufacturing 1,619,295 1,167,680 451,615
41 Wholesale trade 733,450 494,545 238,905
44-45 Retail trade 2,031,670 933,845 1,097,820
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 827,775 617,300 210,475
51 Information and cultural industries 420,830 235,875 184,950
52 Finance and insurance 767,955 297,000 470,960
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 321,895 179,085 142,810
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1,240,850 688,625 552,225
55 Management of companies and enterprises 17,455 9,380 8,080
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 728,330 411,245 317,080
61 Educational services 1,301,435 424,915 876,520
62 Health care and social assistance 1,949,650 349,425 1,600,220
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 363,405 188,265 175,140
72 Accommodation and food services 1,130,755 469,990 660,760
81 Other services (except public administration) 807,805 372,935 434,865
91 Public administration 1,261,050 652,510 608,535
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010Footnote 59 9,473,485 5,318,585 4,154,900
Median employment income in 2010 $ 47,868 53,046 42,181
Average employment income in 2010 $ 58,129 65,400 48,820
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overFootnote 60 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,170
Without income 1,341,020 580,700 760,320
With income 25,918,505 12,714,655 13,203,850
Under $5,000Footnote 61 2,574,080 1,235,710 1,338,370
$5,000 to $9,999 1,917,965 700,655 1,217,310
$10,000 to $14,999 2,393,830 911,395 1,482,440
$15,000 to $19,999 2,441,875 953,490 1,488,385
$20,000 to $29,999 3,670,020 1,588,260 2,081,760
$30,000 to $39,999 3,180,365 1,522,190 1,658,175
$40,000 to $49,999 2,603,520 1,333,510 1,270,015
$50,000 to $59,999 1,921,650 1,079,780 841,875
$60,000 to $79,999 2,437,440 1,473,145 964,300
$80,000 to $99,999 1,302,045 823,720 478,330
$100,000 and over 1,475,715 1,092,810 382,910
$100,000 to $124,999 693,585 492,900 200,675
$125,000 and over 782,135 599,910 182,230
Median income $Footnote 62 29,878 36,211 24,606
Average income $Footnote 63 40,650 48,594 33,000
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overFootnote 64 27,259,525 13,295,350 13,964,170
Without after-tax income 1,344,640 580,760 763,880
With after-tax income 25,914,880 12,714,595 13,200,285
Under $5,000Footnote 65 2,628,615 1,249,795 1,378,815
$5,000 to $9,999 1,960,360 707,595 1,252,770
$10,000 to $14,999 2,453,170 938,990 1,514,185
$15,000 to $19,999 2,654,475 1,050,270 1,604,205
$20,000 to $29,999 4,341,540 1,936,660 2,404,880
$30,000 to $39,999 3,790,600 1,884,995 1,905,605
$40,000 to $49,999 2,816,630 1,542,605 1,274,025
$50,000 to $59,999 1,849,630 1,099,280 750,345
$60,000 to $79,999 2,028,075 1,277,335 750,740
$80,000 to $99,999 709,190 502,455 206,730
$100,000 and over 682,605 524,615 157,985
Median after-tax income $Footnote 66 27,334 32,434 23,080
Average after-tax income $Footnote 67 33,998 39,716 28,490
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over %Footnote 68 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income %Footnote 69 87.6 90.8 83.1
Employment income %Footnote 70 74.7 77.7 70.4
Wages and salaries %Footnote 71 70.3 72.6 66.9
Self-employment income %Footnote 72 4.4 5.0 3.5
Investment income %Footnote 73 4.6 4.5 4.8
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities %Footnote 74 6.7 7.1 6.1
Other money income %Footnote 75 1.7 1.5 1.8
Government transfer payments %Footnote 76 12.4 9.2 16.9
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits %Footnote 77 3.5 3.0 4.1
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement %Footnote 78 3.1 2.2 4.3
Employment Insurance benefits %Footnote 79 1.8 1.5 2.1
Child benefits %Footnote 80 1.5 0.1 3.5
Other income from government sources %Footnote 81 2.6 2.4 2.8
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeFootnote 82 16.4 18.3 13.7
After-tax income as a % of total incomeFootnote 83 83.6 81.7 86.3
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeFootnote 84 1.9 2.1 1.6
Total population by income status in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measureFootnote 85 32,852,320 16,163,115 16,689,210
Population for the income status based on after-tax low-income measure 32,386,165 15,927,865 16,458,305
Low-income population 4,812,115 2,219,010 2,593,110
Prevalence of low income % 14.9 13.9 15.8
Other population 27,574,050 13,708,855 13,865,200
Concept not applicableFootnote 86 466,155 235,250 230,905

Symbol(s)

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

Excludes National Household Survey data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 2

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

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Footnote 3

Marital status
Refers to the marital status of the person, taking into account his/her common-law status. Persons who are married or living common law may be of opposite sex or of the same sex. The classification is as follows:
Married (and not separated): A person who is married and has not separated or obtained a divorce, and whose spouse is living.

Common-law: A person who is living with another person as a couple but who is not legally married to that person.

Separated: A person who is married but who no longer lives with his/her spouse (for any reason other than illness, work or school) and who has not obtained a divorce. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Divorced: A person who has obtained a legal divorce and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Widowed: A person who has lost his/her spouse through death and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Single (never legally married): A person who has never married or a person whose marriage has been annulled and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

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Footnote 4

Classification of persons according to whether or not they are members of a census family and the status they have in the census family (a census family is composed of a married couple or two persons living common law, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling). A person can be a married spouse, a common-law partner, a lone parent, a child or a person not in a census family.

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Footnote 5

Persons not in census families may live with relatives (without forming a census family with them), they may live with non-relatives only or they may live alone.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 7

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 8

Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 9

Refers to the language spoken most often at home by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 10

Refers to the ability to conduct a conversation in English only, in French only, in both English and French, or in neither English nor French.

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Footnote 11

Population by language used most often at work.

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 12

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

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Footnote 13

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Footnote 14

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status. A landed immigrant/permanent resident refers to a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 15

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 16

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 17

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 18

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 19

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 20

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 21

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 22

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 23

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 24

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 25

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 26

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 27

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 28

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 29

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 30

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 31

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 32

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 33

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 34

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 35

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 36

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

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Footnote 37

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 38

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 39

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 40

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 41

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 42

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 43

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.



For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.



For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 44

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 45

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 46

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 47

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.



Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees.



For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 48

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

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In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 49

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 50

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 51

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 52

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 53

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

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Footnote 54

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 55

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 56

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 57

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 58

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 59

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.


Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings.

Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 60

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 61

Including loss.

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Footnote 62

For population with income.

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Footnote 63

For population with income.

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Footnote 64

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 65

Including loss.

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Footnote 66

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 67

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 68

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 69

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Footnote 70

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

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Footnote 71

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

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Footnote 72

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

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Footnote 73

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

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Footnote 74

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

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Footnote 75

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

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Footnote 76

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in:

- the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor
- benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- child benefits
- other income from government sources.

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Footnote 77

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

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Footnote 78

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 79

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

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Footnote 80

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

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Footnote 81

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

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Footnote 82

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

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Footnote 83

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

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Footnote 84

Net capital gains or losses -
Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds).

Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

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Footnote 85

Low income can be measured in several different ways in household surveys. For the standard products of the National Household Survey, the line chosen is a relative measure: the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT).

For this measure, the income used is after-tax income of households. There are no regional variations to account for prices or cost of living differences: all applicable households in Canada face the same line adjusted for household size. This line is set at half the median of adjusted household after-tax income. To account for potential economies of scale, the income of households with more than one member is divided by the square root of the size of the household.

All household members are considered to share the household income and are attributed the same income status.

Note: Low-income estimates in the 2011 National Household Survey

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), low-income statistics are presented based on the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). This measure is not related to the low-income cut-offs (LICO) presented in the 2006 Census and prevalence rates are conceptually not comparable. Because of the sensitivity of certain income indicators to differences in methodology and response patterns, direct comparisons to establish trends with low-income estimates from other household surveys, administrative programs or the 2006 Census are discouraged. The prevalence rates observed in the NHS at the national level are generally 1 to 2 percentage points higher than seen for similar concepts in other programs. However, analysis of the NHS data suggests that it is valid to compare low-income data for different sub-populations within the NHS (i.e., for different geographic areas or demographic groups). For more information, refer to the Income Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011006.

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Footnote 86

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting or fishing) could have made the interpretation of low-income rates more difficult.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-010-X2011038.

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