NHS Profile, Markham, T, Ontario, 2011

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NHS data, Markham, T, Ontario. Table summary
The table shows total, male and female data (appearing as column headers) for selected characteristics (appearing as row headers).
Characteristic Markham, T
Ontario
(Census subdivision)
Total Male Female
Citizenship
Total population in private households by citizenshipNational Household Survey data footnote 1 300,135 146,785 153,350
Canadian citizens 268,065 131,695 136,365
Canadian citizens aged under 18 61,055 31,430 29,630
Canadian citizens aged 18 and over 207,005 100,260 106,740
Not Canadian citizensNational Household Survey data footnote 2 32,075 15,095 16,980
Immigrant status and period of immigration
Total population in private households by immigrant status and period of immigrationNational Household Survey data footnote 3 300,140 146,790 153,350
Non-immigrantsNational Household Survey data footnote 4 122,335 62,160 60,180
ImmigrantsNational Household Survey data footnote 5 173,895 82,860 91,035
Before 1971 14,830 7,420 7,410
1971 to 1980 22,025 10,595 11,430
1981 to 1990 33,380 16,025 17,360
1991 to 2000 60,215 28,515 31,700
2001 to 2011National Household Survey data footnote 6 43,440 20,310 23,130
2001 to 2005 25,060 11,800 13,260
2006 to 2011National Household Survey data footnote 6 18,380 8,510 9,865
Non-permanent residentsNational Household Survey data footnote 7 3,910 1,775 2,140
Age at immigration
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationNational Household Survey data footnote 8 173,890 82,855 91,035
Under 5 years 13,705 6,770 6,935
5 to 14 years 26,580 13,865 12,710
15 to 24 years 38,140 16,910 21,230
25 to 44 years 73,890 35,290 38,600
45 years and over 21,580 10,020 11,560
Immigrant status and selected places of birth
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthNational Household Survey data footnote 9 300,140 146,790 153,350
Non-immigrantsNational Household Survey data footnote 10 122,330 62,155 60,180
Born in province of residence 112,135 57,160 54,975
Born outside province of residence 10,200 4,995 5,200
ImmigrantsNational Household Survey data footnote 11 173,895 82,860 91,035
Americas 14,365 6,465 7,900
United States 1,980 910 1,070
Jamaica 4,110 1,780 2,335
Guyana 3,400 1,555 1,835
Haiti 70 15 50
Mexico 190 80 115
Trinidad and Tobago 1,815 855 960
Colombia 350 165 185
El Salvador 120 40 80
Peru 235 100 135
Chile 75 50 30
Other places of birth in Americas 2,015 915 1,100
Europe 17,300 8,610 8,690
United KingdomNational Household Survey data footnote 12 4,005 2,075 1,925
Italy 3,120 1,585 1,535
Germany 745 300 445
Poland 535 235 305
Portugal 415 170 250
Netherlands 270 160 110
France 225 120 100
Romania 820 405 415
Russian Federation 690 290 395
Greece 2,180 1,145 1,035
Ukraine 610 290 325
Croatia 150 70 80
Hungary 410 185 230
Bosnia and Herzegovina 175 130 50
Serbia 305 125 180
Ireland, Republic of 255 125 135
Other places of birth in Europe 2,390 1,200 1,190
Africa 7,510 3,765 3,745
Morocco 105 55 50
Algeria 0 0 0
Egypt 1,255 675 585
South Africa, Republic of 1,340 610 730
Nigeria 400 195 200
Ethiopia 135 70 65
Kenya 1,110 515 595
Other places of birth in Africa 3,145 1,635 1,510
Asia 134,405 63,880 70,525
India 13,330 6,395 6,930
ChinaNational Household Survey data footnote 13 42,225 19,760 22,460
Philippines 6,535 2,770 3,765
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 31,000 14,805 16,195
Viet NamNational Household Survey data footnote 14 3,260 1,530 1,730
Pakistan 5,265 2,690 2,575
Sri Lanka 13,655 6,745 6,905
IranNational Household Survey data footnote 15 5,190 2,500 2,685
Korea, SouthNational Household Survey data footnote 16 2,345 1,125 1,225
Lebanon 545 270 270
Taiwan 2,220 950 1,270
Iraq 715 355 365
Bangladesh 440 215 225
Afghanistan 560 275 280
Japan 295 120 170
Turkey 405 185 220
Other places of birth in Asia 6,430 3,185 3,250
Oceania and otherNational Household Survey data footnote 17 315 145 175
Fiji 100 55 40
Other places of birthNational Household Survey data footnote 18 215 85 130
Non-permanent residentsNational Household Survey data footnote 19 3,910 1,775 2,135
Recent immigrants by selected place of birth
Total recent immigrant population in private households by selected places of birthNational Household Survey data footnote 20 18,375 8,510 9,870
Americas 1,085 470 615
United States 365 190 175
Mexico 70 25 40
Cuba 0 0 0
Haiti 0 0 0
Jamaica 140 55 85
Brazil 20 0 15
Colombia 85 0 60
Guyana 60 0 45
Peru 30 0 25
VenezuelaNational Household Survey data footnote 21 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Americas 310 145 165
Europe 770 400 370
France 30 0 15
Germany 50 20 0
Poland 0 0 0
Romania 140 80 65
MoldovaNational Household Survey data footnote 22 0 0 0
Russian Federation 60 30 30
Ukraine 95 45 55
United KingdomNational Household Survey data footnote 12 145 75 65
Other places of birth in Europe 250 145 100
Africa 590 325 265
Nigeria 75 50 25
Ethiopia 0 0 0
Mauritius 50 35 15
Somalia 0 0 0
Algeria 0 0 0
Egypt 215 115 100
Morocco 0 0 0
Tunisia 0 0 0
Cameroon 0 0 0
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the 0 0 0
South Africa, Republic of 25 0 20
Other places of birth in Africa 210 110 100
Asia 15,930 7,305 8,620
Philippines 770 270 505
ChinaNational Household Survey data footnote 13 8,300 3,840 4,460
India 1,570 710 860
Pakistan 620 290 325
IranNational Household Survey data footnote 15 1,035 480 555
South KoreaNational Household Survey data footnote 16 370 185 180
Sri Lanka 1,460 670 785
Iraq 105 55 50
Bangladesh 70 40 30
Lebanon 55 35 0
Viet NamNational Household Survey data footnote 14 30 0 20
Taiwan 270 140 130
Afghanistan 35 10 25
Japan 0 0 0
Turkey 35 0 0
Israel 75 60 0
Nepal 0 0 0
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 600 255 345
United Arab Emirates 60 40 25
Saudi Arabia 25 0 0
SyriaNational Household Survey data footnote 23 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Asia 435 185 255
Oceania and otherNational Household Survey data footnote 17 0 0 0
Generation status
Total population in private households by generation statusNational Household Survey data footnote 24 300,140 146,790 153,350
First generationNational Household Survey data footnote 25 178,485 85,040 93,440
Second generationNational Household Survey data footnote 26 84,110 43,060 41,050
Third generation or moreNational Household Survey data footnote 27 37,545 18,685 18,860
Visible minority population
Total population in private households by visible minority 300,140 146,790 153,350
Total visible minority populationNational Household Survey data footnote 28 217,095 105,910 111,185
South AsianNational Household Survey data footnote 29 57,375 28,760 28,615
Chinese 114,950 55,960 58,985
Black 9,715 4,535 5,180
Filipino 9,020 3,835 5,185
Latin American 1,600 795 810
Arab 3,400 1,725 1,670
Southeast AsianNational Household Survey data footnote 30 2,750 1,350 1,395
West AsianNational Household Survey data footnote 31 6,185 3,115 3,065
Korean 3,160 1,530 1,630
Japanese 1,145 615 530
Visible minority, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 32 1,995 975 1,020
Multiple visible minoritiesNational Household Survey data footnote 33 5,805 2,710 3,095
Not a visible minorityNational Household Survey data footnote 34 83,040 40,875 42,165
Ethnic origin population
Total population in private households by ethnic originsNational Household Survey data footnote 35 300,135 146,790 153,350
North American Aboriginal origins 1,035 445 590
First Nations (North American Indian) 765 350 405
Inuit 0 0 0
Métis 280 85 190
Other North American origins 25,350 12,745 12,600
Acadian 60 25 35
American 1,510 775 740
Canadian 24,150 12,155 11,995
New Brunswicker 0 0 0
Newfoundlander 135 25 105
Nova Scotian 0 0 0
Ontarian 60 15 0
Québécois 70 35 35
Other North American origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 36 0 0 0
European origins 82,225 40,305 41,920
British Isles origins 39,065 19,255 19,805
Channel Islander 0 0 0
Cornish 0 0 0
English 23,065 11,405 11,665
Irish 15,070 7,530 7,540
Manx 15 0 0
Scottish 15,960 7,785 8,175
Welsh 1,520 795 720
British Isles origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 37 2,990 1,450 1,545
French origins 6,425 3,135 3,295
Alsatian 0 0 0
Breton 0 0 0
French 6,425 3,135 3,295
Western European origins (except French origins) 11,060 5,520 5,540
Austrian 865 395 470
Belgian 235 95 140
Dutch 2,705 1,350 1,355
Flemish 0 0 0
Frisian 0 0 0
German 7,480 3,615 3,860
Luxembourger 45 40 0
Swiss 630 360 270
Western European origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 38 0 0 0
Northern European origins (except British Isles origins) 1,755 830 925
Danish 455 225 230
Finnish 455 170 290
Icelandic 70 45 25
Norwegian 400 210 190
Swedish 390 180 210
Northern European origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 39 55 30 30
Eastern European origins 13,980 6,955 7,025
Bulgarian 180 85 90
Byelorussian 110 80 35
Czech 425 220 205
Czechoslovakian, n.o.s. 215 110 105
Estonian 300 155 145
Hungarian 1,585 795 790
Latvian 220 140 80
Lithuanian 765 360 405
Moldovan 35 10 25
Polish 4,615 2,335 2,280
Romanian 1,610 805 800
Russian 4,240 2,055 2,185
Slovak 320 190 135
Ukrainian 2,490 1,275 1,215
Eastern European origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 40 145 60 90
Southern European origins 29,420 14,490 14,930
Albanian 210 125 95
Bosnian 130 90 45
Croatian 415 225 195
Cypriot 305 95 205
Greek 6,900 3,465 3,440
Italian 13,130 6,580 6,555
Kosovar 0 0 0
Macedonian 2,515 1,355 1,155
Maltese 365 175 190
Montenegrin 30 20 0
Portuguese 3,470 1,640 1,825
Serbian 575 300 275
Sicilian 75 0 65
Slovenian 310 175 135
Spanish 3,255 1,400 1,860
Yugoslavian, n.o.s. 260 155 110
Southern European origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 41 0 0 0
Other European origins 5,565 2,765 2,800
Basque 0 0 0
Jewish 5,355 2,650 2,700
Roma (Gypsy) 50 20 30
Slavic, n.o.s. 25 0 0
Other European origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 42 180 100 85
Caribbean origins 10,695 4,935 5,755
Antiguan 50 30 20
Bahamian 45 25 0
Barbadian 650 265 385
Bermudan 40 25 0
Carib 30 0 15
Cuban 130 50 75
Dominican 55 35 20
Grenadian 255 130 130
Haitian 210 95 115
Jamaican 6,705 3,045 3,655
Kittitian/Nevisian 30 15 15
Martinican 0 0 0
Montserratan 0 0 0
Puerto Rican 0 0 0
St. Lucian 45 20 25
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 1,575 795 780
Vincentian/Grenadinian 155 75 80
West Indian, n.o.s. 1,175 595 580
Caribbean origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 43 235 85 150
Latin, Central and South American origins 4,700 2,140 2,560
Aboriginal from Central/South America (except Maya) 130 40 90
Argentinian 115 75 40
Belizean 40 0 0
Bolivian 15 0 0
Brazilian 65 30 35
Chilean 105 40 70
Colombian 430 195 230
Costa Rican 40 25 20
Ecuadorian 130 70 60
Guatemalan 35 15 15
Guyanese 2,485 1,165 1,320
Hispanic 20 15 0
Honduran 65 0 0
Maya 0 0 0
Mexican 375 150 225
Nicaraguan 70 35 35
Panamanian 70 20 50
Paraguayan 0 0 0
Peruvian 195 75 120
Salvadorean 165 90 80
Uruguayan 60 0 0
Venezuelan 130 35 90
Latin, Central and South American origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 44 155 85 65
African origins 6,595 3,365 3,235
Central and West African origins 675 360 320
Akan 0 0 0
Angolan 0 0 0
Ashanti 0 0 0
Beninese 0 0 0
Burkinabe 0 0 0
Cameroonian 40 30 0
Chadian 0 0 0
Congolese 120 75 45
Gabonese 0 0 0
Gambian 0 0 0
Ghanaian 140 75 70
Guinean 0 0 0
Ibo 0 0 0
Ivorian 0 0 0
Liberian 0 0 0
Malian 0 0 0
Nigerian 305 155 150
Peulh 0 0 0
Senegalese 0 0 0
Sierra Leonean 0 0 0
Togolese 0 0 0
Yoruba 0 0 0
Central and West African origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 45 45 25 20
North African origins 2,140 1,100 1,035
Algerian 0 0 0
Berber 0 0 0
Coptic 215 120 100
Dinka 0 0 0
Egyptian 1,800 945 855
Libyan 20 10 0
Maure 0 0 0
Moroccan 170 75 95
Sudanese 140 60 75
Tunisian 0 0 0
North African origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 46 0 0 0
Southern and East African origins 1,790 905 890
Afrikaner 0 0 0
Amhara 0 0 0
Bantu, n.o.s. 45 30 0
Burundian 0 0 0
Eritrean 25 15 10
Ethiopian 215 105 110
Harari 15 0 0
Kenyan 90 35 55
Malagasy 0 0 0
Mauritian 100 55 40
Oromo 0 0 0
Rwandan 30 0 0
Seychellois 0 0 0
Somali 235 75 160
South African 600 310 285
Tanzanian 150 75 70
Tigrian 0 0 0
Ugandan 100 65 35
Zambian 0 0 0
Zimbabwean 20 0 0
Zulu 25 0 0
Southern and East African origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 47 225 120 105
Other African origins 2,195 1,125 1,070
Black, n.o.s.National Household Survey data footnote 48 435 170 265
Other African origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 49 1,800 955 840
Asian origins 204,940 99,915 105,025
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins 13,220 6,470 6,750
Afghan 840 400 440
Arab, n.o.s. 685 350 335
Armenian 2,045 1,000 1,045
Assyrian 45 30 0
Azerbaijani 55 35 25
Georgian 85 60 30
Iranian 6,525 3,225 3,305
Iraqi 605 330 275
Israeli 210 90 120
Jordanian 65 25 40
Kazakh 0 0 0
Kurd 110 50 60
Kuwaiti 0 0 0
Lebanese 875 385 490
Palestinian 460 245 220
Pashtun 45 20 35
Saudi Arabian 35 25 15
Syrian 305 100 200
Tajik 70 40 30
Tatar 15 0 0
Turk 625 380 245
Uighur 0 0 0
Uzbek 0 0 0
Yemeni 35 25 10
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 50 315 135 180
South Asian origins 58,120 28,980 29,145
Bangladeshi 385 200 185
Bengali 145 70 80
East IndianNational Household Survey data footnote 48 33,560 16,715 16,845
Goan 185 75 115
Gujarati 285 125 160
Kashmiri 45 20 20
Nepali 50 30 20
Pakistani 4,665 2,355 2,310
Punjabi 965 555 415
Sinhalese 295 175 115
Sri Lankan 14,175 6,945 7,230
Tamil 6,375 3,265 3,115
South Asian origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 51 2,355 1,195 1,160
East and Southeast Asian origins 134,690 65,030 69,660
Burmese 175 115 60
Cambodian (Khmer) 70 30 40
Chinese 118,875 57,795 61,080
Filipino 9,955 4,290 5,670
Hmong 0 0 0
Indonesian 420 220 200
Japanese 1,530 810 720
Korean 3,470 1,670 1,800
Laotian 185 55 125
Malaysian 395 210 185
Mongolian 65 20 45
Singaporean 30 15 0
Taiwanese 1,080 550 525
Thai 165 70 90
Tibetan 0 0 0
Vietnamese 2,365 1,120 1,240
East and Southeast Asian origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 52 230 135 100
Other Asian origins 870 465 405
Other Asian origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 53 870 465 410
Oceania origins 205 105 100
Australian 110 65 50
New Zealander 50 20 35
Pacific Islands origins 35 15 15
Fijian 15 0 0
Hawaiian 0 0 0
Maori 0 0 0
Polynesian, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Samoan 0 0 0
Pacific Islands origins, n.i.e.National Household Survey data footnote 54 0 0 0
Religion
Total population in private households by religionNational Household Survey data footnote 55 300,140 146,790 153,345
Buddhist 13,280 5,895 7,385
Christian 132,230 62,090 70,135
Anglican 8,865 4,090 4,775
Baptist 6,460 2,910 3,550
Catholic 63,025 29,880 33,150
Christian Orthodox 11,780 5,915 5,865
Lutheran 1,375 610 765
Pentecostal 3,450 1,690 1,760
Presbyterian 4,260 1,880 2,380
United Church 7,310 3,305 4,005
Other Christian 25,710 11,820 13,890
Hindu 29,540 14,860 14,680
Jewish 7,330 3,520 3,815
Muslim 22,415 11,165 11,255
Sikh 4,335 2,240 2,095
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 20 15 0
Other religions 1,290 620 665
No religious affiliation 89,695 46,380 43,315
Aboriginal population
Total population in private households by Aboriginal identity 300,140 146,785 153,350
Aboriginal identityNational Household Survey data footnote 56 485 260 230
First Nations (North American Indian) single identityNational Household Survey data footnote 57 255 170 90
Métis single identity 180 65 115
Inuk (Inuit) single identity 0 0 0
Multiple Aboriginal identitiesNational Household Survey data footnote 58 30 0 20
Aboriginal identities not included elsewhereNational Household Survey data footnote 59 30 20 0
Non-Aboriginal identity 299,650 146,530 153,120
Total population in private households by Registered or Treaty Indian statusNational Household Survey data footnote 57 300,135 146,790 153,350
Registered or Treaty IndianNational Household Survey data footnote 60 135 80 55
Not a Registered or Treaty Indian 300,000 146,710 153,295
Total population in private households by Aboriginal ancestryNational Household Survey data footnote 61 300,140 146,790 153,350
Aboriginal ancestryNational Household Survey data footnote 62 1,040 450 590
First Nations (North American Indian) Aboriginal ancestryNational Household Survey data footnote 57 765 355 410
Métis ancestry 280 90 190
Inuit ancestry 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal ancestry onlyNational Household Survey data footnote 63 299,100 146,340 152,760
Non-official languages spoken
Total population in private households by non-official languages spokenNational Household Survey data footnote 64 200,505 96,445 104,060
Aboriginal languages 0 0 0
Algonquin 0 0 0
Atikamekw 0 0 0
Blackfoot 0 0 0
Cree languagesNational Household Survey data footnote 65 0 0 0
Mi'kmaq 0 0 0
Innu/Montagnais 0 0 0
Ojibway 0 0 0
Oji-Cree 0 0 0
Carrier 0 0 0
Dene 0 0 0
Tlicho (Dogrib) 0 0 0
Slavey, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Stoney 0 0 0
Inuktitut 0 0 0
Other Aboriginal languagesNational Household Survey data footnote 66 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal languages 200,505 96,445 104,060
Italian 6,160 2,975 3,190
Portuguese 885 375 520
Romanian 965 475 490
Spanish 3,720 1,770 1,950
Dutch 460 250 215
Flemish 0 0 0
German 1,790 800 990
Yiddish 345 190 160
Danish 135 75 60
Norwegian 60 20 40
Swedish 135 60 75
Afrikaans 445 225 220
Gaelic languages 45 0 0
Bosnian 60 35 25
Bulgarian 135 65 75
Croatian 265 120 145
Czech 125 70 60
Macedonian 1,865 905 960
Polish 730 385 340
Russian 2,350 1,100 1,245
Serbian 440 250 190
Serbo-Croatian 70 35 30
Slovak 175 110 65
Slovenian 170 90 85
Ukrainian 450 265 190
Latvian 25 0 0
Lithuanian 160 75 90
Greek 4,305 2,125 2,180
Armenian 1,770 840 925
Albanian 140 85 60
Estonian 85 40 40
Finnish 160 65 90
Hungarian 720 345 380
Turkish 605 280 325
Berber languages (Kabyle) 0 0 0
Oromo 0 0 0
Somali 190 60 135
Amharic 85 50 45
Arabic 3,840 1,945 1,890
Hebrew 1,030 505 525
Maltese 105 50 55
Tigrigna 25 15 15
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 140 75 65
Bengali 870 440 430
Gujarati 7,055 3,300 3,760
Hindi 9,080 4,340 4,740
Konkani 165 80 85
Marathi 210 110 105
Panjabi (Punjabi) 6,595 3,335 3,260
Sindhi 865 410 455
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 1,095 600 495
Urdu 8,730 4,340 4,385
Nepali 20 0 15
Kurdish 85 50 40
Pashto 200 105 90
Persian (Farsi) 6,875 3,295 3,580
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 195 95 95
Kannada 85 40 45
Malayalam 770 415 355
Tamil 19,240 9,545 9,695
Telugu 230 110 120
Japanese 920 445 480
Korean 2,970 1,460 1,510
Cantonese 59,620 28,435 31,185
Fukien 365 165 200
Hakka 1,365 650 720
Mandarin 28,220 13,110 15,105
Taiwanese 690 320 370
Chinese, n.o.s. 28,680 13,915 14,765
Lao 110 55 50
Thai 150 65 80
Khmer (Cambodian) 80 30 45
Vietnamese 1,675 815 855
Bisayan languages 145 50 95
Ilocano 230 90 145
Malay 665 315 350
Tagalog (Pilipino,Filipino) 6,490 2,605 3,885
Akan (Twi) 75 35 45
Lingala 0 0 0
Rundi (Kirundi) 0 0 0
Rwanda (Kinyarwanda) 30 0 0
Swahili 540 300 245
Bantu languages, n.i.e. 35 30 0
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 175 95 80
African languages, n.i.e. 50 20 30
Creoles 515 245 270
Other non-Aboriginal languagesNational Household Survey data footnote 67 985 525 465
Mobility
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoNational Household Survey data footnote 68 297,275 145,310 151,965
Non-movers 270,175 132,010 138,165
Movers 27,105 13,300 13,800
Non-migrants 13,185 6,500 6,680
Migrants 13,920 6,800 7,120
Internal migrants 9,475 4,630 4,845
Intraprovincial migrants 8,885 4,365 4,515
Interprovincial migrants 590 270 320
External migrants 4,440 2,165 2,280
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoNational Household Survey data footnote 69 283,715 138,470 145,240
Non-movers 180,750 88,405 92,345
Movers 102,965 50,065 52,895
Non-migrants 47,490 23,035 24,455
Migrants 55,470 27,025 28,440
Internal migrants 38,715 19,295 19,420
Intraprovincial migrants 36,945 18,395 18,555
Interprovincial migrants 1,765 900 870
External migrants 16,755 7,735 9,025
Education
Total population aged 15 years and over by highest certificate, diploma or degreeNational Household Survey data footnote 70 247,615 119,800 127,820
No certificate, diploma or degree 40,615 18,580 22,035
High school diploma or equivalentNational Household Survey data footnote 71 61,235 29,010 32,225
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeNational Household Survey data footnote 72 145,775 72,210 73,570
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaNational Household Survey data footnote 73 10,385 6,400 3,985
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 36,775 16,475 20,305
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelNational Household Survey data footnote 74 16,520 7,980 8,535
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 82,095 41,355 40,745
Bachelor's degree 53,795 26,245 27,550
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelNational Household Survey data footnote 75 28,300 15,110 13,195
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeNational Household Survey data footnote 70 170,095 80,715 89,380
No certificate, diploma or degree 16,945 7,560 9,380
High school diploma or equivalentNational Household Survey data footnote 71 34,915 15,500 19,420
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeNational Household Survey data footnote 72 118,235 57,650 60,580
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaNational Household Survey data footnote 73 7,475 4,445 3,035
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 29,255 12,895 16,360
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelNational Household Survey data footnote 74 12,775 5,920 6,860
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 68,730 34,400 34,335
Bachelor's degree 44,185 21,425 22,760
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelNational Household Survey data footnote 75 24,545 12,975 11,575
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011National Household Survey data footnote 76 247,620 119,800 127,820
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeNational Household Survey data footnote 77 101,845 47,590 54,255
Education 8,575 1,825 6,745
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 4,950 2,310 2,640
Humanities 8,870 3,100 5,770
Social and behavioural sciences and law 16,305 5,735 10,570
Business, management and public administration 40,400 18,460 21,935
Physical and life sciences and technologies 8,140 3,965 4,185
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 12,140 7,810 4,340
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 25,805 22,355 3,455
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 1,205 845 360
Health and related fieldsNational Household Survey data footnote 78 15,190 3,650 11,545
Personal, protective and transportation services 4,185 2,160 2,025
Other fields of studyNational Household Survey data footnote 79 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceNational Household Survey data footnote 80 247,620 119,795 127,825
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 101,845 47,590 54,255
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 145,770 72,205 73,565
Location of study inside Canada 95,435 47,015 48,420
Same as province or territory of residence 89,205 43,915 45,290
Another province or territory 6,230 3,095 3,130
Location of study outside Canada 50,340 25,195 25,145
Language used most often at work
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workNational Household Survey data footnote 81 170,165 87,855 82,310
Single responses 164,800 85,355 79,445
English 150,775 78,135 72,640
French 330 55 270
Non-official languages 13,695 7,165 6,535
Chinese, n.o.s. 4,815 2,620 2,195
Cantonese 5,890 3,050 2,840
Panjabi (Punjabi) 80 25 55
Mandarin 1,645 865 780
Spanish 60 20 40
Korean 245 145 105
German 0 0 0
Cree languagesNational Household Survey data footnote 82 0 0 0
Portuguese 0 0 0
Inuktitut 0 0 0
Other languages 960 445 515
Multiple responses 5,365 2,500 2,860
English and French 410 140 270
English and non-official language 4,880 2,335 2,545
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 65 20 45
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workNational Household Survey data footnote 81 170,160 87,855 82,310
English 150,775 78,135 72,645
French 325 55 270
Non-official language 13,695 7,160 6,535
Aboriginal 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal 13,695 7,165 6,530
English and French 410 135 275
English and non-official language 4,885 2,335 2,545
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 65 20 45
Labour force status
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusNational Household Survey data footnote 83 247,620 119,795 127,825
In the labour force 160,225 83,685 76,535
Employed 147,315 77,130 70,180
Unemployed 12,910 6,550 6,355
Not in the labour force 87,395 36,110 51,285
Participation rate 64.7 69.9 59.9
Employment rate 59.5 64.4 54.9
Unemployment rate 8.1 7.8 8.3
Class of worker
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerNational Household Survey data footnote 84 160,225 83,685 76,540
Class of worker - not applicableNational Household Survey data footnote 85 4,655 2,400 2,255
All classes of workerNational Household Survey data footnote 86 155,570 81,285 74,285
Employee 135,440 68,020 67,415
Self-employedNational Household Survey data footnote 87 20,130 13,265 6,870
Occupation
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011National Household Survey data footnote 88 160,225 83,685 76,535
Occupation - not applicableNational Household Survey data footnote 89 4,655 2,400 2,255
All occupationsNational Household Survey data footnote 86 155,570 81,290 74,285
0 Management occupations 20,340 12,890 7,450
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 33,035 11,480 21,555
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 19,100 14,660 4,440
3 Health occupations 7,900 2,150 5,750
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 15,270 4,700 10,575
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 4,565 2,180 2,385
6 Sales and service occupations 36,225 18,685 17,540
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 10,460 9,610 855
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 985 870 120
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 7,700 4,070 3,625
Industry
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007National Household Survey data footnote 90 160,225 83,685 76,540
Industry - not applicableNational Household Survey data footnote 89 4,655 2,400 2,255
All industriesNational Household Survey data footnote 86 155,575 81,285 74,285
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 300 185 120
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 155 105 50
22 Utilities 1,125 775 345
23 Construction 5,610 4,640 965
31-33 Manufacturing 15,345 9,525 5,820
41 Wholesale trade 12,025 7,165 4,860
44-45 Retail trade 16,515 8,355 8,165
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 4,835 3,785 1,055
51 Information and cultural industries 5,855 3,290 2,560
52 Finance and insurance 15,980 7,770 8,205
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 4,190 2,255 1,935
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 18,600 10,780 7,820
55 Management of companies and enterprises 295 145 150
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 6,830 3,820 3,015
61 Educational services 10,375 3,185 7,185
62 Health care and social assistance 12,875 2,790 10,085
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 2,120 1,070 1,050
72 Accommodation and food services 10,170 5,685 4,490
81 Other services (except public administration) 6,330 2,735 3,600
91 Public administration 6,040 3,225 2,820
Work activity
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by work activity in 2010National Household Survey data footnote 91 160,230 83,685 76,535
Did not work in 2010National Household Survey data footnote 92 10,355 5,195 5,160
Worked in 2010 149,870 78,490 71,380
1 to 13 weeks 7,680 3,570 4,115
14 to 26 weeks 11,555 5,325 6,235
27 to 39 weeks 8,905 4,220 4,680
40 to 48 weeks 26,365 13,300 13,070
49 to 52 weeks 95,365 52,080 43,285
Average weeks worked in 2010 44.7 45.4 43.9
Full-time or part-time weeks worked
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by full-time or part-time weeks worked in 2010National Household Survey data footnote 93 160,225 83,685 76,540
Did not work in 2010National Household Survey data footnote 92 10,355 5,195 5,160
Worked in 2010 149,870 78,495 71,380
Worked full-time in 2010 122,495 67,945 54,545
Worked part-time in 2010 27,380 10,550 16,830
Place of work status
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by place of work statusNational Household Survey data footnote 94 147,315 77,135 70,185
Worked at home 10,800 5,325 5,480
Worked outside Canada 1,215 865 345
No fixed workplace address 14,510 9,850 4,660
Worked at usual place 120,785 61,095 59,695
Mode of transportation
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by mode of transportationNational Household Survey data footnote 95 135,295 70,940 64,355
Car, truck or van - as a driver 100,100 56,920 43,185
Car, truck or van - as a passenger 9,640 2,760 6,880
Public transit 21,495 9,565 11,925
Walked 2,425 905 1,520
Bicycle 345 245 105
Other methods 1,295 550 745
Median commuting duration
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by median commuting durationNational Household Survey data footnote 96 135,295 70,940 64,360
Median commuting duration 30.4 30.5 30.2
Time leaving for work
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by time leaving for workNational Household Survey data footnote 97 135,300 70,940 64,355
Between 5 and 6:59 a.m. 21,440 13,560 7,880
Between 7 and 9:00 a.m. 85,210 42,455 42,760
Anytime after 9:00 a.m. 28,645 14,930 13,715
Occupied private dwelling characteristics
Total number of occupied private dwellings by condition of dwellingNational Household Survey data footnote 98 90,535 ... ...
Only regular maintenance or minor repairs needed 88,000 ... ...
Major repairs needed 2,530 ... ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by period of constructionNational Household Survey data footnote 99 90,535 ... ...
1960 or before 2,665 ... ...
1961 to 1980 17,850 ... ...
1981 to 1990 22,245 ... ...
1991 to 2000 16,780 ... ...
2001 to 2005 17,635 ... ...
2006 to 2011National Household Survey data footnote 100 13,360 ... ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of roomsNational Household Survey data footnote 101 90,535 ... ...
1 to 4 rooms 16,035 ... ...
5 rooms 11,155 ... ...
6 rooms 12,895 ... ...
7 rooms 13,515 ... ...
8 or more rooms 36,940 ... ...
Average number of rooms per dwelling 6.9 ... ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of bedroomsNational Household Survey data footnote 102 90,535 ... ...
0 to 1 bedroom 5,745 ... ...
2 bedrooms 10,215 ... ...
3 bedrooms 27,830 ... ...
4 or more bedrooms 46,735 ... ...
Household characteristics
Total number of private households by tenureNational Household Survey data footnote 103 90,535 ... ...
Owner 80,675 ... ...
Renter 9,855 ... ...
Band housing 0 ... ...
Total number of private households by condominium statusNational Household Survey data footnote 104 90,535 ... ...
Part of a condominium development 13,500 ... ...
Not part of a condominium development 77,035 ... ...
Total number of private households by number of household maintainersNational Household Survey data footnote 105 90,535 ... ...
1 household maintainer 44,900 ... ...
2 household maintainers 41,710 ... ...
3 or more household maintainers 3,920 ... ...
Total number of private households by age group of primary household maintainersNational Household Survey data footnote 106 90,535 ... ...
Under 25 years 900 ... ...
25 to 34 years 8,040 ... ...
35 to 44 years 19,440 ... ...
45 to 54 years 24,870 ... ...
55 to 64 years 20,410 ... ...
65 to 74 years 10,310 ... ...
75 years and over 6,575 ... ...
Total number of private households by number of persons per roomNational Household Survey data footnote 107 90,535 ... ...
One person or fewer per room 86,225 ... ...
More than one person per room 4,310 ... ...
Total number of private households by housing suitabilityNational Household Survey data footnote 108 90,535 ... ...
Suitable 82,555 ... ...
Not suitable 7,980 ... ...
Shelter costs
Total number of owner and tenant households with household total income greater than zero, in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings by shelter-cost-to-income ratioNational Household Survey data footnote 109 90,370 ... ...
Spending less than 30% of household total income on shelter costs 63,535 ... ...
Spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costs 26,830 ... ...
Spending 30% to less than 100% of household total income on shelter costs 21,560 ... ...
Number of owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 80,660 ... ...
% of owner households with a mortgageNational Household Survey data footnote 110 60.0 ... ...
% of owner households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsNational Household Survey data footnote 111 27.6 ... ...
Median monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)National Household Survey data footnote 112 1,460 ... ...
Average monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)National Household Survey data footnote 112 1,521 ... ...
Median value of dwellings ($)National Household Survey data footnote 113 500,741 ... ...
Average value of dwellings ($)National Household Survey data footnote 113 547,560 ... ...
Number of tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 9,855 ... ...
% of tenant households in subsidized housingNational Household Survey data footnote 114 10.5 ... ...
% of tenant households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsNational Household Survey data footnote 115 46.7 ... ...
Median monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)National Household Survey data footnote 116 1,179 ... ...
Average monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)National Household Survey data footnote 116 1,191 ... ...
Income of individuals in 2010
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overNational Household Survey data footnote 117 247,615 119,795 127,820
Without income 17,045 7,575 9,470
With income 230,575 112,225 118,355
Under $5,000National Household Survey data footnote 118 34,070 16,750 17,320
$5,000 to $9,999 18,230 7,120 11,115
$10,000 to $14,999 21,180 8,650 12,530
$15,000 to $19,999 20,945 9,020 11,935
$20,000 to $29,999 27,045 12,410 14,640
$30,000 to $39,999 22,840 10,485 12,350
$40,000 to $49,999 18,385 8,465 9,925
$50,000 to $59,999 14,925 7,370 7,560
$60,000 to $79,999 20,980 11,255 9,725
$80,000 to $99,999 14,145 8,195 5,960
$100,000 and over 17,815 12,505 5,310
$100,000 to $124,999 7,985 5,265 2,715
$125,000 and over 9,830 7,240 2,595
Median income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 119 27,157 31,720 23,631
Average income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 119 42,610 50,327 35,291
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overNational Household Survey data footnote 120 247,620 119,795 127,820
Without after-tax income 17,170 7,580 9,590
With after-tax income 230,450 112,220 118,230
Under $5,000National Household Survey data footnote 121 34,400 16,840 17,560
$5,000 to $9,999 18,440 7,195 11,245
$10,000 to $14,999 21,575 8,890 12,685
$15,000 to $19,999 22,290 9,505 12,780
$20,000 to $29,999 31,185 14,380 16,805
$30,000 to $39,999 26,395 12,165 14,230
$40,000 to $49,999 21,635 10,375 11,260
$50,000 to $59,999 15,325 8,265 7,060
$60,000 to $79,999 21,990 12,670 9,325
$80,000 to $99,999 8,530 5,480 3,055
$100,000 and over 8,685 6,450 2,230
Median after-tax income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 122 25,464 29,477 22,532
Average after-tax income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 122 35,243 40,626 30,133
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over (%)National Household Survey data footnote 123 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%)National Household Survey data footnote 124 90.4 92.9 86.9
Employment income (%)National Household Survey data footnote 125 79.2 82.1 75.3
Wages and salaries (%)National Household Survey data footnote 126 74.4 76.3 71.8
Self-employment income (%)National Household Survey data footnote 127 4.8 5.8 3.5
Investment income (%)National Household Survey data footnote 128 5.0 4.6 5.4
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (%)National Household Survey data footnote 129 4.3 4.4 4.2
Other money income (%)National Household Survey data footnote 130 1.9 1.8 2.1
Government transfer payments (%)National Household Survey data footnote 131 9.6 7.1 13.1
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (%)National Household Survey data footnote 132 2.0 1.9 2.3
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement (%)National Household Survey data footnote 133 2.5 1.8 3.3
Employment Insurance benefits (%)National Household Survey data footnote 134 1.3 0.9 1.8
Child benefits (%)National Household Survey data footnote 135 1.4 0.1 3.2
Other income from government sources (%)National Household Survey data footnote 136 2.4 2.5 2.4
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeNational Household Survey data footnote 137 17.3 19.3 14.7
After-tax income as a % of total incomeNational Household Survey data footnote 138 82.7 80.7 85.3
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeNational Household Survey data footnote 139 1.4 1.6 1.3
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010National Household Survey data footnote 140 85,435 48,060 37,370
Median employment income in 2010 ($) 52,136 57,636 47,560
Average employment income in 2010 ($) 66,835 74,617 56,828
Family income in 2010 of economic familiesNational Household Survey data footnote 141 80,120 ... ...
Median family income ($) 92,173 ... ...
Average family income ($) 114,304 ... ...
Median after-tax family income ($) 80,483 ... ...
Average after-tax family income ($) 94,406 ... ...
Average family size 3.5 ... ...
Couple-only economic familiesNational Household Survey data footnote 142 16,915 ... ...
Median family income ($) 79,751 ... ...
Average family income ($) 105,266 ... ...
Median after-tax family income ($) 69,693 ... ...
Average after-tax family income ($) 84,843 ... ...
Average family size 2.0 ... ...
Couple-with-children economic familiesNational Household Survey data footnote 143 51,335 ... ...
Median family income ($) 104,539 ... ...
Average family income ($) 126,025 ... ...
Median after-tax family income ($) 90,859 ... ...
Average after-tax family income ($) 104,031 ... ...
Average family size 4.2 ... ...
Lone-parent economic familiesNational Household Survey data footnote 144 8,625 ... ...
Median family income ($) 53,221 ... ...
Average family income ($) 69,481 ... ...
Median after-tax family income ($) 49,365 ... ...
Average after-tax family income ($) 60,563 ... ...
Average family size 2.8 ... ...
Income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and over not in economic familiesNational Household Survey data footnote 145 15,950 6,690 9,255
Median total income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 146 31,074 30,559 31,373
Average total income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 146 41,821 44,164 40,128
Median after-tax income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 147 28,820 28,869 28,545
Average after-tax income ($)National Household Survey data footnote 147 34,988 36,373 33,987
Total population by decile of adjusted after-tax family incomeNational Household Survey data footnote 148 300,140 146,790 153,345
In bottom half of the Canadian distribution 127,180 61,060 66,115
In bottom decile 27,320 13,170 14,150
In second decile 25,225 11,920 13,305
In third decile 24,625 11,925 12,695
In fourth decile 25,450 12,145 13,305
In fifth decile 24,560 11,900 12,660
In top half of the Canadian distribution 172,960 85,725 87,235
In sixth decile 27,460 13,410 14,050
In seventh decile 28,730 14,155 14,580
In eighth decile 33,185 16,315 16,870
In ninth decile 37,635 18,560 19,080
In top decile 45,945 23,285 22,655
Income of households in 2010
Household total income in 2010 of private householdsNational Household Survey data footnote 149 90,535 ... ...
Under $5,000 1,925 ... ...
$5,000 to $9,999 1,315 ... ...
$10,000 to $14,999 1,645 ... ...
$15,000 to $19,999 2,455 ... ...
$20,000 to $29,999 4,885 ... ...
$30,000 to $39,999 6,320 ... ...
$40,000 to $49,999 5,970 ... ...
$50,000 to $59,999 5,970 ... ...
$60,000 to $79,999 11,550 ... ...
$80,000 to $99,999 10,800 ... ...
$100,000 to $124,999 10,510 ... ...
$125,000 to $149,999 8,205 ... ...
$150,000 and over 18,975 ... ...
After-tax income of households in 2010 of private householdsNational Household Survey data footnote 150 90,535 ... ...
Under $5,000 1,960 ... ...
$5,000 to $9,999 1,325 ... ...
$10,000 to $14,999 1,685 ... ...
$15,000 to $19,999 2,530 ... ...
$20,000 to $29,999 5,265 ... ...
$30,000 to $39,999 7,215 ... ...
$40,000 to $49,999 6,975 ... ...
$50,000 to $59,999 7,530 ... ...
$60,000 to $79,999 14,065 ... ...
$80,000 to $99,999 11,755 ... ...
$100,000 and over 30,220 ... ...
$100,000 to $124,999 11,315 ... ...
$125,000 and over 18,900 ... ...
Household income in 2010 of private householdsNational Household Survey data footnote 151 90,535 ... ...
Median household total income ($) 86,022 ... ...
Average household total income ($) 108,520 ... ...
Median after-tax household income ($) 75,135 ... ...
Average after-tax household income ($) 89,708 ... ...
One-person private householdsNational Household Survey data footnote 152 10,140 ... ...
Median household total income ($) 40,350 ... ...
Average household total income ($) 50,311 ... ...
Median after-tax household income ($) 35,548 ... ...
Average after-tax household income ($) 41,596 ... ...
Two-or-more-persons private householdsNational Household Survey data footnote 152 80,395 ... ...
Median household total income ($) 93,341 ... ...
Average household total income ($) 115,863 ... ...
Median after-tax household income ($) 81,770 ... ...
Average after-tax household income ($) 95,777 ... ...
Income of individuals in 2010
Population in private households for income statusNational Household Survey data footnote 153 300,135 146,790 153,350
Less than 18 years 65,335 33,615 31,720
Less than 6 years 19,875 10,080 9,795
18 to 64 years 199,095 96,265 102,830
65 years and over 35,710 16,905 18,795
In low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) 39,510 18,885 20,625
Less than 18 years 10,095 5,220 4,880
Less than 6 years 2,375 1,185 1,190
18 to 64 years 26,480 12,425 14,055
65 years and over 2,930 1,245 1,690
Prevalence of low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure (%) 13.2 12.9 13.4
Less than 18 years (%) 15.5 15.5 15.4
Less than 6 years (%) 11.9 11.8 12.1
18 to 64 years (%) 13.3 12.9 13.7
65 years and over (%) 8.2 7.4 9.0

Symbols

... not applicable

National Household Survey data: Footnotes

Footnote 1

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

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Footnote 2

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Footnote 3

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status. A landed immigrant/permanent resident refers to a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 4

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 5

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 6

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 7

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 8

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 9

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 10

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 11

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 12

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 13

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 14

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 15

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 16

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 17

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 18

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 19

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 20

Recent immigrants are immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 2006 and May 10, 2011. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by recent immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 21

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 22

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 23

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 24

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 25

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 26

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 27

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 28

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 29

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

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Footnote 30

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Malaysian,' 'Laotian,' etc.

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Footnote 31

For example, 'Iranian,' 'Afghan,' etc.

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Footnote 32

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 33

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 34

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 35

This is a total population estimate.  The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the NHS.

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Footnote 36

Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer,' 'Manitoban').

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Footnote 37

Includes general responses indicating British Isles origins (e.g., 'British,' 'United Kingdom') as well as more specific responses indicating British Isles origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Celtic').

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Footnote 38

Includes general responses indicating Western European origins (e.g., 'Western European') as well as more specific responses indicating Western European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Liechtensteiner').

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Footnote 39

Includes general responses indicating Northern European origins (e.g., 'Northern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Northern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Faroese,' 'Scandinavian').

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Footnote 40

Includes general responses indicating Eastern European origins (e.g., 'Eastern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Eastern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baltic').

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Footnote 41

Includes general responses indicating Southern European origins (e.g., 'Southern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Gibraltarian').

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Footnote 42

Includes general responses indicating Other European origins (e.g., 'European') as well as more specific responses indicating European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Central European').

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Footnote 43

Includes general responses indicating Caribbean origins (e.g., 'Caribbean') as well as more specific responses indicating Caribbean origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Guadelupian,' 'Aruban').

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Footnote 44

Includes general responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins (e.g., 'South American') as well as more specific responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Surinamese').

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Footnote 45

Includes general responses indicating Central or West African origins (e.g., 'West African') as well as more specific responses indicating Central or West African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Ewe,' 'Wolof').

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Footnote 46

Includes general responses indicating North African origins (e.g., 'North African') as well as more specific responses indicating North African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maghreb').

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Footnote 47

Includes general responses indicating Southern or East African origins (e.g., 'East African') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern or East African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Hutu,' 'Shona').

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Footnote 48

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

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Footnote 49

Includes general responses indicating Other African origins (e.g., 'African') as well as more specific responses indicating Other African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Saharan').

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Footnote 50

Includes general responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins (e.g., 'West Asian,' 'Middle Eastern') as well as more specific responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baloch,' 'Circassian').

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Footnote 51

Includes general responses indicating South Asian origins (e.g., 'South Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating South Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bhutanese').

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Footnote 52

Includes general responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins (e.g., 'Southeast Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bruneian,' 'Karen').

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Footnote 53

Includes general responses indicating Other Asian origins (e.g., 'Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating Other Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Eurasian').

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Footnote 54

Includes general responses indicating Pacific Islands origins (e.g., 'Pacific Islander') as well as more specific responses indicating Pacific Islands origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Tahitian').

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Footnote 55

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

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Footnote 56

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 57

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 58

'Multiple Aboriginal identities' includes persons who reported being any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 59

'Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere' includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who did report Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 60

Registered or Treaty Indian status refers to whether or not a person reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian.' Registered or Treaty Indian' includes persons who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian in Question 20. Registered Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada. Treaty Indians are persons who belong to a First Nation or Indian band that signed a treaty with the Crown. Registered or Treaty Indians are sometimes also called Status Indians.

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Footnote 61

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ancestries in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ancestry (ethnic origin) in the National Household Survey.

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Footnote 62

'Aboriginal ancestry' includes persons who reported one or more than one of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17, either with or without also reporting a non-Aboriginal ancestry. The sum of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry', 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' is thus greater than the sum of the total for 'Aboriginal ancestry' because persons who reported more than one Aboriginal ancestry are included in the response category for each Aboriginal ancestry they reported. All respondents with Aboriginal ancestry are counted in at least one of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry,' 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' and also in the category 'Aboriginal ancestry.' Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent's ancestors, an ancestor being usually more distant than a grandparent. A person can have more than one ethnic or cultural origin.

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Footnote 63

'Non-Aboriginal ancestry only' includes persons who did not report First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17.

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Footnote 64

Refers to languages, other than English or French, in which the respondent can conduct a conversation. The category 'Non-official languages spoken' represents the sum of single language responses and multiple language responses received in the National Household Survey. Hence, this total is greater than the total population.

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Footnote 65

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

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Footnote 66

This is a subtotal of all Aboriginal languages collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

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Footnote 67

This is a subtotal of all non-Aboriginal languages, other than English or French, collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

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Footnote 68

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 69

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 70

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom. For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 71

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 72

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 73

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 74

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 75

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 76

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant. For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 77

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 78

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 79

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 80

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed. Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees. For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 81

Population by language used most often at work . Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 82

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

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Footnote 83

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011. In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 84

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers. 

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Footnote 85

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 86

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 87

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 88

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011. 

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Footnote 89

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 90

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 91

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 92

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

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Footnote 93

Refers to persons who worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010. These persons were asked to report whether the weeks they worked in 2010 were full-time weeks (30 hours or more per week) or not, on the basis of all jobs held. Persons with a part-time job for part of the year and a full-time job for another part of the year were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most weeks.

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Footnote 94

Classification of respondents according to whether they worked at home, worked outside Canada, had no fixed workplace address or worked at a specific address (usual place of work).

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Footnote 95

Refers to the main mode of transportation a respondent uses to travel between his or her home and his or her place of work.

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Footnote 96

Refers to how many minutes it took for a person to travel from home to work. Median commuting duration is the value which divides the commuting duration into two equal halves, i.e., the commuting duration of individuals for the first half is below the median, while the commuting distance of individuals for the second half is above the median.

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Footnote 97

Time at which a respondent usually leaves home to go to work.

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Footnote 98

Condition of dwelling - Refers to whether the dwelling is in need of repairs. This does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

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Footnote 99

Period of construction - Refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed.

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Footnote 100

Includes data up to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 101

Rooms - Refers to enclosed areas within a private dwelling which are finished and suitable for year round living. The number of rooms of a private dwelling includes kitchens, bedrooms and finished rooms in the attic or basement. The number of rooms of a private dwelling excludes bathrooms, halls, vestibules and rooms used solely for business purposes. Partially divided rooms are considered to be separate rooms if they are considered as such by the respondent (e.g., L-shaped dining room and living room arrangements).

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Footnote 102

Bedrooms - Refers to rooms in a private dwelling that are designed mainly for sleeping purposes even if they are now used for other purposes, such as guest rooms and television rooms. Also included are rooms used as bedrooms now, even if they were not originally built as bedrooms, such as bedrooms in a finished basement. Bedrooms exclude rooms designed for another use during the day such as dining rooms and living rooms even if they may be used for sleeping purposes at night. By definition, one-room private dwellings such as studio apartments have zero bedrooms.

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Footnote 103

Tenure - Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).

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Footnote 104

Condominium status - Refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.

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Footnote 105

Household maintainer - Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default.

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Footnote 106

Primary household maintainer - First person in the household identified as someone who pays the rent or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity bill, and so on, for the dwelling. The order of the persons in a household is determined by the order in which the respondent lists the persons on the questionnaire. Generally, an adult is listed first followed, if applicable, by that person's spouse or common-law partner and by their children. The order does not necessarily correspond to the proportion of household payments made by the person. Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 107

Persons per room - Refers to an indicator of the level of crowding in a private dwelling. It is calculated by dividing the number of persons in the household by the number of rooms in the dwelling.

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Footnote 108

Housing suitability - Housing suitability refers to whether a private household is living in suitable accommodations according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS); that is, whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. A household is deemed to be living in suitable accommodations if its dwelling has enough bedrooms, as calculated using the National Occupancy Standard. Housing suitability assesses the required number of bedrooms for a household based on the age, sex, and relationships among household members. An alternative variable, the number of persons per room, considers all rooms in a private dwelling and the number of household members. Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) on which it is based were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

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Footnote 109

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio - Percentage of a household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent (for tenants) or the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees (for owners) and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100. Includes owner and tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income). The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year. Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 110

Presence of mortgage - Refers to whether the owner households reported mortgage or loan payments for their dwelling.

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Footnote 111

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for owner households - Percentage of an owner household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100. Includes owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income). The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year. Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 112

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

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Footnote 113

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

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Footnote 114

Subsidized housing - Refers to whether the dwelling is subsidized. Subsidized housing includes rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances.

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Footnote 115

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for tenant households - Percentage of a tenant household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100. Includes tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income). The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year. Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 116

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

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Footnote 117

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition. Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years). Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group. Median and average of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative). Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 118

Including loss.

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Footnote 119

For population with income.

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Footnote 120

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010. Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years). Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group. Median and average of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative). Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 121

Including loss.

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Footnote 122

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 123

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area. Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income. Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 124

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Footnote 125

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

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Footnote 126

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

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Footnote 127

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice. Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded. Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

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Footnote 128

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

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Footnote 129

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

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Footnote 130

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

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Footnote 131

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in: the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor; benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan; benefits from Employment Insurance; child benefits; other income from government sources.

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Footnote 132

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

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Footnote 133

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 134

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

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Footnote 135

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

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Footnote 136

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

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Footnote 137

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

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Footnote 138

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

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Footnote 139

Net capital gains or losses - Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds). Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded. Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products. Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

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Footnote 140

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income. Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included. Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc. Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded. Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group. Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group. Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative). The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings. Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week). Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 141

Economic family total income - The total income of an economic family is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that family. Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition. After-tax income of economic families - The after-tax income of an economic family is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that family. After-tax income of family members or persons not in families refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010. Median income of economic families - The median income of a specified group of families is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the families are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income. Average income of economic families - Average income of economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of families (for example, husband-wife families with working wives) by the number of families in that group, whether or not they reported income. The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of economic families. Economic family - Refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship. A couple may be of opposite or same sex.

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Footnote 142

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families. Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person. Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person. Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 143

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families. Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person. Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person. Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family. Presence of children - Refers to the number of children in private households by age groups. To be included, children must live in the same household as the family, without a married spouse, common-law partner or one or more of their children living in the same household. In a census family, they may be children by birth, marriage or adoption. In an economic family, foster children are also included.

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Footnote 144

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families. Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person. Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person. Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 145

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition. After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010. Median income of persons not in economic families - The median income of a specified group of persons not in economic families (for example, males aged 55 to 64) is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the persons are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of persons not in economic families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income. Average income of persons not in economic families - Average income of persons not in economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of the persons not in economic families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of persons not in economic families by the number of persons in that group, whether or not they reported income. The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of persons not in economic families. Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011. Economic family persons refer to two or more household members who are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship, and thereby constitute an economic family. Persons not in economic families refer to household members who do not belong to an economic family, including persons living alone.

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Footnote 146

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

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Footnote 147

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without after-tax income (with an after-tax income of zero).

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Footnote 148

Adjusted after-tax income for economic families and persons not in economic families - For economic family members, this refers to economic family after-tax income that has been adjusted by a factor that accounts for family size. The adjustment factor takes into account the lower relative needs of additional family members, as compared to a single person living alone. For use with the NHS income data, the adjusted after-tax income is computed as the economic family after-tax income divided by the square root of family size. For persons not in economic families, the adjusted after-tax income is set at after-tax income. This is equivalent to a factor of 1.0 for a person not in an economic family. Decile of adjusted after-tax family income - The deciles divide the population ranked by size of adjusted after-tax family income into 10 groups of equal size. The population in the bottom decile is the one who falls in the lower 10 percent of the adjusted after-tax family income distribution. The population in the top decile is the one who falls in the highest ten percent of the adjusted after-tax family income distribution. The 10 groups were formed with the full population in private households of Canada, whether or not they reported income.

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Footnote 149

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition. Household, private - Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household members who are temporarily absent on May 10, 2011 (e.g., temporarily residing elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. Every person is a member of one and only one household.

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Footnote 150

After-tax income of households - The after-tax income of a household is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that household. After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010. Household, private - Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household members who are temporarily absent on May 10, 2011 (e.g., temporarily residing elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. Every person is a member of one and only one household.

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Footnote 151

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. After-tax income of households - The after-tax income of a household is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that household. Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income. After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010. Median income of households - The median income of a specified group of households is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the households are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of households are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income. Average income of households - Average income of households refers to the weighted mean total income of households in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of households (for example, two person households) by the number of households in that specific group, whether or not they reported income. The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of households. Household, private - Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Household members who are temporarily absent on May 10, 2011 (e.g., temporarily residing elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. Every person is a member of one and only one household.

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Footnote 152

Household size - Refers to the number of usual residents in a private household.

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Footnote 153

Income status can be measured in several different ways in household surveys. For the standard products of the National Household Survey, the line chosen is a relative measure: the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). For this measure, the income used is after-tax income of households. There are no regional variations to account for prices or cost of living differences: all applicable households in Canada face the same line adjusted for household size. This line is set at half the median of adjusted household after-tax income. To account for potential economies of scale, the income of households with more than one member is divided by the square root of the size of the household. All household members are considered to share the household income and are attributed the same income status. Note: Low-income estimates in the 2011 National Household Survey. For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), low-income statistics are presented based on the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). This measure is not related to the low-income cut-offs (LICO) presented in the 2006 Census and prevalence rates are conceptually not comparable. Because of the sensitivity of certain income indicators to differences in methodology and response patterns, direct comparisons to establish trends with low-income estimates from other household surveys, administrative programs or the 2006 Census are discouraged. The prevalence rates observed in the NHS at the national level are generally 1 to 2 percentage points higher than seen for similar concepts in other programs. However, analysis of the NHS data suggests that it is valid to compare low-income data for different sub-populations within the NHS (i.e., for different geographic areas or demographic groups). For more information, refer to the Income Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011006. Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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How to cite

How to cite: Statistics Canada. 2013. Markham, T, Ontario (Code 3519036) (table). National Household Survey (NHS) Profile. 2011 National Household Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-004-XWE. Ottawa. Released September 11, 2013.
http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E (accessed October 21, 2017).

Data source

2011 National Household Survey

NHS data quality

Markham, T, Ontario

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Census data

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Census data, Markham, T, Ontario. Table summary
The table shows total, male and female data grouped by geography (appearing as column headers) for selected characteristics (appearing as row headers).
Characteristic Markham, T
Ontario
(Census subdivision)
Total Male Female
Population and dwelling counts
Population in 2011Census data footnote 1 301,709 ... ...
Population in 2006Census data footnote 1 261,573 ... ...
2006 to 2011 population change (%) 15.3 ... ...
Total private dwellingsCensus data footnote 2 93,202 ... ...
Private dwellings occupied by usual residentsCensus data footnote 3 90,534 ... ...
Population density per square kilometre 1,419.3 ... ...
Land area (square km) 212.58 ... ...
Age characteristics
Total population by age groupsCensus data footnote 4 301,710 147,285 154,425
0 to 4 years 16,430 8,455 7,980
5 to 9 years 17,315 8,950 8,365
10 to 14 years 18,775 9,685 9,090
15 to 19 years 21,280 11,095 10,185
15 years 4,330 2,255 2,075
16 years 4,425 2,310 2,115
17 years 4,135 2,115 2,020
18 years 4,235 2,235 1,995
19 years 4,150 2,175 1,980
20 to 24 years 20,590 10,730 9,865
25 to 29 years 19,235 9,665 9,570
30 to 34 years 17,890 8,330 9,560
35 to 39 years 21,030 9,710 11,320
40 to 44 years 23,105 10,675 12,435
45 to 49 years 25,180 11,970 13,210
50 to 54 years 23,645 11,365 12,285
55 to 59 years 21,610 10,425 11,185
60 to 64 years 18,600 9,120 9,480
65 to 69 years 12,395 6,030 6,365
70 to 74 years 9,225 4,500 4,730
75 to 79 years 6,820 3,215 3,600
80 to 84 years 4,740 2,000 2,745
85 years and over 3,835 1,370 2,465
Median age of the populationCensus data footnote 5 39.6 38.6 40.5
% of the population aged 15 and over 82.6 81.6 83.5
Marital status
Total population 15 years and over by marital statusCensus data footnote 6 249,190 120,200 128,990
Married or living with a common-law partner 155,455 77,390 78,065
Married (and not separated) 148,920 74,120 74,800
Living common law 6,535 3,270 3,265
Not married and not living with a common-law partner 93,740 42,810 50,925
Single (never legally married) 68,560 36,070 32,490
Separated 4,475 1,665 2,815
Divorced 9,535 3,170 6,360
Widowed 11,170 1,910 9,255
Family characteristics
Total number of census families in private householdsCensus data footnote 7 86,605 ... ...
Size of census family: 2 persons 29,845 ... ...
Size of census family: 3 persons 23,155 ... ...
Size of census family: 4 persons 25,070 ... ...
Size of census family: 5 or more persons 8,535 ... ...
Total number of census families in private householdsCensus data footnote 8 86,605 ... ...
Total couple families by family structure and number of children 75,270 ... ...
Married couples 72,005 ... ...
Without children at home 21,620 ... ...
With children at home 50,390 ... ...
1 child 18,730 ... ...
2 children 23,595 ... ...
3 or more children 8,060 ... ...
Common-law couples 3,265 ... ...
Without children at home 1,815 ... ...
With children at home 1,455 ... ...
1 child 670 ... ...
2 children 555 ... ...
3 or more children 220 ... ...
Total lone-parent families by sex of parent and number of children 11,335 ... ...
Female parent 9,135 ... ...
1 child 5,035 ... ...
2 children 3,125 ... ...
3 or more children 970 ... ...
Male parent 2,205 ... ...
1 child 1,380 ... ...
2 children 625 ... ...
3 or more children 205 ... ...
Total children in census families in private households 112,200 ... ...
Under six years of age 19,755 ... ...
6 to 14 years 32,505 ... ...
15 to 17 years 12,520 ... ...
18 to 24 years 26,170 ... ...
25 years and over 21,260 ... ...
Average number of children at home per census family 1.3 ... ...
Household and dwelling characteristics
Total number of persons in private households 300,135 146,825 153,310
Number of persons not in census families 26,060 10,055 16,000
Living with relativesCensus data footnote 9 10,050 3,085 6,960
Living with non-relatives only 5,780 2,845 2,935
Living alone 10,225 4,120 6,105
Number of census family persons 274,080 136,770 137,310
Average number of persons per census family 3.2 ... ...
Total number of persons aged 65 years and over in private households 35,710 16,785 18,925
Number of persons not in census families aged 65 years and over 9,145 1,920 7,225
Living with relativesCensus data footnote 9 4,940 865 4,075
Living with non-relatives only 395 165 235
Living alone 3,810 890 2,915
Number of census family persons aged 65 years and over 26,565 14,865 11,705
Total number of private households by household typeCensus data footnote 10 90,535 ... ...
Census-family households 78,615 ... ...
One-family-only householdsCensus data footnote 11 62,980 ... ...
Couple-family householdsCensus data footnote 12 55,865 ... ...
Without children 16,170 ... ...
With children 39,690 ... ...
Lone-parent-family households 7,115 ... ...
Other family householdsCensus data footnote 13 15,635 ... ...
One-family households with persons not in a census family 8,325 ... ...
Couple-family householdsCensus data footnote 14 6,830 ... ...
Without children 1,185 ... ...
With children 5,640 ... ...
Lone-parent-family households 1,500 ... ...
Two-or-more-family households 7,305 ... ...
Non-census-family households 11,920 ... ...
One-person households 10,225 ... ...
Two-or-more-person households 1,695 ... ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by structural type of dwellingCensus data footnote 15 90,530 ... ...
Single-detached house 58,045 ... ...
Apartment, building that has five or more storeys 9,225 ... ...
Movable dwellingCensus data footnote 16 5 ... ...
Other dwellingCensus data footnote 17 23,260 ... ...
Semi-detached house 5,090 ... ...
Row house 10,935 ... ...
Apartment, duplex 5,530 ... ...
Apartment, building that has fewer than five storeys 1,695 ... ...
Other single-attached house 10 ... ...
Total number of private households by household sizeCensus data footnote 18 90,535 ... ...
1 person 10,225 ... ...
2 persons 21,285 ... ...
3 persons 19,340 ... ...
4 persons 22,425 ... ...
5 persons 9,845 ... ...
6 or more persons 7,420 ... ...
Number of persons in private households 300,135 ... ...
Average number of persons in private households 3.3 ... ...
Detailed mother tongue
Detailed mother tongue - Total population excluding institutional residentsCensus data footnote 19 300,680 146,975 153,710
  Single responses  289,655 141,640 148,015
    English  115,750 58,175 57,570
    French  2,035 955 1,075
    Non-official languages  171,875 82,505 89,370
      Selected Aboriginal languagesCensus data footnote 20 0 0 0
        Atikamekw    0 0 0
        Cree, n.o.s.  0 0 0
        Dene  0 0 0
        Innu/Montagnais  0 0 0
        Inuktitut  0 0 0
        Mi'kmaq  0 0 0
        Ojibway  5 5 0
        Oji-Cree  0 0 0
        Stoney  0 0 0
Selected non-Aboriginal languagesCensus data footnote 21 171,270 82,220 89,050
        African languages, n.i.e 15 10 5
        Afrikaans  45 20 25
        Akan (Twi)  70 30 35
        Albanian  125 65 60
        Amharic  55 20 30
        Arabic  2,760 1,405 1,355
        Armenian  1,445 710 735
        Bantu languages, n.i.e 25 15 10
        Bengali  535 270 265
        Berber languages (Kabyle)  0 0 0
        Bisayan languages  145 60 85
        Bosnian  25 10 10
        Bulgarian  140 75 70
        Burmese  85 40 45
        Cantonese  47,460 22,635 24,835
        Chinese, n.o.s.  31,165 15,025 16,145
        Creoles  185 85 100
        Croatian  135 60 75
        Czech  125 60 60
        Danish  65 35 25
        Dutch  300 150 155
        Estonian  115 50 60
        Finnish  140 55 90
        Flemish  5 5 5
        Fukien  600 290 305
        German  1,155 545 610
        Greek  2,700 1,355 1,350
        Gujarati  4,710 2,285 2,425
        Hakka  1,165 570 595
        Hebrew  350 185 170
        Hindi  2,460 1,205 1,260
        Hungarian  655 305 345
        Ilocano  180 60 120
        Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e 100 55 50
        Italian  4,265 2,130 2,135
        Japanese  445 175 265
        Khmer (Cambodian)  35 15 25
        Korean  2,885 1,390 1,495
        Kurdish  65 35 30
        Lao  75 35 40
        Latvian  65 35 30
        Lingala  5 0 0
        Lithuanian  60 25 30
        Macedonian  1,375 655 715
        Malay  305 140 170
        Malayalam  500 240 260
        Maltese  50 25 30
        Mandarin  14,350 6,840 7,505
        Marathi  185 85 95
        Nepali  40 20 20
        Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e 65 30 35
        Norwegian  20 10 10
        Oromo  15 15 10
        Panjabi (Punjabi)  4,375 2,190 2,190
        Pashto  255 125 135
        Persian (Farsi)  5,725 2,880 2,840
        Polish  710 325 385
        Portuguese  705 310 395
        Romanian  1,015 505 505
        Rundi (Kirundi)  5 0 0
        Russian  2,035 950 1,085
        Rwanda (Kinyarwanda)  0 0 0
        Semitic languages, n.i.e 65 40 30
        Serbian  350 185 165
        Serbo-Croatian  50 25 20
        Shanghainese  220 90 130
        Sign languages, n.i.e 35 20 15
        Sindhi  650 300 350
        Sinhala (Sinhalese)  370 175 190
        Sino-Tibetan languages, n.i.e 10 5 5
        Slavic languages, n.i.e 5 5 5
        Slovak  100 50 50
        Slovenian  80 40 40
        Somali  150 65 85
        Spanish  1,925 880 1,045
        Swahili  90 50 40
        Swedish  30 15 15
        Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino)  4,715 1,845 2,875
        Taiwanese  330 160 165
        Tamil  14,710 7,190 7,520
        Telugu  225 105 115
        Thai  80 25 55
        Tibetan languages  5 5 5
        Tigrigna  35 15 15
        Turkish  315 165 155
        Ukrainian  240 110 125
        Urdu  6,405 3,150 3,250
        Vietnamese  1,070 495 575
        Yiddish  160 85 80
      Other languagesCensus data footnote 22 605 280 325
  Multiple responses          11,025 5,330 5,690
    English and French  525 230 290
    English and non-official language  9,980 4,865 5,115
    French and non-official language  255 120 140
    English, French and non-official language 260 115 140
Knowledge of official languages
Knowledge of official languages - Total population excluding institutional residentsCensus data footnote 19 300,680 146,970 153,705
  English only 257,730 128,700 129,030
  French only 175 75 105
  English and French 17,760 7,795 9,970
  Neither English nor French 25,015 10,405 14,610
First official language spoken
First official language spoken - Total population excluding institutional residentsCensus data footnote 19 300,675 146,970 153,710
  English 271,005 134,420 136,585
  French 2,280 1,060 1,220
  English and French 2,695 1,230 1,470
  Neither English nor French 24,705 10,265 14,440
Official language minority (number)Census data footnote 23 3,625 1,670 1,950
Official language minority (percentage)Census data footnote 23 1.2 1.1 1.3
Detailed language spoken most often at home
Detailed language spoken most often at home - Total population excluding institutional residentsCensus data footnote 19 300,675 146,970 153,710
  Single responses 274,070 133,910 140,160
    English 156,850 77,755 79,090
    French 920 420 500
    Non-official languages 116,295 55,735 60,565
      Selected Aboriginal languagesCensus data footnote 20 0 0 0
        Atikamekw   0 0 0
        Cree, n.o.s. 0 0 0
        Dene 0 0 0
        Innu/Montagnais 0 0 0
        Inuktitut 0 0 0
        Mi'kmaq 0 0 0
        Ojibway 0 0 0
        Oji-Cree 0 0 0
        Stoney 0 0 0
      Selected non-Aboriginal languagesCensus data footnote 21 116,085 55,640 60,445
        African languages, n.i.e. 0 0 0
        Afrikaans 15 5 5
        Akan (Twi) 20 10 10
        Albanian 55 25 30
        Amharic 15 5 10
        Arabic 1,250 610 645
        Armenian 865 420 445
        Bantu languages, n.i.e. 0 0 0
        Bengali 320 155 165
        Berber languages (Kabyle) 0 0 0
        Bisayan languages 25 10 15
        Bosnian 10 5 5
        Bulgarian 75 35 35
        Burmese 40 15 20
        Cantonese 40,255 19,045 21,215
        Chinese, n.o.s. 21,610 10,490 11,115
        Creoles 100 55 50
        Croatian 25 10 15
        Czech 25 10 10
        Danish 10 10 5
        Dutch 25 15 15
        Estonian 35 15 20
        Finnish 40 20 20
        Flemish 0 0 0
        Fukien 145 70 75
        German 170 80 95
        Greek 870 405 460
        Gujarati 2,545 1,215 1,320
        Hakka 630 295 335
        Hebrew 135 65 70
        Hindi 1,270 615 650
        Hungarian 205 90 110
        Ilocano 50 20 25
        Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 50 25 25
        Italian 1,270 590 675
        Japanese 245 105 140
        Khmer (Cambodian) 20 5 10
        Korean 2,130 1,030 1,100
        Kurdish 30 10 10
        Lao 40 15 15
        Latvian 20 10 15
        Lingala 0 0 0
        Lithuanian 15 10 10
        Macedonian 570 265 300
        Malay 100 40 50
        Malayalam 235 120 115
        Maltese 10 5 0
        Mandarin 11,745 5,730 6,020
        Marathi 50 20 25
        Nepali 15 10 5
        Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 20 10 10
        Norwegian 0 0 5
        Oromo 10 5 5
        Panjabi (Punjabi) 2,690 1,305 1,390
        Pashto 170 80 90
        Persian (Farsi) 4,030 1,990 2,040
        Polish 235 115 125
        Portuguese 195 90 105
        Romanian 565 275 295
        Rundi (Kirundi) 0 0 0
        Russian 1,435 690 745
        Rwanda (Kinyarwanda) 0 0 0
        Semitic languages, n.i.e. 30 20 15
        Serbian 200 100 100
        Serbo-Croatian 15 10 10
        Shanghainese 80 35 45
        Sign languages, n.i.e. 45 25 20
        Sindhi 225 105 115
        Sinhala (Sinhalese) 150 75 75
        Sino-Tibetan languages, n.i.e. 5 5 0
        Slavic languages, n.i.e. 0 0 0
        Slovak 20 10 10
        Slovenian 10 10 5
        Somali 50 15 30
        Spanish 1,020 475 545
        Swahili 15 10 5
        Swedish 0 0 0
        Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 1,770 770 1,000
        Taiwanese 175 90 90
        Tamil 10,990 5,300 5,690
        Telugu 115 50 60
        Thai 30 15 15
        Tibetan languages 0 5 0
        Tigrigna 10 5 5
        Turkish 140 65 80
        Ukrainian 50 20 25
        Urdu 3,715 1,830 1,890
        Vietnamese 510 235 270
        Yiddish 0 0 0
      Other languagesCensus data footnote 22 210 95 115
  Multiple responses         26,610 13,065 13,550
    English and French 435 220 215
    English and non-official language 25,715 12,665 13,055
    French and non-official language 75 25 45
    English, French and non-official language 385 155 230
Detailed other language spoken regularly at home
Detailed other language spoken regularly at home - Total population excluding institutional residentsCensus data footnote 19 300,680 146,975 153,705
  None 207,770 101,525 106,245
  Single responses  91,470 44,790 46,680
    English  45,320 22,640 22,675
    French  1,770 745 1,025
    Non-official languages  44,380 21,405 22,975
      Selected Aboriginal languagesCensus data footnote 20 0 0 0
        Atikamekw    0 0 0
        Cree, n.o.s.  0 0 0
        Dene  0 0 0
        Innu/Montagnais  0 0 0
        Inuktitut  0 0 0
        Mi'kmaq  0 0 0
        Ojibway  0 0 0
        Oji-Cree  0 0 0
        Stoney  0 0 0
      Selected non-Aboriginal languagesCensus data footnote 21 44,095 21,270 22,825
        African languages, n.i.e 5 0 0
        Afrikaans  40 15 25
        Akan (Twi)  35 20 15
        Albanian  40 25 15
        Amharic  30 15 15
        Arabic  1,085 555 535
        Armenian  440 220 225
        Bantu languages, n.i.e 15 10 10
        Bengali  200 100 105
        Berber languages (Kabyle)  0 0 0
        Bisayan languages  25 10 15
        Bosnian  5 5 0
        Bulgarian  30 15 15
        Burmese  25 15 10
        Cantonese  9,600 4,675 4,925
        Chinese, n.o.s.  5,300 2,595 2,705
        Creoles  140 65 80
        Croatian  45 20 30
        Czech  30 15 20
        Danish  30 20 10
        Dutch  130 55 80
        Estonian  40 15 25
        Finnish  35 10 20
        Flemish  5 0 0
        Fukien  285 145 145
        German  450 200 250
        Greek  1,745 855 890
        Gujarati  1,645 805 840
        Hakka  315 155 155
        Hebrew  230 100 130
        Hindi  1,590 800 790
        Hungarian  220 105 120
        Ilocano  45 15 30
        Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e 35 20 15
        Italian  1,880 885 995
        Japanese  215 95 120
        Khmer (Cambodian)  10 0 5
        Korean  525 255 270
        Kurdish  20 10 10
        Lao  20 15 10
        Latvian  25 10 15
        Lingala  10 5 10
        Lithuanian  15 5 10
        Macedonian  655 320 330
        Malay  105 50 55
        Malayalam  185 85 105
        Maltese  20 10 5
        Mandarin  2,905 1,375 1,535
        Marathi  95 45 50
        Nepali  5 5 5
        Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e 70 35 35
        Norwegian  10 5 5
        Oromo  5 0 0
        Panjabi (Punjabi)  1,265 645 620
        Pashto  40 25 20
        Persian (Farsi)  1,045 530 515
        Polish  230 105 125
        Portuguese  300 135 170
        Romanian  265 135 125
        Rundi (Kirundi)  5 0 5
        Russian  405 190 210
        Rwanda (Kinyarwanda)  0 0 0
        Semitic languages, n.i.e 25 10 10
        Serbian  120 70 55
        Serbo-Croatian  20 10 5
        Shanghainese  60 25 30
        Sign languages, n.i.e 15 5 5
        Sindhi  335 160 170
        Sinhala (Sinhalese)  205 95 105
        Sino-Tibetan languages, n.i.e 0 0 0
        Slavic languages, n.i.e 5 0 5
        Slovak  40 20 15
        Slovenian  25 10 15
        Somali  80 35 50
        Spanish  825 375 445
        Swahili  50 25 20
        Swedish  15 5 10
        Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino)  1,810 700 1,110
        Taiwanese  130 65 60
        Tamil  3,410 1,675 1,730
        Telugu  50 30 20
        Thai  20 5 15
        Tibetan languages  0 0 0
        Tigrigna  20 10 5
        Turkish  115 65 50
        Ukrainian  55 25 25
        Urdu  2,010 990 1,020
        Vietnamese  400 175 225
        Yiddish  30 15 15
      Other languagesCensus data footnote 22 280 135 150
  Multiple responses          1,445 660 785
    English and French  190 90 95
    English and non-official language  735 350 390
    French and non-official language  510 220 295
    English, French and non-official language  10 5 5

Symbols

... not applicable

A possible reason for the use of the three dots (...) symbol is:

  • A value that cannot be calculated such as a percentage change where the denominator is zero.

Census data: Footnotes

Footnote 1

Statistics Canada is committed to protect the privacy of all Canadians and the confidentiality of the data they provide to us. As part of this commitment, some population counts of geographic areas are adjusted in order to ensure confidentiality.

Counts of the total population are rounded to a base of 5 for any dissemination block having a population of less than 15. Population counts for all standard geographic areas above the dissemination block level are derived by summing the adjusted dissemination block counts. The adjustment of dissemination block counts is controlled to ensure that the population counts for dissemination areas will always be within 5 of the actual values. The adjustment has no impact on the population counts of census divisions and large census subdivisions.

Return to census data footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

A separate set of living quarters designed for or converted for human habitation in which a person or group of persons reside or could reside. In addition, a private dwelling must have a source of heat or power and must be an enclosed space that provides shelter from the elements, as evidenced by complete and enclosed walls and roof, and by doors and windows that provide protection from wind, rain and snow.

Return to census data footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

A separate set of living quarters which has a private entrance either directly from outside or from a common hall, lobby, vestibule or stairway leading to the outside, and in which a person or a group of persons live permanently.

Return to census data footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Refer to the Census Dictionary for more information.

Return to census data footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

The median age is an age 'x', such that exactly one half of the population is older than 'x' and the other half is younger than 'x'.

Return to census data footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Refers to the marital status of the person, taking into account his/her common-law status. For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Marital status.

Return to census data footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

Census family - Refers to a married couple (with or without children), a common-law couple (with or without children) or a lone parent family. For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Census family.

Return to census data footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

Census family structure - Refers to the classification of census families into married couples (with or without children of either and/or both spouses), common-law couples (with or without children of either and/or both partners), and lone-parent families by sex of parent. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. A couple with children may be further classified as either an intact family or stepfamily, and stepfamilies may, in turn, be classified as simple or complex. Children in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present.

Return to census data footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Non-relatives may be present.

Return to census data footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Refers to the basic division of private households into family and non-family households. Family household refers to a household that contains at least one census family, that is, a married couple with or without children, or a couple living common-law with or without children, or a lone parent living with one or more children (lone-parent family). One-family household refers to a single census family (with or without other persons) that occupies a private dwelling. Multiple-family household refers to a household in which two or more census families (with or without additional persons) occupy the same private dwelling. Family households may also be divided based on the presence of persons not in a census family.

Non-family household refers to either one person living alone in a private dwelling or to a group of two or more people who share a private dwelling, but who do not constitute a census family.

Return to census data footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Refers to households that consist solely of one census family without additional persons.

Return to census data footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Refers to households with opposite-sex or same-sex couples.

Return to census data footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

Refers to one-census family households with additional persons and to multiple-census family households, with or without additional persons.

Return to census data footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

Refers to households with opposite-sex or same-sex couples.

Return to census data footnote 14 referrer

Footnote 15

Structural type of dwelling - Characteristics that define a dwelling's structure, for example, the characteristics of a single-detached house, a semi-detached house, a row house, or an apartment or flat in a duplex. Refers to the structural characteristics and/or dwelling configuration, that is, whether the dwelling is a single-detached house, an apartment in a high-rise building, a row house, a mobile home, etc.

Return to census data footnote 15 referrer

Footnote 16

Includes mobile homes and other movable dwellings such as houseboats and railroad cars.

Return to census data footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

The category 'Other dwelling' is a subtotal of the following categories: semi-detached house, row house, apartment or flat in a duplex, apartment in a building that has fewer than five storeys and other single-attached house.

Return to census data footnote 17 referrer

Footnote 18

Household, private - Person or group of persons occupying the same dwelling. Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.

Household size - Number of persons occupying a private dwelling. Refers to the number of usual residents in a private household.

Return to census data footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

The population excluding institutional residents includes Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants (permanent residents) excluding those who live in institutions (institutional collective dwellings). Canadian citizens and landed immigrants either: (1) have a usual place of residence in Canada; (2) are abroad either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission; or (3) are at sea or in port aboard merchant vessels under Canadian registry or Canadian government vessels. Since 1991, the target population also includes persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who are claiming refugee status, who hold study permits, or who hold work permits, as well as family members living with them; for census purposes, this group is referred to as non-permanent residents. The population universe does not include foreign residents.

Return to census data footnote 19 referrer

Footnote 20

The languages shown were selected based on the Aboriginal mother tongues most often reported as single responses in Canada in the 2011 Census of Population.

Return to census data footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

The languages shown were selected based on the non-Aboriginal mother tongues (other than English or French) most often reported as single responses in Canada in the 2011 Census of Population.

Return to census data footnote 21 referrer

Footnote 22

This is a subtotal of all languages collected by the census that are not displayed separately here. For a full list of languages collected in the census, please refer to Appendix D in the 2011 Census Dictionary.

Return to census data footnote 22 referrer

Footnote 23

English is the first official language spoken by Quebec's official language minority, which consists of all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. French is the first official language spoken by the official language minority in the country overall and in every province and territory outside Quebec, which consists of all individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

Return to census data footnote 23 referrer

How to cite

How to cite: Statistics Canada. 2013. Markham, T, Ontario (Code 3519036) (table). National Household Survey (NHS) Profile. 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-004-XWE. Ottawa. Released June 26, 2013.
http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E (accessed October 21, 2017).

Data source

2011 Census of Population

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Related links

Map

Map

Map: Markham, Town (Census Subdivision), Ontario

Geographic hierarchy

Geographic hierarchy

Geographic hierarchy: Markham, T, Ontario (Census subdivision)

Note

Note: For more information regarding geographic hierarchies, refer to the Illustrated Glossary: Hierarchy of standard geographic units tutorial.

Related data

Related data

Related data: Markham, Town (Census Subdivision), Ontario

2011 Census