2001 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Selected Cultural and Labour Force Characteristics (58), Age Groups (5A), Sex (3) and Visible Minority Groups (15) for Population 15 Years and Over, for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 2001 Census - 20% Sample Data

About this variable: Selected Cultural and Labour Force Characteristics (58)

Definition

No definition is available for this variable.

Values

  1. Total population 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2000 by language used most often at work Footnote 1
  2. English
  3. French
  4. Non-official language
  5. English and French
  6. English and non-official language
  7. French and non-official language
  8. English, French and non-official language
  9. Total population 15 years and over by labour force activity Footnote 9
  10. In the labour force
  11. Employed
  12. Unemployed
  13. Not in the labour force
  14. Participation rate
  15. Employment rate
  16. Unemployment rate
  17. Total labour force 15 years and over by industry - 1997 North American Industry Classification System Footnote 17
  18. Industry - Not applicable Footnote 18
  19. All industries Footnote 19
  20. 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting
  21. 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction
  22. 22 Utilities
  23. 23 Construction
  24. 31-33 Manufacturing
  25. 41 Wholesale trade
  26. 44-45 Retail trade
  27. 48-49 Transportation and warehousing
  28. 51 Information and cultural industries
  29. 52 Finance and insurance
  30. 53 Real estate and rental and leasing
  31. 54 Professional, scientific and technical services
  32. 55 Management of companies and enterprises
  33. 56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services
  34. 61 Educational services
  35. 62 Health care and social assistance
  36. 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation
  37. 72 Accommodation and food services
  38. 81 Other services (except public administration)
  39. 91 Public administration
  40. Total labour force 15 years and over by occupation - 2001 National Occupational Classification for Statistics Footnote 40
  41. Occupation - Not applicable Footnote 41
  42. All occupations Footnote 42
  43. A Management occupations
  44. B Business, finance and administration occupations
  45. C Natural and applied sciences and related occupations
  46. D Health occupations
  47. E Occupations in social science, education, government service and religion
  48. F Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
  49. G Sales and service occupations
  50. H Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations
  51. I Occupations unique to primary industry
  52. J Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities
  53. Total experienced labour force 15 years and over by class of worker Footnote 53
  54. Paid workers
  55. Employees
  56. Self-employed (incorporated)
  57. Self-employed (unincorporated)
  58. Unpaid family workers

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Language of Work
Part A - Plain Language Definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed Definition
Refers to the language used most often at work by the individual at the time of the census. Other languages used at work on a regular basis are also collected.

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Footnote 9

Labour Force Activity (in Reference Week)
Refers to the labour market activity of the population 15 years of age and over in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001). Respondents were classified as either employed, or unemployed, or as not in the labour force. The labour force includes the employed and the unemployed.

Employed (in Reference Week)
Refers to persons 15 years of age and over, excluding institutional residents, who, during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001):
(a) did any work at all for pay or in self-employment or without pay in a family farm, business or professional practice;
(b) were absent from their job or business, with or without pay, for the entire week because of a vacation, an illness, a labour dispute at their place of work, or any other reasons.

Unemployed (in Reference Week)
Refers to persons 15 years of age and over, excluding institutional residents, who, during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001), were without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either:
(a) had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or
(b) were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or
(c) had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.

Not in the Labour Force (in Reference Week)
Refers to persons 15 years of age and over, excluding institutional residents, who, in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001), were neither employed nor unemployed. It includes students, homemakers, retired workers, seasonal workers in an 'off' season who were not looking for work, and persons who could not work because of a long-term illness or disability.

Labour Force (in Reference Week)
Refers to persons who were either employed or unemployed during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001).

In past censuses, this was called 'Total Labour Force'.

Participation Rate (in Reference Week)
Refers to the labour force in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001), expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over excluding institutional residents.

The participation rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the total labour force in that group, expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over, in that group.

Employment Rate (in Reference Week)
Refers to the number of persons employed in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001), expressed as a percentage of the total population 15 years of age and over excluding institutional residents.

The employment rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the number employed in that group, expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over in that group.

In past censuses, this was called the Employment-population Ratio.

Unemployment Rate (in Reference Week)
Refers to the unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to Census Day (May 15, 2001).

The unemployment rate for a particular group (age, sex, marital status, geographic area, etc.) is the unemployed in that group, expressed as a percentage of the labour force in that group, in the week prior to enumeration.

Note:

1. For information on the comparability of labour force activity data with those of previous censuses and with the Labour Force Survey, see Appendix E in the 2001 Census Dictionary, Catalogue Number 92-378-XIE or 92-378-XPE.

2. See the Dictionary of the 1971 Census terms (Catalogue No. 12-540) for differences between 1961 and 1971.

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Footnote 17

Industry (based on the 1997 North American Industry Classification System [NAICS])
Part A - Plain Language Definition
General nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2001 Census data on industry (based on the 1997 NAICS) can be compared with data from Canada's NAFTA partners (United States and Mexico).
Part B - Detailed Definition
Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. If the person did not have a job during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 15, 2001), the data relate to the job of longest duration since January 1, 2000. Persons with two or more jobs were required to report the information for the job at which they worked the most hours.

The 2001 industry data are produced according to the 1997 NAICS. The NAICS provides enhanced industry comparability among the three North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trading partners (Canada, United States and Mexico). This classification consists of a systematic and comprehensive arrangement of industries structured into 20 sectors, 99 subsectors and 300 industry groups. The criteria used to create these categories are similarity of input structures, labour skills or production processes used by the establishment. For further information on the classification, see North American Industry Classification System, Canada, 1997, Catalogue No. 12-501-XPE.

The variable 'Industry (based on the 1997 NAICS)' does not permit direct comparison to any previous census industry data. The 1980 Standard Industrial Classification should be used for comparisons between the 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001 Censuses.

The 2001 industry data can be tabulated for a number of populations, among which the most frequently used are:
(a) the employed;
(b) the experienced labour force - persons who were either employed or unemployed in the reference week but who had worked since January 1, 2000;
(c) those who have worked since January 1, 2000, regardless of whether or not they were in the labour force in the reference week.

The remaining components of the labour force, unemployed persons who worked prior to January 1, 2000, or who never worked, are shown in the data under the category 'Industry - Not applicable'.

Coding of responses to the industry questions was done, where possible, using a pre-coded List of Establishments to ensure uniformity with the NAICS codes assigned to the same establishments by other Statistics Canada surveys.

Comparable industry information based on the 1997 NAICS is also available from the Labour Force Survey.

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Footnote 18

Unemployed persons 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2000.

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Footnote 19

Refers to the experienced labour force: persons who, during the week prior to Census Day, were employed or unemployed who worked for pay or in self-employment since January 1, 2000.

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Footnote 40

Occupation (based on the 2001 National Occupational Classification for Statistics [NOC-S 2001])
Part A - Plain Language Definition
Kind of work done by persons aged 15 and over. Occupation is based on the type of job the person holds and the description of his or her duties. The 2001 data on occupation are classified according to the 2001 National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S 2001). For comparisons with data from the 1991 and 1996 Censuses, the variable Occupation (Historical) should be used.
Part B - Detailed Definition
Refers to the kind of work persons were doing during the reference week, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. If the person did not have a job during the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 15, 2001), the data relate to the job of longest duration since January 1, 2000. Persons with two or more jobs were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most hours.

The 2001 occupation data are classified according to the 2001 National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S 2001). This classification is composed of four levels of aggregation. There are 10 broad occupational categories containing 47 major groups that are further subdivided into 140 minor groups. At the most detailed level, there are 520 occupation unit groups. Occupation unit groups are formed on the basis of the education, training, or skill level required to enter the job, as well as the kind of work performed, as determined by the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the occupation.

The 2001 National Occupational Classification for Statistics is a revision of the 1991 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). The 1991 SOC was used to classify occupation data in the 1991 and 1996 Censuses. In order to compare occupation data coded to the NOC-S 2001 with data coded to the 1991 SOC, the variable Occupation (Historical) should be used.

The 2001 occupation data can be tabulated for a number of populations, among which the most frequently used are:

(a) the employed;
(b) the experienced labour force - persons who were either employed or unemployed in the reference week but who had worked since January 1, 2000;
(c) those who have worked since January 1, 2000, regardless of whether or not they were in the labour force in the reference week.
The remaining components of the labour force, unemployed persons who worked prior to January 1, 2000, or who never worked, are shown in the data under the category 'Occupation - Not applicable'.

If the respondent did not specify an occupation or did not define it in sufficient detail to permit coding, a computer-generated NOC-S 2001 code was assigned based on other economic and demographic information given by the respondent.

Human Resources Development Canada classifies occupation data according to the National Occupational Classification (NOC). This classification has a similar structure to that of the 2001 National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S 2001). The two classifications have 520 unit groups, 140 minor groups and 10 broad categories in common. However, there are 47 major groups in the NOC-S 2001 and 26 major groups in the NOC. Occupation data from the 2001 Census are available according to both the NOC-S 2001and the NOC structures.

Occupation information is also available from the Labour Force Survey.

For information on the NOC-S 2001, see the National Occupational Classification for Statistics, 2001, Catalogue No. 12-583-XPE.

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Footnote 41

Unemployed persons 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2000.

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Footnote 42

Refers to the experienced labour force: persons who were employed or unemployed, who worked for pay or in self-employment since January 1, 2000.

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Footnote 53

Class of Worker
Part A - Plain Language Definition
Not applicable
Part B - Detailed Definition
This variable classifies persons who reported a job into the following categories:
(a) persons who worked mainly for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piece-rates, or payments 'in kind' (payments in goods or services rather than money);
(b) persons who worked mainly for themselves, with or without paid help, operating a business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership;
(c) persons who worked without pay in a family business, farm or professional practice owned or operated by a related household member; unpaid family work does not include unpaid housework, unpaid childcare, unpaid care to seniors and volunteer work.
The job reported was the one held in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 15, 2001) if the person was employed, or the job of longest duration since January 1, 2000, if the person was not employed during the reference week. Persons with two or more jobs in the reference week were asked to provide information for the job at which they worked the most hours.

Wage and Salary Earners
Includes persons 15 years of age and over who worked since January 1, 2000, and who indicated that in the job reported, they were working mainly for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piece-rates or payments 'in kind' (payments in goods or services rather than money). Some examples include: those who worked in someone else's private household at such jobs as babysitting and cleaning; salespersons on commission working for only one company and not maintaining an office or staff; and those who worked for payment 'in kind' in non-family enterprises, such as members of a religious order who received free room and board or other supplies in lieu of cash.

Self-employed
Includes persons 15 years of age and over who worked since January 1, 2000, and for whom the job reported consisted mainly of operating a business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership. Some examples include: operating a farm, whether the land is rented or owned; working on a freelance or contract basis to do a job (e.g. architects, private duty nurses); operating a direct distributorship selling and delivering products such as cosmetics, newspapers, brushes and soap products; and fishing with own equipment or with equipment in which the person has a share.
Respondents were to specify if their business was incorporated or unincorporated, as well as if they had paid help or no paid help. It should be noted that new tax laws in 1980 permitted the respondent, for the first time, to deduct a spouse's wages as expenses. Consequently, self-employed persons who decided to pay wages to their spouse to take advantage of the new law changed status from 'without paid help' to 'with paid help' between 1971 and 1981. This change should be kept in mind when comparing data between the 1971 Census and subsequent censuses.

Unpaid Family Workers (Worked Without Pay for a Relative in a Family Business, Farm or Professional Practice)
Includes persons 15 years of age and over who worked without regular money wages, for a relative who was a member of the same household. The job reported consisted mainly of tasks contributing to the operation of a business, farm or professional practice, owned or operated by the relative.
Census data are directly comparable for this category from 1981 to 2001. The 1971 Census may not be strictly comparable to subsequent censuses because of conceptual changes in the 1981 Census. For instance, females who were unpaid family workers, worked as farm labourers, and did less than 20 hours of unpaid work a week, were excluded from the labour force according to the 1971 definitions. These persons are included in the employed labour force in 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001. Also, new tax laws, mentioned earlier, changed the status of some people from 'unpaid family workers' to 'paid workers' between 1971 and 1981.
In addition, there were some data quality problems with the 1981 data that led to the underestimation of the 'Unpaid family workers'. In 1986, an apparent dramatic increase from 1981 in this category of worker was due more to better reporting in 1986 than an actual increase in the number of unpaid family workers.

Census products
Census products often present the class of worker data in the following categories:
(a) paid workers: this includes wage and salary earners and self-employed persons in incorporated companies (the latter are included because they are considered employees of their own companies and thus, paid workers);
(b) self-employed in unincorporated companies (a breakdown of 'with paid help' and 'without paid help' can be provided);
(c) unpaid family workers.

Comparability between Census Data and the Labour Force Survey data
Some persons who are considered as paid workers in the census are considered as self-employed persons without a business in the Labour Force Survey. These are persons who work at jobs such as babysitting and cleaning for private households, or as newspaper carriers.

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