Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census

Province of Quebec 1

In 2011, the enumerated population of Quebec was 7,903,001 which represents a change of 4.7% from 2006. This compares to the national average of 5.9%.

The land area of Quebec is 1,356,547.02 square kilometres with a population density of 5.8 persons per square kilometre. This compares to the national land area of 8,965,121.42 square kilometres with a population density of 3.7 persons per square kilometre.

In total, there were 3,395,343 private dwellings occupied by usual residents in Quebec in 2011. This represents an increase of 6.5% of the number of private dwellings occupied by usual residents from 2006. For Canada as a whole, the total number of private dwellings occupied by usual residents increased 7.1%.

Population and dwelling counts

Canada, provinces and territories – Population, percentage change between 2006 and 2011

Table 1 Canada, provinces and territories – Population change, 2006 to 2011
Geographic name Population
2011 2006 Change % change % of nat. pop.
Canada  33,476,688 31,612,897 1,863,791 5.9 100.00
Newfoundland and Labrador 514,536 505,469 9,067 1.8 1.54
Prince Edward Island 140,204 135,851 4,353 3.2 0.42
Nova Scotia 921,727 913,462 8,265 0.9 2.75
New Brunswick 751,171 729,997 21,174 2.9 2.24
Quebec  7,903,001 7,546,131 356,870 4.7 23.61
Ontario  12,851,821 12,160,282 691,539 5.7 38.39
Manitoba  1,208,268 1,148,401 59,867 5.2 3.61
Saskatchewan  1,033,381 968,157 65,224 6.7 3.09
Alberta  3,645,257 3,290,350 354,907 10.8 10.89
British Columbia  4,400,057 4,113,487 286,570 7.0 13.14
Yukon 33,897 30,372 3,525 11.6 0.10
Northwest Territories 41,462 41,464 -2 0.0 0.12
Nunavut 31,906 29,474 2,432 8.3 0.10

Quebec – Census metropolitan areas (CMAs), census agglomerations (CAs) and regions outside CMAs and CAs


In 2011, 80.4% of the population of Quebec lived inside a census metropolitan area (CMA) or census agglomeration (CA). That represents 6,354,799 persons.


The number of persons living outside a census metropolitan area (CMA) and a census agglomeration (CA) was 1,548,202 which accounts for 19.6% of the provincial population.

Table 2 Quebec - Metropolitan areas, populaton rank and population change, 2006 to 2011
CMA or CA name Type Population Rank
2011 2006 % change Nat. Prov.
Montréal  CMA 3,824,221 3,635,556 A 5.2 2 1
Ottawa - Gatineau CMA 1,236,324 1,133,633 A 9.1 4 ···
Ottawa - Gatineau (partie du Québec / Quebec part)   314,501 286,831 A 9.6 ··· 3
Ottawa - Gatineau (Ontario part / partie de l'Ontario)   921,823 846,802 8.9 ··· 2
Québec  CMA 765,706 719,153 A 6.5 7 2
Sherbrooke CMA 201,890 191,410 A 5.5 19 4
Saguenay CMA 157,790 156,305 A 1.0 26 5
Trois-Rivières CMA 151,773 144,713 A 4.9 27 6
Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu CA 92,394 87,492 5.6 41 7
Drummondville CA 88,480 82,949 A 6.7 45 8
Granby CA 77,077 71,176 A 8.3 48 9
Saint-Hyacinthe CA 56,794 54,976 A 3.3 57 10
Shawinigan CA 55,009 56,408 A -2.5 60 11
Rimouski CA 50,912 48,918 A 4.1 62 12
Sorel-Tracy CA 47,772 46,595 A 2.5 64 13
Joliette CA 46,932 43,306 A 8.4 65 14
Victoriaville CA 46,354 43,195 A 7.3 66 15
Rouyn-Noranda CA 41,798 40,650 A 2.8 72 16
Salaberry-de-Valleyfield CA 40,077 39,672 1.0 74 17
Saint-Georges CA 34,642 32,902 A 5.3 80 18
Val-d'Or CA 33,265 32,288 3.0 83 19
Alma CA 33,018 31,864 A 3.6 84 20
Baie-Comeau CA 28,789 29,674 A -3.0 88 21
Sept-Îles CA 28,487 27,827 2.4 89 22
Thetford Mines CA 27,968 28,110 A -0.5 91 23
Rivière-du-Loup CA 27,734 26,423 A 5.0 93 24
Matane CA 18,368 18,709 A -1.8 111 25
Campbellton CA 17,842 17,878 A -0.2 113 ···
Campbellton (New Brunswick part / partie du Nouveau-Brunswick)   14,520 14,816 A -2.0 ··· 7
Campbellton (partie du Québec / Quebec part)   3,322 3,062 8.5 ··· 30
Amos CA 17,090 17,176 A -0.5 118 26
Dolbeau-Mistassini CA 16,019 16,257 A -1.5 122 27
Lachute CA 12,551 11,832 6.1 137 28
Cowansville CA 12,489 12,182 A 2.5 139 29
Hawkesbury CA 12,128 12,267 -1.1 143 ···
Hawkesbury (partie du Québec / Quebec part)   1,577 1,398 12.8 ··· 31
Hawkesbury (Ontario part / partie de l'Ontario)   10,551 10,869 -2.9 ··· 43

Quebec – Census subdivisions, with 5,000-plus population with the highest population growth

Table 3 Quebec – Census subdivisions, with 5,000-plus population with the highest population growth, population change, 2006 to 2011
Census subdivision (CSD) name CSD type Population
2011 2006 % change
Sainte-Brigitte-de-Laval 5,696 3,790 50.3
Sainte-Marthe-sur-le-Lac V 15,689 11,311 38.7
Marieville V 10,094 7,527 A 34.1
Shannon 5,086 3,825 33.0
Saint-Amable 10,870 8,398 29.4

Quebec – Census subdivisions, with 5,000-plus population with the lowest population growth

Table 4 Quebec – Census subdivisions, with 5,000-plus population with the lowest population growth, population change, 2006 to 2011
Census subdivision (CSD) name CSD type Population
2011 2006 % change
La Tuque V 11,227 11,821 -5.0
Shawinigan V 50,060 51,904 -3.6
Témiscouata-sur-le-Lac V 5,096 5,259 A -3.1
Roberval V 10,227 10,544 -3.0
Westmount V 19,931 20,494 -2.7
Pointe-Calumet 6,396 6,574 -2.7
Chandler V 7,703 7,914 -2.7

Age and sex

Quebec – Age distribution

Table 5 Quebec – Age distributions by broad age groups and sex, 2011 Census
Age groups Both sexes Males Females
0 to 14 15.9% 16.6% 15.3%
15 to 64 68.2% 69.3% 67.1%
65 and over 15.9% 14.1% 17.6%

In 2011, the percentage of the population aged 65 and over in Quebec was 15.9%, compared with a national percentage of 14.8%. The percentage of the working age population (15 to 64) was 68.2% and the percentage of children aged 0 to 14 was 15.9%. In comparison, the national percentages were 68.5% for the population aged 15 to 64 and 16.7% for the population aged 0 to 14.

Quebec – Population by broad age groups and sex

Table 6 Quebec – Population by broad age groups, sex and population change between 2006 and 2011, 2006 and 2011 censuses
Broad age groups by sex Population
2011 2006 change % change
Both sexes
Total 7,903,000 7,546,130 356,870 4.7
0 to 14 1,258,620 1,252,505 6,115 0.5
15 to 64 5,386,695 5,213,335 173,360 3.3
65 and over 1,257,690 1,080,285 177,405 16.4
Males
Total 3,875,865 3,687,695 188,170 5.1
0 to 14 642,745 639,145 3,600 0.6
15 to 64 2,686,195 2,592,185 94,010 3.6
65 and over 546,920 456,370 90,550 19.8
Females
Total 4,027,140 3,858,435 168,705 4.4
0 to 14 615,880 613,365 2,515 0.4
15 to 64 2,700,495 2,621,150 79,345 3.0
65 and over 710,765 623,920 86,845 13.9

Quebec – Population by five-year age groups and sex

Table 7 Quebec – Population by five-year age groups and sex, 2011 Census
Age groups Both sexes Males Females
Total - Age groups 7,903,000 3,875,865 4,027,140
0 to 4 years 440,840 225,525 215,315
5 to 9 years 399,575 203,670 195,905
10 to 14 years 418,200 213,540 204,660
15 to 19 years 491,980 249,960 242,020
20 to 24 years 489,185 246,845 242,340
25 to 29 years 490,665 245,700 244,975
30 to 34 years 531,445 264,980 266,460
35 to 39 years 498,225 249,610 248,615
40 to 44 years 520,810 261,120 259,690
45 to 49 years 623,575 311,320 312,250
50 to 54 years 648,695 320,695 328,000
55 to 59 years 579,280 285,290 293,990
60 to 64 years 512,830 250,675 262,155
65 to 69 years 403,210 194,305 208,905
70 to 74 years 291,755 135,830 155,925
75 to 79 years 232,355 101,675 130,680
80 to 84 years 176,420 69,170 107,250
85 to 89 years 103,310 33,885 69,425
90 to 94 years 39,600 9,960 29,640
95 to 99 years 9,690 1,915 7,775
100 years and over 1,345 185 1,165
Median age 41.9 40.7 43.0

Quebec – Median age2 of the population in the last 90 years

The median age in Quebec was 41.9 years. In comparison, the median age of Canada was 40.6 years.

Chart E: Quebec - Median age of the population in the last 90 years

Chart E description: Quebec - Median age of the population in the last 90 years

Table 8 Quebec and Canada – Median age of the population, 1921 to 2011 censuses
Median age Census year
1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Canada 23.9 24.7 27.0 27.7 26.3 26.2 29.6 33.5 37.6 40.6
Quebec 20.8 22.1 24.1 24.8 24.0 25.6 29.7 34.2 38.8 41.9

Families and households

In 2011, the number of census families3 in Quebec was 2,203,625, which represents a change of 3.9% from 2006. This compares to a growth rate for Canada of 5.5% over the same period.


In Quebec, 51.9% of census families were married couples in 2011, while 31.5% were common-law-couples and 16.6% were lone-parent families.

Family structure

Table 9 Canada, provinces and territories – Distribution of census families by family structure, 2011 Census
Geographic name Total families Married-couple families Common-law-couple families Lone-parent families % change, census families, 2006 to 2011
number % number % number %
Canada  9,389,695 6,293,950 67.0 1,567,905 16.7 1,527,840 16.3 5.5
Newfoundland and Labrador 159,385 114,335 71.7 20,630 12.9 24,420 15.3 2.3
Prince Edward Island 40,850 29,695 72.7 4,570 11.2 6,580 16.1 4.2
Nova Scotia 270,065 184,870 68.5 38,460 14.2 46,735 17.3 1.0
New Brunswick 224,590 152,455 67.9 35,945 16.0 36,190 16.1 3.1
Quebec  2,203,625 1,143,370 51.9 694,750 31.5 365,515 16.6 3.9
Ontario  3,612,205 2,612,890 72.3 394,670 10.9 604,645 16.7 5.5
Manitoba  327,875 232,635 71.0 39,060 11.9 56,185 17.1 4.8
Saskatchewan  285,375 202,770 71.1 35,785 12.5 46,825 16.4 6.7
Alberta  999,525 719,355 72.0 135,660 13.6 144,510 14.5 10.5
British Columbia  1,238,155 887,990 71.7 160,360 13.0 189,805 15.3 6.6
Yukon 9,330 5,080 54.4 2,340 25.1 1,915 20.5 11.9
Northwest Territories 10,930 5,465 50.0 3,135 28.7 2,330 21.3 0.5
Nunavut 7,780 3,035 39.0 2,545 32.7 2,195 28.2 10.5

Quebec – Presence of children within couple families

Among couples (married and common-law) in Quebec, 44.9% were couples with children aged 24 and under at home. In comparison, as a whole, 46.9% of couples in Canada had children aged 24 and under at home.

Among couples with children aged 24 and under at home in the province of Quebec, 83.9% were intact families, that is, in which all children were the biological or adopted children of both parents, while 16.1% were stepfamilies, in which at least one child was the biological or adopted child of only one married spouse or common-law partner. For Canada as a whole in 2011, 12.6% of couples with children aged 24 and under at home were stepfamilies.



Quebec – Marital status

In Quebec, 56.4% of the total population aged 15 and over were either married (35.4%) or living with a common-law partner (20.9%).


The remaining 43.6% were not married and not living with a common-law partner, including those who were single (never-married), separated, divorced or widowed.


Note: Percentages may not total 100 percent due to random rounding.

Table 10 Canada, Quebec – Population 15 years and older by marital status, 2011 Census
Marital status Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total - Population 15 years and over 6,644,380 100.0 27,869,345 100.0
Married or living with a common-law partner 3,745,315 56.4 16,084,490 57.7
Married (and not separated) 2,353,775 35.4 12,941,965 46.4
Living common-law 1,391,545 20.9 3,142,525 11.3
Not married and not living with a common-law partner 2,899,060 43.6 11,784,855 42.3
Single (never legally married) 1,942,090 29.2 7,816,045 28.0
Separated 105,190 1.6 698,245 2.5
Divorced 463,830 7.0 1,686,035 6.0
Widowed 387,950 5.8 1,584,525 5.7

Quebec – Types of private households

There were 3,395,345 private households4 in Quebec in 2011, a change of 6.5% from 2006. Of these, 23.9% of households were comprised of couples with children aged 24 and under at home, a change of -0.9% compared with five years earlier.

Table 11 Canada, Quebec – Distribution of households by household type, 2011 Census
Household type5 Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total - Private households 3,395,345 100.0 13,320,615 100.0
Couple-family households with children6 811,120 23.9 3,524,915 26.5
Couple-family households without children7 988,410 29.1 3,935,540 29.5
Lone-parent family households8 346,305 10.2 1,375,450 10.3
One-person households 1,094,410 32.2 3,673,310 27.6
Multiple-family households9 28,420 0.8 268,060 2.0
Other households10 126,680 3.7 543,340 4.1

Quebec – Size of private households

The average household size in Quebec was 2.3 persons in 2011, compared to the Canadian average household size of 2.5 persons.

In Quebec, the proportion of total private households with only one person has increased over time, while the proportion of larger households (five or more persons) has decreased.

Chart I: Quebec – Size of private households, 1961 to 2011 Chart I description: Quebec – Size of private households
Table 12 Quebec – Proportion of total private households with one person and five or more persons, 1961 to 2011 censuses
Private household size 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011
One person 7.0 9.5 12.0 15.5 19.6 21.7 24.7 27.3 29.6 30.7 32.2
Five or more persons 38.1 35.1 29.1 20.6 14.5 10.5 8.3 7.7 6.7 6.1 6.0

Quebec – Structural type of dwelling

In Quebec, 46.0% of private households lived in single-detached houses and 5.0% lived in apartments in buildings that have five or more storeys. The rest lived in other types of dwelling structures.

Table 13 Canada, Quebec – Distribution of private households by structural type of dwelling, 2011 Census
Structural type of dwelling Quebec Canada
number % number %
Total - Structural type of dwelling 3,395,345 100.0 13,320,615 100.0
Single-detached house 1,560,405 46.0 7,329,150 55.0
Semi-detached house 171,435 5.0 646,240 4.9
Row house 86,040 2.5 791,600 5.9
Apartment, building that has five or more storeys 171,110 5.0 1,234,770 9.3
Apartment, building that has fewer than five storeys 1,103,845 32.5 2,397,555 18.0
Apartment, duplex 263,860 7.8 704,485 5.3
Other single-attached house11 15,650 0.5 33,310 0.3
Movable dwelling12 23,000 0.7 183,510 1.4

Language

Quebec – Mother tongue

Chart J: Quebec - Mother tongue and language spoken most often at home

Chart J description: Quebec - Mother tongue and language spoken most often at home

Note: Counts for mother tongue as well as those for language spoken most often at home include single responses only.

In Quebec, 7.7% of the population reported English only as mother tongue, 78.1% reported French only, and 12.3% reported only a non-official language, in 2011. In comparison, the national percentages were 56.9% for English only, 21.3% for French only and 19.8% for non-official languages only.

In 2011, 9.8% of the population spoke English only most often at home, 80.0% spoke only French, and 7.1% spoke only a non-official language. In comparison, the national percentages were 64.8% for English only, 20.6% for French only and 11.1% for only a non-official language.

Table 14 Quebec – Mother tongue and language spoken most often at home, 2011 Census
Selected language Mother tongue Language spoken most often at home
number % number %
Total 7,815,955 100.0 7,815,955 100.0
English 599,230 7.7 767,415 9.8
French 6,102,210 78.1 6,249,085 80.0
Non-official language 961,700 12.3 554,400 7.1
Aboriginal language 43,665 0.6 38,990 0.5
Non-Aboriginal language 918,030 11.7 515,410 6.6
Multiple responses 152,820 2.0 245,055 3.1
Table 15 Quebec – Mother-tongue retention, 2011 Census
Mother tongue Mother-tongue retention13
(in percentage)
Total retention; language spoken at home at least on a regular basis Complete retention; language spoken most often at home Partial retention; language spoken at home on a regular basis
Note: Counts for mother tongue and home language include single response of a language as well as multiple responses of a language with English and/or French.
English 92.6 84.9 7.7
French 99.3 98.2 1.1
Non-official language 83.9 62.8 21.1
Aboriginal language 95.0 87.9 7.1
Non-Aboriginal language 83.4 61.7 21.7

Quebec – Non-official languages

In Quebec, the three most common mother tongues were Arabic (2.1%), Spanish (1.8%) and Italian (1.6%), in 2011. In comparison, the most common mother tongues at the national level were Panjabi (Punjabi) (1.4%), Chinese, n.o.s. (1.3%) and Spanish (1.3%).

Table 16 Quebec – The most common non-official language mother tongues, 2011 Census
Mother tongue Number Percentage of non-official language mother-tongue population Percentage of total population
Note: Counts for mother tongue and home language include single response of a language as well as multiple responses of a language with English and/or French.
Arabic 164,390 15.7 2.1
Spanish 141,000 13.4 1.8
Italian 121,720 11.6 1.6
Creoles 58,895 5.6 0.8
Chinese, n.o.s. 43,160 4.1 0.6
Greek 42,780 4.1 0.5
Portuguese 36,570 3.5 0.5
Romanian 32,230 3.1 0.4
Vietnamese 28,045 2.7 0.4
Russian 25,215 2.4 0.3

Quebec – Bilingualism

Table 17 Quebec – Rate of English-French bilingualism by mother tongue and age groups, 2011 Census
Age groups Mother tongue
Total English French Non-official language
Note: Counts for mother tongue include single responses only. Consequently, the total excludes multiple responses.
Total 42.0 67.8 38.3 49.9
0 to 19 27.2 65.4 20.9 41.2
20 to 44 56.7 77.2 54.0 59.4
45 to 64 42.5 68.5 39.1 51.1
65 and over 31.7 49.4 30.1 31.6
Table 18 Quebec – Knowledge of official languages, 2011 Census
Knowledge of official languages Number Percentage
Total 7,815,955 100.0
English only 363,860 4.7
French only 4,047,175 51.8
English and French 3,328,725 42.6
Neither English nor French 76,195 1.0

Symbols:

···
not applicable
excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements. For further information, refer to Notes.
incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. For further information, refer to Notes.
A
adjusted figure due to boundary change. For further information, refer to Content considerations.
E
use with caution. For further information, refer to Cautionary note.

Notes:

  1. Quebec – This province has the following data quality indicators (commonly referred to as data quality flags):
     

    Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

  2. Median age: Age 'x' that divides a population in two groups of the same population size, one group being older than age 'x' and the other group being younger than age 'x'.
  3. Census family: Refers to a married couple (with or without children), a common-law couple (with or without children) or a lone parent family.
  4. Household, private: Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.
  5. Household type: Refers to the basic division of private households into family and non-family households. Family household refers to a household that contains at least one census family, that is, a married couple with or without children, or a couple living in common-law with or without children or a lone parent living with one or more children.
  6. Couple-family households with children: Refers to couple households with at least one child aged 24 and under.
  7. Couple-family households without children: Refers to couple households without children aged 24 and under. Includes couple households with all children aged 25 and over.
  8. Lone-parent-family households: Refers to all lone-parent family households regardless of age of children.
  9. Multiple-family households: Refers to a household in which two or more census families (with or without additional persons) occupy the same private dwelling.
  10. Other households: Refers to two or more people who share a private dwelling, but who do not constitute a census family.
  11. Other single-attached house: A single dwelling that is attached to another building and that does not fall into any of the other categories, such as a single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure (e.g., a store or a church) or occasionally to another residential structure (e.g., an apartment building).
  12. Movable dwelling includes mobile homes and other movable dwellings such as houseboats and railroad cars.
  13. Mother-tongue retention: Retention refers to the situation where people speak their mother tongue at home. Retention is defined as 'complete' when the mother tongue is the language spoken most often and 'partial' when it is spoken on a regular basis but not most often. The (complete or partial) retention rate refers to the proportion of the population with a given mother tongue that speaks that language at home most often or on a regular basis. The retention rate provides an indication of a group's linguistic vitality, particularly the importance of transmitting languages between generations.


Source:

Statistics Canada. 2012. Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-310-XWE2011004. Ottawa, Ontario. Analytical products, 2011 Census. Last updated October 24, 2012.
 

Related data: