Income and earnings

The Income and earnings topic provides statistics on income from all sources, and includes child care and support payments. In the input collected, organizations from different sectors regard the socioeconomic situation of an individual as a determinant of health.

Examples of reported data usesFootnote1


It was reported that the federal government makes use of data pertaining to income and earnings, among others, for the administration of the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act, Canada Pension Plan, Old Age Security Act and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board Act.

Examples of provincial and territorial legislation and regulations submitted during consultation include Yukon's Municipal Act, Saskatchewan's Personal Injury and Benefits Regulations (under the Automobile Accident Insurance Act), Alberta's Regional Health Authorities Act, Ontario's Ministry of Community and Social Services Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. M.20 and New Brunswick's Labour Market Research Act. These data are also used by the Government of Quebec for population health surveillance plans prescribed by the Loi de santé publique (2002).

Resource allocation and service delivery

Federal government uses of Census Program income and earnings data for resource allocation and/or service delivery include the Atlantic Opportunities Agency's Innovative Communities Fund and the Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Regions of Quebec's Programme Croissance des entreprises et des régions and Programme de diversification des collectivités, among others.

At the provincial level, income data are considered in the allocation of resources and/or the provision of services, including child welfare services and employment benefits and services. Combined with other Census Program topics, these data are used in Ontario to inform the allocation of funds through Grants for the Student Needs which is based on various socioeconomic indicators.

At the local level, Census Program income and earnings data support resource allocation for affordable housing programs, immigrant settlement and child care. They are consulted by local governments to target services and programs, such as school lunch programs and shelters, for employment services as well as for the production of a socioeconomic scale which is spatially analysed (mapped) to identify services, health status and health needs across neighbourhoods.

Planning, development, monitoring, evaluation and performance reports

Federally, Canadian Heritage's Arts Policy Branch uses these data crossed by occupation and other Census Program variables as a baseline for policy and planning requirements, for performance reporting and program monitoring and evaluation. Several departments use these data for evaluation and/or performance reporting including Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Veterans Affairs Canada and Public Safety Canada.

They are used for Primary Health Care and Chronic Disease Management at Health Canada, for Supply Management at Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, and for the calculation of housing affordability and core housing need indicators by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.

The Government of New Brunswick refers to income and earnings data with other Census Program topics to inform policy and planning of various women's issues, for the implementation of the government's action efforts on violence against women and wage gap action plan, as well as for pay equity commitments. Provincially, these data are correlated with education to understand student achievement, and to support and target programs and policies. They are used for strategic planning and accountability, and for long-term care home policies and funding.

Other uses at the provincial level which require Census Program data on income and earnings for policy development and/or program monitoring include Quebec's Plan d'action gouvernemental pour la solidarité et l'inclusion sociale (2010-2015), Ontario's health-based allocation model for allocating funding to hospitals, Alberta's Seniors Services Division Programs (Seniors Benefit, Dental and Optical Assistance for Seniors Program, Education Property Tax Assistance for Seniors) and Newfoundland and Labrador's Poverty Reduction Strategy.

Examples received by local governments include activities aimed at resident and business attraction, social services and municipal affairs, the provision of sewers and water, land use, urban and regional planning, place of work transportation analysis, policy development, program tracking, official community plan development, and housing policy and programs. They are also used to meet the requirements set out by provincial and federal programs (e.g., infrastructure, social, community, public security).

Research and other uses

Income and earnings data are used federally to analyse disparities among employment equity groups in the labour market, provincially to compare the degree of low income interprovincially, measure the social, educational and professional integration of persons with disabilities and for gender-based analysis, and locally to produce briefs on low income and monitor population, dwelling and employment growth.

These data are important for the calculation of a social risk index, which informs programs and services planning. Organizations offering health services refer to income and earnings results to understand the needs of certain population groups such as seniors, and to identify priority neighbourhoods and communities for programs and outreach.

Aboriginal organizations use these data to determine if there is a need for child care subsidies and other family supports, target resources (e.g., affordable housing), carry out cultural programs, education enhancements and crime prevention programs, and provide training and apprenticeship opportunities, among other applications.

Academia refers to them to comprehend the level of economic security of Canadians, for research studies, wage gap analysis, human resources planning, research and development, and in research data centres. Organizations representing various population groups rely on Census Program data to understand the characteristics and conditions of their constituency.

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