Data tables, 2016 Census
Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (10), Income Statistics (17), Age (10) and Sex (3) for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
|Income statistics (17)||Immigrant status and period of immigration (10)|
|Total - Immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 1||Non-immigrantsFootnote 2||ImmigrantsFootnote 3||Before 1981||1981 to 1990||1991 to 2000||2001 to 2010||2001 to 2005||2006 to 2010||2011 to 2014|
|Total - Income statisticsFootnote 4||28,643,015||21,018,460||7,165,175||1,941,505||915,560||1,486,655||1,825,695||894,305||931,390||727,845|
|With total income||27,489,400||20,181,200||6,896,515||1,928,005||903,435||1,460,200||1,717,515||842,950||874,565||676,725|
|Percentage with total income (%)||96.0||96.0||96.3||99.3||98.7||98.2||94.1||94.3||93.9||93.0|
|Median total income ($)||34,205||36,305||29,768||33,927||35,507||30,251||27,537||28,589||26,706||22,905|
|Average total income ($)||47,487||49,511||42,816||51,266||48,760||41,802||37,786||39,926||35,724||31,182|
|With after-tax income||27,500,225||20,188,780||6,899,585||1,928,715||903,890||1,461,010||1,718,205||843,285||874,920||676,905|
|Percentage with after-tax income (%)||96.0||96.1||96.3||99.3||98.7||98.3||94.1||94.3||93.9||93.0|
|Median after-tax income ($)||30,861||32,375||27,599||30,946||32,040||28,074||25,869||26,761||25,162||21,899|
|Average after-tax income ($)||38,977||40,406||35,790||41,859||40,118||35,366||32,243||33,890||30,656||27,053|
|With employment income||20,428,670||15,362,635||4,769,315||960,240||663,410||1,108,095||1,368,775||669,390||699,390||518,815|
|Percentage with employment income (%)||71.3||73.1||66.6||49.5||72.5||74.5||75.0||74.9||75.1||71.3|
|Median employment income ($)||33,683||34,681||32,053||33,990||41,558||35,609||29,367||31,466||27,498||24,167|
|Average employment income ($)||46,057||47,018||43,859||50,512||52,464||45,228||39,390||42,125||36,773||33,077|
|With wages, salaries and commissions||18,811,415||14,271,910||4,261,910||832,875||586,485||988,870||1,237,130||602,525||634,605||479,720|
|Percentage with wages, salaries and commissions (%)||65.7||67.9||59.5||42.9||64.1||66.5||67.8||67.4||68.1||65.9|
|Median wages, salaries and commissions ($)||35,551||36,187||34,931||38,752||44,688||38,450||31,491||34,234||29,414||25,282|
|Average wages, salaries and commissions ($)||47,102||47,792||45,780||53,420||55,343||47,425||40,930||43,934||38,078||33,913|
- Symbol ..
not available for a specific reference period
- Symbol ...
- Symbol x
suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
- Symbol F
too unreliable to be published
- Footnote 1
'Immigrant status' refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.
'Period of immigration' refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.
Non-permanent residents and immigrants who landed between 2015 and 2016 are included in the 'Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration.' The categories for 'Non-permanent residents' and period of immigration '2015 to 2016' are not presented elsewhere in this table with income as they may not have a complete year of applicable income. The income data for the 2016 Census of Population are for the year 2015.
'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit, or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.
For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.
- Footnote 2
'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.
- Footnote 3
'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.
Immigrants who landed between 2015 and 2016 are included in the category 'Immigrants.' The category '2015 to 2016' is not presented elsewhere in this table with income as they may not have a complete year of applicable income. The income data for the 2016 Census of Population are for the year 2015.
- Footnote 4
Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:
- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.
In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.
The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:
- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.
Receipts excluded from this income definition are:
- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.
After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.
Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.
Wages, salaries and commissions - Gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income taxes, pension plan contributions and employment insurance premiums during the reference period. While other employee remuneration such as security options benefits, board and lodging and other taxable allowances and benefits are included in this source, employers' contributions to pension plans and employment insurance plans are excluded. Other receipts included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses associated with paid employment, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union, research grants, royalties from a work or invention with no associated expenses and all types of casual earnings during the reference period.
Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).
Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016205.