Data tables, 2016 Census

Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Individual Low-income Status (6), Low-income Indicators (4), Age (6) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

Data table

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This table details immigrant status and period of immigration , individual low-income status , low-income indicators , age and sex for the population in private households in Canada
Data quality
Immigrant status and period of immigration (11) Individual low-income status (6)
Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 2 Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 3 Low-income status - applicable In low income Not in low income Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 4
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 5 34,460,065 491,875 33,968,185 4,809,335 29,158,850 14.2
Non-immigrantsFootnote 6 26,412,610 473,520 25,939,090 3,243,225 22,695,870 12.5
ImmigrantsFootnote 7 7,540,830 16,370 7,524,455 1,349,770 6,174,685 17.9
Before 1981 1,941,505 5,680 1,935,825 215,760 1,720,065 11.1
1981 to 1990 915,555 1,615 913,940 132,215 781,725 14.5
1991 to 2000 1,486,655 2,225 1,484,435 248,275 1,236,155 16.7
2001 to 2010 1,985,030 3,820 1,981,215 374,095 1,607,115 18.9
2001 to 2005 928,940 1,570 927,370 159,800 767,565 17.2
2006 to 2010 1,056,095 2,245 1,053,845 214,295 839,550 20.3
2011 to 2016Footnote 8 1,212,075 3,035 1,209,045 379,425 829,615 31.4
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 9 506,625 1,980 504,645 216,345 288,300 42.9


Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period


Symbol ...

not applicable


Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act


Symbol F

too unreliable to be published



Footnote 1

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

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Footnote 2

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 3

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

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Footnote 4

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

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Footnote 5

Immigrant status refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 6

'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.

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Footnote 7

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 8

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 9

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016206.

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