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Data tables, 2016 Census
Visible Minority (15), Individual Low-income Status (6), Low-income Indicators (4), Generation Status (4), Age (6) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
|Visible minority (15)||Individual low-income status (6)|
|Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 3||Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 4||Low-income status - applicable||In low income||Not in low income||Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 5|
|Total - Visible minorityFootnote 6||34,460,065||491,875||33,968,190||4,809,340||29,158,855||14.2|
|Total visible minority populationFootnote 7||7,674,580||11,185||7,663,400||1,590,245||6,073,155||20.8|
|South AsianFootnote 8||1,924,635||1,560||1,923,075||317,245||1,605,830||16.5|
|Southeast AsianFootnote 9||313,260||540||312,720||54,900||257,820||17.6|
|West AsianFootnote 10||264,300||785||263,515||91,385||172,135||34.7|
|Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 11||132,090||185||131,905||24,405||107,500||18.5|
|Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 12||232,375||295||232,080||38,845||193,235||16.7|
|Not a visible minorityFootnote 13||26,785,485||480,695||26,304,790||3,219,095||23,085,695||12.2|
- Symbol ..
not available for a specific reference period
- Symbol ...
- Symbol x
suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
- Symbol F
too unreliable to be published
- Footnote 1
Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.
Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.
When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.
- Footnote 2
For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.
- Footnote 3
Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.
For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.
- Footnote 4
The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.
- Footnote 5
Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.
- Footnote 6
For more information on the Visible minority variable, including information on its classification, the questions from which it is derived, data quality and its comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.
- Footnote 7
The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'
- Footnote 8
For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.
- Footnote 9
For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Laotian,' 'Thai,' etc.
- Footnote 10
For example, 'Afghan,' 'Iranian,' etc.
- Footnote 11
The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes persons with a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.
- Footnote 12
Includes persons who gave more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in responses, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'
- Footnote 13
Includes persons who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal group question (Question 18), as well as persons who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016211.
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