Data tables, 2016 Census

Ethnic Origin (101), Age (15A), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (651) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

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This table details ethnic origin , age , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households of canada in Canada
Data quality
Selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics (651) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total - Household type of person for the population in private households - 25% sample data 34,460,065 16,971,580 17,488,485
Persons in one-census-family households without additional persons 24,835,365 12,334,630 12,500,740
In a couple census family without children (no other persons present in the household) 7,260,825 3,638,630 3,622,200
In a couple census family with children (no other persons present in the household) 14,392,345 7,384,025 7,008,325
In a lone-parent census family (no other persons present in the household) 3,182,185 1,311,965 1,870,220
Persons in multigenerational householdsFootnote 2 2,183,380 1,000,820 1,182,560
Persons in other census family householdsFootnote 3 2,142,270 1,058,755 1,083,520
Persons in two-or-more-person non-census-family households 1,331,285 744,160 587,125
Persons living alone (one-person households) 3,967,770 1,833,220 2,134,545
Total - Marital status for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 4 28,643,020 13,990,430 14,652,585
Married or living common law 16,733,345 8,363,785 8,369,560
Married 13,223,980 6,605,435 6,618,545
Living common law 3,509,365 1,758,345 1,751,020
Not married and not living common law 11,909,675 5,626,645 6,283,025
Never married 8,082,625 4,346,250 3,736,375
Separated 696,915 295,650 401,265
Divorced 1,760,520 696,880 1,063,640
Widowed 1,369,620 287,865 1,081,750
Total - Mobility status 1 year ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 5 34,091,785 16,783,745 17,308,040
Non-movers 29,644,795 14,593,190 15,051,600
Movers 4,446,990 2,190,555 2,256,430
Non-migrants 2,623,510 1,292,755 1,330,760
Migrants 1,823,475 897,805 925,670
Internal migrants 1,451,000 713,060 737,945
Intraprovincial migrants 1,189,525 580,900 608,625
Interprovincial migrants 261,475 132,160 129,320
External migrants 372,475 184,745 187,730
Total - Mobility status 5 years ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 6 32,568,565 16,004,320 16,564,245
Non-movers 20,134,760 9,902,645 10,232,115
Movers 12,433,805 6,101,675 6,332,130
Non-migrants 6,755,630 3,314,725 3,440,905
Migrants 5,678,175 2,786,950 2,891,225
Internal migrants 4,296,720 2,104,325 2,192,390
Intraprovincial migrants 3,467,675 1,689,950 1,777,720
Interprovincial migrants 829,050 414,375 414,675
External migrants 1,381,455 682,625 698,835
Total - First official language spoken for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 7 34,460,065 16,971,580 17,488,485
English 25,813,360 12,764,130 13,049,235
French 7,603,935 3,744,415 3,859,520
English and French 412,625 206,885 205,740
Neither English nor French 630,150 256,150 374,000
Official language minority (number)Footnote 8 7,810,250 3,847,860 3,962,390
Official language minority (percentage)Footnote 9 22.7 22.7 22.7
Total - Mother tongue for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 10 34,460,065 16,971,580 17,488,485
English 19,349,060 9,630,055 9,719,005
French 7,065,275 3,486,600 3,578,675
Non-official language 7,260,080 3,471,870 3,788,210
Aboriginal 192,640 93,280 99,360
Non-Aboriginal 7,067,440 3,378,590 3,688,850
English and French 157,180 76,615 80,560
English and non-official language 513,250 250,005 263,240
French and non-official language 84,100 41,375 42,720
English, French and non-official language 31,125 15,055 16,070
Total - Language spoken most often at home for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 11 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,485
English 22,031,185 10,908,235 11,122,950
French 6,842,950 3,381,220 3,461,740
Non-official language 3,950,055 1,891,650 2,058,405
Aboriginal 117,680 59,270 58,410
Non-Aboriginal 3,832,375 1,832,380 1,999,995
English and French 154,380 75,385 78,995
English and non-official language 1,269,705 613,310 656,395
French and non-official language 147,040 70,130 76,910
English, French and non-official language 64,740 31,645 33,095
Total - Number of languages known for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 12 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,485
Knowledge of one language 21,025,920 10,399,065 10,626,855
English only 16,794,015 8,443,010 8,351,005
French only 3,670,030 1,725,285 1,944,745
Non-official language only 561,880 230,770 331,105
Knowledge of more than one language 13,434,140 6,572,510 6,861,630
English and French only 4,626,740 2,315,095 2,311,645
English, French and one or more non-official languages 1,546,260 734,340 811,920
English and one or more non official languages 6,781,250 3,313,825 3,467,425
French and one or more non official languages 399,920 177,740 222,180
Multiple non-official languages only 79,970 31,510 48,455
Total - Citizenship for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 13 34,460,060 16,971,575 17,488,485
Canadian citizensFootnote 14 32,034,585 15,799,500 16,235,090
Canadian citizens only 30,592,185 15,087,115 15,505,060
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 1,442,400 712,375 730,025
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 15 2,425,480 1,172,085 1,253,400
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 16 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,490
Non-immigrantsFootnote 17 26,412,610 13,124,325 13,288,290
ImmigrantsFootnote 18 7,540,825 3,586,500 3,954,330
Before 1981 1,941,505 927,790 1,013,715
1981 to 1990 915,555 439,245 476,310
1991 to 2000 1,486,660 696,715 789,940
2001 to 2010 1,985,030 940,570 1,044,465
2001 to 2005 928,940 439,890 489,055
2006 to 2010 1,056,095 500,680 555,415
2011 to 2016Footnote 19 1,212,075 582,180 629,900
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 20 506,625 260,755 245,870
Total - Age at immigration for the immigrant population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 21 7,540,830 3,586,495 3,954,330
Under 5 years 731,340 364,165 367,170
5 to 14 years 1,311,810 665,870 645,940
15 to 24 years 1,604,435 724,430 880,005
25 to 44 years 3,198,920 1,513,965 1,684,950
45 years and over 694,320 318,060 376,260
Total - Admission category and applicant type for the immigrant population in private households who landed between 1980 and 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 22 5,703,610 2,709,530 2,994,080
Economic immigrantsFootnote 23 2,994,130 1,496,245 1,497,890
Principal applicantsFootnote 24 1,220,755 755,375 465,380
Secondary applicantsFootnote 25 1,773,380 740,870 1,032,510
Immigrants sponsored by familyFootnote 26 1,782,485 728,080 1,054,400
RefugeesFootnote 27 858,850 453,675 405,175
Other immigrantsFootnote 28 68,145 31,530 36,615
Total - Place of birth for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 29 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,490
Born in Canada 26,240,510 13,035,535 13,204,980
Born outside Canada 8,219,555 3,936,045 4,283,510
Americas 1,281,150 590,065 691,080
North America 338,630 157,600 181,035
Greenland 65 25 35
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 345 180 165
United StatesFootnote 30 338,220 157,390 180,830
Central America 192,370 93,900 98,465
Belize 2,480 1,205 1,275
Costa Rica 4,775 2,225 2,550
El Salvador 49,260 24,510 24,755
Guatemala 18,730 9,735 8,995
Honduras 8,565 4,205 4,365
Mexico 95,410 45,740 49,670
Nicaragua 10,265 4,940 5,325
Panama 2,890 1,350 1,535
Caribbean and Bermuda 403,550 178,695 224,855
Anguilla 65 35 25
Antigua and Barbuda 2,510 1,200 1,315
Aruba 625 260 370
Bahamas 2,520 1,210 1,315
Barbados 15,085 6,970 8,120
Bermuda 3,175 1,630 1,540
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 25 10 20
Cayman Islands 655 345 310
Cuba 18,900 9,075 9,830
Curaçao 510 225 280
Dominica 2,865 1,180 1,685
Dominican Republic 11,880 5,785 6,090
Grenada 10,500 4,175 6,325
Guadeloupe 740 375 365
Haiti 97,140 42,820 54,320
Jamaica 144,220 63,180 81,040
Martinique 940 425 515
Montserrat 620 285 340
Puerto Rico 720 305 420
Saint Barthélemy 0 0 0
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,180 970 1,215
Saint Lucia 6,810 2,675 4,135
Saint Martin (French part) 130 75 60
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13,930 5,285 8,650
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 150 65 80
Trinidad and Tobago 66,325 29,980 36,340
Turks and Caicos Islands 75 45 35
Virgin Islands, British 135 70 70
Virgin Islands, United States 95 55 45
South America 346,595 159,875 186,725
Argentina 20,745 10,160 10,580
BoliviaFootnote 31 5,610 2,715 2,895
Brazil 40,445 18,855 21,595
Chile 28,570 14,155 14,420
Colombia 74,600 34,305 40,295
Ecuador 16,045 7,390 8,655
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 10 10 0
French Guiana 335 145 190
Guyana 88,570 39,325 49,250
Paraguay 8,130 3,975 4,155
Peru 31,315 13,735 17,580
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 0 0 0
Suriname 1,090 585 510
Uruguay 6,775 3,395 3,385
VenezuelaFootnote 32 24,365 11,150 13,215
Europe 2,229,440 1,089,395 1,140,045
Western Europe 459,150 231,105 228,050
Austria 16,610 7,880 8,735
Belgium 21,365 10,570 10,795
France 138,645 73,015 65,635
Germany 168,005 80,920 87,085
Liechtenstein 80 25 55
Luxembourg 785 405 390
Monaco 180 130 50
Netherlands 91,510 46,725 44,785
Switzerland 21,965 11,435 10,525
Eastern Europe 540,855 249,475 291,380
Belarus 11,515 5,400 6,120
Bulgaria 19,045 9,345 9,695
Czech Republic 21,980 10,445 11,535
Estonia 3,325 1,375 1,950
Hungary 38,840 18,930 19,910
Latvia 6,195 2,840 3,355
Lithuania 5,315 2,295 3,020
MoldovaFootnote 33 18,280 8,940 9,340
Poland 149,395 67,880 81,510
Romania 91,560 43,375 48,190
Russian Federation 82,550 35,890 46,665
Slovakia 15,380 7,315 8,065
Ukraine 77,465 35,445 42,025
Northern Europe 599,800 294,680 305,120
Åland Islands 10 0 0
Denmark 13,335 6,850 6,485
Faroe Islands 30 15 20
Finland 10,060 4,140 5,920
Guernsey 225 130 95
Iceland 810 385 430
IrelandFootnote 34 34,090 17,585 16,505
Isle of Man 435 245 190
Jersey 380 170 210
Norway 4,475 2,245 2,230
Sark 0 0 0
Svalbard and Jan Mayen 0 0 0
Sweden 7,705 3,560 4,145
United KingdomFootnote 35 528,245 259,350 268,895
Southern Europe 629,630 314,140 315,495
Albania 16,235 8,055 8,180
Andorra 40 0 30
Bosnia and Herzegovina 36,635 18,335 18,300
Croatia 41,650 20,935 20,720
Gibraltar 170 80 95
Greece 65,225 32,940 32,280
Holy See (Vatican City State) 0 0 0
Italy 242,255 121,640 120,615
KosovoFootnote 36 7,980 4,150 3,835
Macedonia, Republic ofFootnote 37 10,490 5,175 5,310
Malta 7,600 3,885 3,715
Montenegro 1,910 950 960
Portugal 143,160 70,190 72,970
San Marino 0 10 0
SerbiaFootnote 38 34,325 16,900 17,425
Slovenia 8,375 3,860 4,515
Spain 13,580 7,035 6,545
Africa 689,630 351,250 338,380
Western Africa 126,170 66,185 59,985
Benin 3,305 1,905 1,400
Burkina Faso 2,560 1,285 1,275
Cabo Verde 175 90 80
Côte d'Ivoire 12,850 6,635 6,215
Gambia 760 435 325
Ghana 24,660 12,595 12,065
Guinea 5,725 2,930 2,795
Guinea-Bissau 120 75 40
Liberia 2,670 1,280 1,395
Mali 2,830 1,555 1,275
Mauritania 1,050 685 365
Niger 1,235 660 570
Nigeria 52,375 27,290 25,085
Saint HelenaFootnote 39 15 10 15
Senegal 8,865 4,980 3,885
Sierra Leone 3,190 1,590 1,595
Togo 3,785 2,185 1,600
Eastern Africa 206,325 99,570 106,755
Burundi 9,150 4,475 4,680
Comoros 160 75 85
Djibouti 2,370 1,060 1,310
Eritrea 15,740 8,140 7,595
Ethiopia 34,295 16,785 17,510
Kenya 28,840 13,590 15,245
Madagascar 3,930 1,825 2,100
Malawi 785 415 365
Mauritius 16,935 8,505 8,435
Mayotte 0 0 0
Mozambique 1,305 620 685
Réunion 550 275 275
Rwanda 6,480 3,030 3,450
Seychelles 1,060 470 590
Somalia 28,190 12,575 15,615
South Sudan 5,650 3,050 2,600
TanzaniaFootnote 40 21,260 10,250 11,010
Uganda 13,710 6,640 7,075
Zambia 4,245 2,115 2,130
Zimbabwe 11,670 5,675 5,995
Northern Africa 246,950 130,880 116,070
Algeria 67,045 35,350 31,700
Egypt 67,195 35,605 31,590
Libya 8,955 4,865 4,090
Morocco 72,900 38,005 34,900
SudanFootnote 41 11,130 5,785 5,350
Tunisia 19,720 11,275 8,445
Western Sahara 0 0 0
Central Africa 59,005 29,250 29,760
Angola 3,295 1,650 1,645
Cameroon 20,665 10,425 10,240
Central African Republic 1,235 610 625
Chad 1,790 980 805
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 27,800 13,350 14,450
Congo, Republic of the 2,790 1,550 1,235
Equatorial Guinea 90 60 35
Gabon 1,310 590 720
Sao Tome and Principe 35 30 0
Southern Africa 51,180 25,365 25,810
Botswana 1,200 565 635
Lesotho 185 95 90
Namibia 1,285 590 695
South Africa, Republic of 48,015 23,920 24,100
Swaziland 490 185 295
Asia 3,948,635 1,869,775 2,078,860
West Central Asia and the Middle East 635,640 327,920 307,715
Afghanistan 53,845 27,125 26,720
Armenia 4,350 2,085 2,270
Azerbaijan 4,060 1,825 2,240
Bahrain 2,600 1,420 1,180
Cyprus 4,200 2,135 2,065
Georgia 2,820 1,355 1,470
IranFootnote 42 160,685 81,365 79,320
Iraq 70,515 35,845 34,665
Israel 30,265 16,130 14,135
Jordan 14,260 7,560 6,700
Kazakhstan 13,325 6,230 7,095
Kuwait 16,260 8,505 7,760
Kyrgyzstan 3,070 1,400 1,675
Lebanon 92,000 49,135 42,865
Oman 1,800 920 885
Qatar 2,910 1,490 1,415
Saudi Arabia 29,330 16,030 13,300
SyriaFootnote 43 56,050 28,215 27,840
Tajikistan 1,385 675 705
Turkey 29,330 16,080 13,250
Turkmenistan 555 240 315
United Arab Emirates 23,220 12,415 10,805
Uzbekistan 6,615 3,095 3,530
West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)Footnote 44 8,675 4,825 3,850
Yemen 3,490 1,830 1,665
Eastern Asia 1,232,465 557,285 675,180
ChinaFootnote 45 752,650 340,470 412,175
Hong KongFootnote 46 215,750 101,575 114,180
Japan 37,370 12,105 25,260
Korea, NorthFootnote 47 965 495 470
Korea, SouthFootnote 48 149,620 68,955 80,660
MacaoFootnote 49 5,985 2,655 3,330
Mongolia 1,745 785 960
Taiwan 68,390 30,240 38,145
Southeast Asia 926,190 396,280 529,910
Brunei Darussalam 4,620 2,415 2,205
Burma (Myanmar) 8,375 4,100 4,275
Cambodia 23,830 11,015 12,815
Indonesia 15,960 7,155 8,805
LaosFootnote 50 14,625 7,200 7,425
Malaysia 25,690 11,760 13,930
Philippines 626,095 259,030 367,065
Singapore 13,375 6,110 7,265
Thailand 17,830 6,600 11,225
Timor-Leste 35 10 30
Viet Nam 175,760 80,890 94,865
Southern Asia 1,154,335 588,285 566,045
Bangladesh 61,680 31,860 29,820
Bhutan 4,390 2,205 2,185
British Indian Ocean Territory 0 0 0
India 728,160 371,890 356,270
Maldives 55 20 35
Nepal 15,220 7,830 7,390
Pakistan 210,090 108,050 102,035
Sri Lanka 134,750 66,435 68,315
Oceania 70,570 35,485 35,085
American Samoa 0 0 0
Australia 30,900 16,180 14,720
Christmas Island 0 0 0
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0 0 0
Cook Islands 10 10 0
Fiji 25,155 11,595 13,555
French Polynesia 460 220 235
Guam 40 0 35
Kiribati 25 0 15
Marshall Islands 25 10 10
Micronesia, Federated States of 10 0 10
Nauru 25 10 15
New Caledonia 405 210 200
New Zealand 12,470 6,715 5,750
Niue 0 0 0
Norfolk Island 10 0 10
Northern Mariana Islands 130 65 60
Palau 30 20 10
Papua New Guinea 445 225 225
Pitcairn 0 0 0
Samoa 175 75 100
Solomon Islands 45 15 30
Tokelau 0 0 0
Tonga 155 60 100
Tuvalu 0 0 0
United States Minor Outlying Islands 0 0 0
Vanuatu 45 30 15
Wallis and Futuna 15 15 0
Other places of birthFootnote 51 125 65 55
Total - Generation status for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 52 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,485
First generationFootnote 53 8,219,555 3,936,045 4,283,505
Second generationFootnote 54 6,100,720 3,053,075 3,047,650
Third generation or moreFootnote 55 20,139,785 9,982,460 10,157,330
Total - Visible minority for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 56 34,460,060 16,971,575 17,488,485
Total visible minority populationFootnote 57 7,674,580 3,725,095 3,949,490
South AsianFootnote 58 1,924,635 977,690 946,945
Chinese 1,577,065 746,400 830,660
Black 1,198,545 580,070 618,475
Filipino 780,130 341,800 438,325
Latin American 447,325 215,460 231,865
Arab 523,235 276,425 246,810
Southeast AsianFootnote 59 313,260 148,880 164,385
West AsianFootnote 60 264,305 133,480 130,825
Korean 188,705 89,110 99,600
Japanese 92,920 40,105 52,815
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 61 132,090 62,535 69,550
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 62 232,375 113,140 119,235
Not a visible minorityFootnote 63 26,785,480 13,246,485 13,539,000
Total - Aboriginal identity for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 64 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,485
Aboriginal identityFootnote 65 1,673,780 813,520 860,265
Single Aboriginal responsesFootnote 66 1,629,800 792,975 836,835
First Nations (North American Indian)Footnote 67 977,230 471,510 505,725
Métis 587,545 289,430 298,115
Inuk (Inuit) 65,030 32,035 32,995
Multiple Aboriginal responsesFootnote 68 21,310 10,165 11,140
Aboriginal responses not included elsewhereFootnote 69 22,670 10,380 12,290
Non-Aboriginal identity 32,786,280 16,158,060 16,628,225
Total - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 70 28,643,020 13,990,435 14,652,585
No certificate, diploma or degree 5,239,580 2,667,995 2,571,580
Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificateFootnote 71 7,576,400 3,686,635 3,889,770
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 15,827,040 7,635,805 8,191,230
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma 2,800,265 1,906,610 893,650
Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 72 1,549,880 880,360 669,515
Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 73 1,250,385 1,026,250 224,140
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 5,553,825 2,326,940 3,226,885
University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 813,330 331,940 481,395
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 6,659,615 3,070,315 3,589,300
Bachelor's degree 4,443,835 1,967,905 2,475,930
University certificate or diploma above bachelor level 462,295 203,730 258,570
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 190,925 102,530 88,395
Master's degree 1,331,045 651,515 679,535
Earned doctorateFootnote 74 231,510 144,640 86,870
Total - Major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2016 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 75 28,643,020 13,990,435 14,652,585
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 76 12,815,975 6,354,625 6,461,350
Education 1,060,095 251,290 808,805
13. Education 1,060,095 251,290 808,800
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 596,235 268,050 328,180
10. Communications technologies/technicians and support services 99,020 72,870 26,150
50. Visual and performing arts 497,215 195,185 302,030
Humanities 850,840 330,490 520,345
16. Aboriginal and foreign languages, literatures and linguistics 98,000 22,100 75,900
23. English language and literature/letters 178,595 52,790 125,810
24. Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities 275,525 104,135 171,390
30A Interdisciplinary humanitiesFootnote 77 4,160 1,640 2,520
38. Philosophy and religious studies 51,925 30,180 21,745
39. Theology and religious vocations 77,485 46,285 31,205
54. History 111,465 59,965 51,500
55. French language and literature/letters 53,685 13,395 40,290
Social and behavioural sciences and law 1,761,900 586,455 1,175,445
05. Area, ethnic, cultural, gender, and group studies 24,685 5,660 19,025
09. Communication, journalism and related programs 182,270 68,030 114,245
19. Family and consumer sciences/human sciences 324,660 26,065 298,595
22. Legal professions and studies 289,600 102,660 186,940
30B Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciencesFootnote 78 35,450 8,150 27,295
42. Psychology 281,465 71,230 210,235
45. Social sciences 623,770 304,660 319,110
Business, management and public administration 3,360,045 1,272,480 2,087,565
30.16 Accounting and computer science 6,190 1,850 4,335
44. Public administration and social service professions 237,830 48,815 189,020
52. Business, management, marketing and related support services 3,116,025 1,221,810 1,894,215
Physical and life sciences and technologies 614,280 315,670 298,615
26. Biological and biomedical sciences 249,960 105,565 144,400
30.01 Biological and physical sciences 125,595 61,685 63,910
30C Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciencesFootnote 79 28,155 12,625 15,530
40. Physical sciences 179,305 122,815 56,485
41. Science technologies/technicians 31,270 12,980 18,285
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 651,480 420,365 231,115
11. Computer and information sciences and support services 514,685 356,435 158,245
25. Library science 40,820 6,500 34,320
27. Mathematics and statistics 86,655 50,930 35,725
30D Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciencesFootnote 80 9,325 6,510 2,815
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 3,327,400 3,022,705 304,700
04. Architecture and related services 114,315 72,880 41,440
14. Engineering 752,465 615,880 136,585
15. Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 620,065 551,860 68,210
30.12 Historic preservation and conservation 410 90 325
46. Construction trades 702,155 682,710 19,450
47. Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 731,130 709,430 21,705
48. Precision production 406,855 389,855 17,005
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 339,055 219,040 120,010
01. Agriculture, agriculture operations and related sciences 205,930 127,925 78,005
03. Natural resources and conservation 133,125 91,120 42,005
Health and related fields 2,266,720 441,180 1,825,540
31. Parks, recreation, leisure and fitness studies 164,300 81,260 83,035
51. Health professions and related programs 2,047,685 329,010 1,718,670
60. Dental, medical and veterinary residency programs 54,740 30,905 23,830
Personal, protective and transportation services 995,830 507,200 488,630
12. Personal and culinary services 565,555 151,535 414,025
28. Military science, leadership and operational art 3,500 3,085 415
29. Military technologies and applied sciences 7,895 7,230 670
43. Security and protective services 206,745 150,540 56,205
49. Transportation and materials moving 212,125 194,810 17,310
Other 3,170 890 2,280
30.99 Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other 3,170 890 2,280
Total - Location of study compared with province or territory of residence with countries outside Canada for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 81 28,643,015 13,990,430 14,652,585
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 12,815,975 6,354,625 6,461,350
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 82 15,827,040 7,635,810 8,191,235
Location of study inside Canada 13,117,190 6,299,300 6,817,890
Same as province or territory of residence 11,519,220 5,503,640 6,015,575
Different than province or territory of residence 1,597,970 795,660 802,315
Location of study outside CanadaFootnote 83 2,709,845 1,336,505 1,373,345
United StatesFootnote 84 349,540 190,000 159,545
Philippines 298,830 109,815 189,015
India 281,410 142,415 139,000
United KingdomFootnote 85 232,035 131,050 100,980
ChinaFootnote 86 205,375 94,690 110,685
France 88,860 50,400 38,455
Other 1,253,795 618,135 635,655
Total - Population aged 15 years and over by Labour force status - 25% sample dataFootnote 87 28,643,015 13,990,435 14,652,580
In the labour force 18,672,470 9,731,825 8,940,645
Employed 17,230,040 8,923,545 8,306,495
Unemployed 1,442,435 808,285 634,150
Not in the labour force 9,970,545 4,258,605 5,711,940
Participation rate 65.2 69.6 61.0
Employment rate 60.2 63.8 56.7
Unemployment rate 7.7 8.3 7.1
Total population aged 15 years and over by work activity during the reference year - 25% sample dataFootnote 88 28,643,015 13,990,430 14,652,580
Did not workFootnote 89 9,282,010 3,930,570 5,351,440
Worked 19,361,010 10,059,865 9,301,145
Worked full year, full timeFootnote 90 9,626,010 5,402,115 4,223,895
Worked part year and/or part timeFootnote 91 9,735,000 4,657,755 5,077,250
Average weeks worked in reference year 42.4 42.9 42.0
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of worker - 25% sample dataFootnote 92 18,672,475 9,731,825 8,940,640
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 93 404,345 197,705 206,640
All classes of workersFootnote 94 18,268,120 9,534,120 8,734,005
Employee 16,073,685 8,158,745 7,914,940
Self-employedFootnote 95 2,194,435 1,375,375 819,060
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 96 18,672,470 9,731,825 8,940,645
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 97 404,350 197,705 206,645
All occupationsFootnote 98 18,268,120 9,534,120 8,734,005
0 Management occupations 2,013,365 1,251,165 762,200
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 2,874,305 862,870 2,011,440
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 1,273,660 990,560 283,105
3 Health occupations 1,245,885 244,730 1,001,155
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 2,138,440 672,945 1,465,500
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 557,270 255,705 301,570
6 Sales and service occupations 4,265,890 1,843,510 2,422,385
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,668,875 2,504,290 164,585
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 416,135 331,920 84,215
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 814,280 576,435 237,845
Total Labour Force population aged 15 years and over by Industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2012 - 25% sample dataFootnote 99 18,672,470 9,731,825 8,940,645
Industry - NAICS2012 - not applicableFootnote 100 404,345 197,705 206,640
All industry categoriesFootnote 101 18,268,125 9,534,120 8,734,000
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 444,680 310,000 134,680
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 271,300 219,880 51,420
22 Utilities 136,350 100,140 36,210
23 Construction 1,365,010 1,196,555 168,455
31-33 Manufacturing 1,596,575 1,149,750 446,820
41 Wholesale trade 665,685 451,230 214,460
44-45 Retail trade 2,110,205 984,090 1,126,110
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 876,045 656,375 219,675
51 Information and cultural industries 420,355 243,655 176,700
52 Finance and insurance 790,580 327,865 462,720
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 333,305 184,350 148,950
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1,335,125 740,520 594,605
55 Management of companies and enterprises 28,795 12,795 16,000
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 802,420 462,825 339,590
61 Educational services 1,346,585 420,845 925,735
62 Health care and social assistance 2,138,020 383,750 1,754,270
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 379,740 192,875 186,860
72 Accommodation and food services 1,283,720 535,205 748,515
81 Other services (except public administration) 814,695 371,880 442,815
91 Public administration 1,128,940 589,535 539,410
Total - Language used most often at work for the population in private households aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 102 19,956,255 10,342,970 9,613,285
English 15,265,335 7,952,010 7,313,320
French 3,825,215 1,945,465 1,879,750
Non-official language 275,430 145,380 130,055
Aboriginal 24,950 12,390 12,560
Non-Aboriginal 250,485 132,995 117,490
English and French 412,680 211,095 201,585
English and non-official language 154,285 77,865 76,420
French and non-official language 7,830 3,595 4,235
English, French and non-official language 15,480 7,560 7,915
Total - Income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 103 28,643,020 13,990,430 14,652,580
Number of total income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 27,489,400 13,441,550 14,047,845
Average total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 47,487 56,740 38,632
Median total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 34,205 40,755 28,868
Number of after-tax income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 27,500,230 13,446,230 14,053,995
Average after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 38,977 45,404 32,828
Median after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 30,861 35,917 26,630
Number of market income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 24,584,070 12,295,010 12,289,055
Average market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 46,885 56,803 36,962
Median market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 32,754 39,886 26,632
Number of government transfers recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 19,742,130 8,752,070 10,990,060
Average government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 7,738 7,345 8,050
Median government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 5,457 4,204 6,141
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 20,428,670 10,542,540 9,886,130
Average employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 46,057 54,369 37,193
Median employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 33,683 39,827 28,504
Total - Employment income statistics for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 104 28,643,020 13,990,435 14,652,585
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households who worked full year full time in 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 105 9,367,050 5,231,010 4,136,035
Median employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 106 53,431 59,326 47,420
Average employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 107 65,997 74,289 55,510
Composition of total income in 2015 of the population aged 15 years and over in private households (%) - 25% sample dataFootnote 108 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%)Footnote 109 88.3 91.6 83.7
Employment income (%)Footnote 110 72.1 75.2 67.8
Government transfers (%)Footnote 111 11.7 8.4 16.3
Total - Total income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 112 28,643,015 13,990,435 14,652,585
Without total income 1,153,620 548,880 604,735
With total income 27,489,395 13,441,555 14,047,845
Percentage with total income 96.0 96.1 95.9
Under $10,000 (including loss) 3,871,860 1,666,195 2,205,665
$10,000 to $19,999 4,683,950 1,870,255 2,813,690
$20,000 to $29,999 3,812,950 1,596,365 2,216,590
$30,000 to $39,999 3,205,135 1,472,250 1,732,890
$40,000 to $49,999 2,825,565 1,374,095 1,451,465
$50,000 to $59,999 2,182,490 1,146,960 1,035,530
$60,000 to $69,999 1,653,905 938,010 715,900
$70,000 to $79,999 1,270,955 744,090 526,865
$80,000 to $89,999 966,280 579,210 387,065
$90,000 to $99,999 749,655 451,215 298,445
$100,000 and over 2,266,650 1,602,920 663,730
$100,000 to $149,999 1,494,075 1,023,940 470,135
$150,000 and over 772,575 578,985 193,590
Total - After-tax income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 113 28,643,020 13,990,435 14,652,580
Without after-tax income 1,142,790 544,200 598,585
With after-tax income 27,500,225 13,446,230 14,054,000
Percentage with after-tax income 96.0 96.1 95.9
Under $10,000 (including loss) 3,999,055 1,703,925 2,295,130
$10,000 to $19,999 4,910,175 1,976,635 2,933,540
$20,000 to $29,999 4,492,315 1,928,895 2,563,420
$30,000 to $39,999 3,924,460 1,868,550 2,055,910
$40,000 to $49,999 3,144,770 1,619,105 1,525,665
$50,000 to $59,999 2,210,930 1,245,955 964,975
$60,000 to $69,999 1,536,595 908,335 628,260
$70,000 to $79,999 1,076,165 654,490 421,675
$80,000 and over 2,205,775 1,540,345 665,425
$80,000 to $89,999 689,995 445,245 244,750
$90,000 to $99,999 422,280 291,500 130,780
$100,000 and over 1,093,500 803,605 289,900
Total - Employment income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 114 28,643,020 13,990,435 14,652,585
Without employment income 8,214,345 3,447,890 4,766,450
With employment income 20,428,670 10,542,540 9,886,130
Percentage with employment income 71.3 75.4 67.5
Under $5,000 (including loss) 2,779,850 1,358,685 1,421,165
$5,000 to $9,999 1,600,430 696,130 904,305
$10,000 to $19,999 2,733,160 1,209,990 1,523,165
$20,000 to $29,999 2,294,500 1,023,400 1,271,105
$30,000 to $39,999 2,151,840 1,000,325 1,151,515
$40,000 to $49,999 1,927,860 945,545 982,310
$50,000 to $59,999 1,556,480 839,215 717,265
$60,000 to $69,999 1,220,235 708,690 511,550
$70,000 to $79,999 992,845 590,750 402,095
$80,000 and over 3,171,465 2,169,815 1,001,650
$80,000 to $89,999 772,625 474,815 297,810
$90,000 to $99,999 625,165 382,515 242,655
$100,000 and over 1,773,675 1,312,485 461,185
Total - Economic family income decile group for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 115 34,460,065 16,971,575 17,488,485
In the bottom half of the distribution 17,211,650 8,249,720 8,961,935
In the bottom decile 3,432,015 1,664,865 1,767,145
In the second decile 3,439,335 1,563,020 1,876,320
In the third decile 3,454,745 1,648,440 1,806,305
In the fourth decile 3,440,540 1,673,550 1,766,985
In the fifth decile 3,445,020 1,699,840 1,745,185
In the top half of the distribution 17,248,415 8,721,860 8,526,555
In the sixth decile 3,459,685 1,721,880 1,737,800
In the seventh decile 3,451,510 1,735,490 1,716,020
In the eighth decile 3,437,340 1,735,735 1,701,610
In the ninth decile 3,453,685 1,756,750 1,696,940
In the top decile 3,446,190 1,772,005 1,674,185
Total - Low-income status in 2015 for the population in private households to whom low-income concepts are applicable - 25% sample dataFootnote 116 33,968,190 16,724,210 17,243,975
In low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) 4,809,340 2,242,030 2,567,310
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) (%) 14.2 13.4 14.9
In low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) 3,113,485 1,511,135 1,602,345
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) (%) 9.2 9.0 9.3

Symbol(s)

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not available for a specific reference period

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not applicable

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suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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too unreliable to be published

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the census.

The ethnic groups selected are the most frequently reported at the Canada level.

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Footnote 2

In households where there is at least one person living with a child and a grandchild.

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Footnote 3

In households that are not multigenerational where there is one census family with additional persons or more than one census family.

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Footnote 4

For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Marital status.

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Footnote 5

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 7

First official language spoken is specified within the framework of the Official Languages Act. It refers to the first official language (i.e., English or French) spoken by the person.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 8

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

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Footnote 9

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

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Footnote 10

Mother tongue refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the person at the time the data was collected. If the person no longer understands the first language learned, the mother tongue is the second language learned. For a person who learned two languages at the same time in early childhood, the mother tongue is the language this person spoke most often at home before starting school. The person has two mother tongues only if the two languages were used equally often and are still understood by the person. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, the mother tongue is the language spoken most often to this child at home. The child has two mother tongues only if both languages are spoken equally often so that the child learns both languages at the same time.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 11

Language spoken most often at home refers to the language the person speaks most often at home at the time of data collection. A person can report more than one language as 'spoken most often at home' if the languages are spoken equally often. For a person who lives alone, the language spoken most often at home is the language in which he or she feels most comfortable. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this is the language spoken most often to the child at home. Where two languages are spoken to the child, the language spoken most often at home is the language spoken most often. If both languages are used equally often, then both languages are included here.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 12

'Knowledge of official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

'Knowledge of non-official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in a language other than English or French. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home. The number of languages that can be reported may vary between surveys, depending on the objectives of the survey.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 13

Citizenship refers to the country where the person has citizenship. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization.

For more information on citizenship variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 14

'Canadian citizens' includes persons who are citizens of Canada only and persons who are citizens of Canada and at least one other country.

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Footnote 15

'Not Canadian citizens' includes persons who are not citizens of Canada. They may be citizens of one or more other countries. Persons who are stateless are included in this category.

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Footnote 16

Immigrant status refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 17

'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.

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Footnote 18

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 19

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 20

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 21

'Age at immigration' refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrant' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 22

'Admission category' refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

'Applicant type' refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the principal applicant, the spouse or the dependant on the application for permanent residence.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.In the 2016 Census of Population, data on admission category and applicant type are available for immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 1980 and May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 23

'Economic immigrants' includes immigrants who have been selected for their ability to contribute to Canada's economy through their ability to meet labour market needs, to own and manage or to build a business, to make a substantial investment, to create their own employment or to meet specific provincial or territorial labour market needs.

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Footnote 24

'Principal applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 25

'Secondary applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the married spouse, the common-law or conjugal partner or the dependant of the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 26

'Immigrants sponsored by family' includes immigrants who were sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident and were granted permanent resident status on the basis of their relationship either as the spouse, partner, parent, grand-parent, child or other relative of this sponsor. The terms 'family class' or 'family reunification' are sometimes used to refer to this category.

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Footnote 27

'Refugees' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status on the basis of a well-founded fear of returning to their home country. This category includes persons who had a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or for political opinion (Geneva Convention refugees) as well as persons who had been seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered a massive violation of human rights. Some refugees were in Canada when they applied for refugee protection for themselves and their family members (either with them in Canada or abroad). Others were abroad and were referred for resettlement to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency, another designated referral organization or private sponsors.

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Footnote 28

'Other immigrants' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status under a program that does not fall under the economic immigrants, the immigrants sponsored by family or the refugee categories.

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Footnote 29

For more information on the place of birth variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 30

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 31

The official name of Bolivia is Plurinational State of Bolivia.

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Footnote 32

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 33

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 34

Ireland is also referred to as Republic of Ireland.

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Footnote 35

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 36

The official name of Kosovo is Republic of Kosovo.

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Footnote 37

Macedonia, Republic of: known as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United Nations and other international bodies.

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Footnote 38

Serbia excludes Kosovo.

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Footnote 39

The official name of Saint Helena is Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Footnote 40

The official name of Tanzania is United Republic of Tanzania.

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Footnote 41

The full name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan.

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Footnote 42

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 43

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 44

West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine): West Bank and Gaza Strip are the territories referred to in the Declaration of Principles, signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1993. Palestine refers to pre-1948 British mandate Palestine.

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Footnote 45

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 46

The full name of Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 47

The official name of North Korea is Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 48

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 49

The full name of Macao is Macao Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 50

The official name of Laos is Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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Footnote 51

Includes other places of birth not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea'.

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Footnote 52

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada.

For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 53

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or once were, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 54

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 55

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 56

Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.' The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

For more information on the Visible minority variable, including information on its classification, the questions from which it is derived, data quality and its comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 57

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 58

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan', etc.

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Footnote 59

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Laotian,' 'Thai,' etc.

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Footnote 60

For example, 'Afghan,' 'Iranian,' etc.

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Footnote 61

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes persons with a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 62

Includes persons who gave more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in responses, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 63

Includes persons who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal group question (Question 18), as well as persons who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 64

Aboriginal identity refers to whether the person identified with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. This includes those who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For more information on Aboriginal variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016 and the Aboriginal Peoples Technical Report, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 65

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 66

'Single Aboriginal responses' includes persons who are in only one Aboriginal group, that is First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 67

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For additional information, refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 68

'Multiple Aboriginal responses' includes persons who are any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 69

'Aboriginal responses not included elsewhere' includes persons who are not First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who have Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or Membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 70

Highest certificate, diploma or degree is the classification used in the census to measure the broader concept of 'Educational attainment.'

This variable refers to the highest level of education that a person has successfully completed and is derived from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported.

The general hierarchy used in deriving this variable (high school, trades, college, university) is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education. At the detailed level, someone who has completed one type of certificate, diploma or degree will not necessarily have completed the credentials listed below it in the hierarchy. For example, a person with an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma may not have completed a high school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a 'master's degree' necessarily have a 'certificate or diploma above bachelor level.' Although the hierarchy may not fit all programs perfectly, it gives a general measure of educational attainment.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

Users are advised to consult data quality comments for 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree', available in the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 71

'Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificate' includes only people who have this as their highest educational qualification. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 72

'Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' includes trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres and similar institutions.

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Footnote 73

'Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' also includes Journeyperson's designations.

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Footnote 74

'Earned doctorate' refers to persons who have completed a doctorate degree awarded by a university. This includes, for example, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.). It does not include honorary doctorates.

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Footnote 75

'Field of study' refers to the discipline or area of learning/training associated with a particular course or programme of study.

This variable refers to the predominant discipline or area of learning or training of a person's highest completed postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree, classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2016.

This 'Major field of study' variable can be used either independently or in conjunction with the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable. When the latter is used with 'Major field of study,' it should be noted that different fields of study will be more common for different types of postsecondary qualifications. At the detailed program level, some programs are only offered by certain types of institutions.

There was an explicit instruction in the questionnaire which instructed respondents to be as specific as possible in indicating a subfield or subcategory of specialization within a broad discipline or area of training.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

This variable shows the 'Variant of CIP 2016 - Alternative primary groupings' CIP variant, with the hierarchy of the primary groupings and two-digit series. When a primary grouping contains more than one subseries from series '30. Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies,' these subseries are grouped together. An exception is made for '30.01 Biological and physical sciences' due to its large size. For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2016: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/concepts/classification.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Certain series and their subcomponents are not used when coding major field of study for the census. These are series 21, 32 to 37 and 53, which represent non-credit and personal improvement fields of study.

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Footnote 76

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma; a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma; or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 77

'Interdisciplinary humanities' includes '30.13 Medieval and renaissance studies,' '30.21 Holocaust and related studies,' '30.22 Classical and ancient studies' and '30.29 Maritime studies.'

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Footnote 78

'Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciences' includes '30.05 Peace studies and conflict resolution,' '30.10 Biopsychology,' '30.11 Gerontology,' '30.14 Museology/museum studies,' '30.15 Science, technology and society,' '30.17 Behavioural sciences,' '30.20 International/global studies,' '30.23 Intercultural/multicultural and diversity studies,' '30.25 Cognitive science,' '30.26 Cultural studies/critical theory and analysis,' '30.28 Dispute resolution,' '30.31 Human computer interaction' and '30.33 Sustainability studies.'

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Footnote 79

'Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciences' includes '30.18 Natural sciences,' '30.19 Nutrition sciences,' '30.27 Human biology' and '30.32 Marine sciences.'

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Footnote 80

'Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciences' includes '30.06 Systems science and theory,' '30.08 Mathematics and computer science' and '30.30 Computational science.'

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Footnote 81

'Location of study' refers to either:

- the province, territory or country of the institution from which a person obtained a certificate, diploma or degree, or;

- the province, territory or country of the institution that a person attended during a specified reference period, or for a specific level of education.

In both cases, location of study refers to the location of the institution granting the certificate, diploma or degree, not the location of the person at the time he or she obtained the qualification or was attending the institution. The geographic location is specified according to boundaries current at the time the data are collected, not the boundaries at the time of study.

This is a summary variable that indicates whether the 'Location of study' of the person's highest certificate, diploma or degree was the same province or territory where the person lived at the time of the 2016 Census of Population, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. This variable is derived from 'Location of study' and 'Province or territory of current residence.' It only applies to individuals who had completed a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

'Location of study outside Canada' may be further sub-classified using the Standard Classification of Countries and Areas of Interest (SCCAI). When using the SCCAI for this sub-classification, the class 'Canada' is not used.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for 'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 82

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 83

Refers to all locations of study outside Canada, including the six locations outside Canada most often reported at the national level. These will not necessarily be the top six countries for other geographies.

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Footnote 84

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 85

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 86

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 87

Refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016.

Early enumeration was conducted in remote, isolated parts of the provinces and territories. When enumeration has taken place before May 2016, the reference date used is the date on which the household was enumerated.

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 88

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person aged 15 years and over worked for pay or in self-employment in 2015 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 89

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2015 and persons who worked in 2016, but not in 2015.

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Footnote 90

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year (49 weeks and over) and mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) in 2015.

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Footnote 91

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year mostly part time or part year mostly full time or part year mostly part time in 2015. Part year is less than 49 weeks and part time is less than 30 hours per week.

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Footnote 92

Class of worker refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over is an employee or is self-employed.

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Footnote 93

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 94

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 95

Includes persons aged 15 years and over with or without an incorporated business with paid help or without paid help, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 96

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons aged 15 years and over as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2016.

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Footnote 97

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 98

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016 were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 99

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The data are produced according to the NAICS 2012.

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Footnote 100

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 101

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 102

Language used most often at work refers to the language the person uses most often at work. A person can report more than one language as 'used most often at work' if the languages are used equally often.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 103

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period.

It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 104

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 105

Full-year full-time workers - Persons aged 15 years and over who worked mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) and full year (49 weeks and over per year) in 2015. For more information, see variable work activity in 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 106

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median.

Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 107

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group.

Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 108

Composition of total income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 109

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 110

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 111

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 111 referrer

Footnote 112

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 113

After-tax income - After-tax income refers to total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 114

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 115

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 116

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.3 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

Return to footnote 116 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016189.

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