Data tables, 2016 Census

Low-income Indicators (4), Individual Low-income Status (6), Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 (13A), Work Activity During the Reference Year (9) for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

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This table details low-income indicators , individual low-income status , occupation - national occupational classification 2016 , work activity during the reference year for the population aged 15 years and over in private households in Canada
Data quality
Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 (13A) Individual low-income status (6)
Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 3 Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 4 Low-income status - applicable In low income Not in low income Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 5
Total - Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016Footnote 6 28,643,020 354,425 28,288,590 3,824,500 24,464,095 13.5
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 7 8,686,765 148,290 8,538,470 2,041,785 6,496,685 23.9
All occupationsFootnote 8 19,956,255 206,135 19,750,120 1,782,710 17,967,405 9.0
0 Management occupations 2,122,255 16,535 2,105,720 156,370 1,949,355 7.4
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 3,133,870 27,910 3,105,960 192,215 2,913,750 6.2
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 1,348,280 6,590 1,341,695 70,725 1,270,970 5.3
3 Health occupations 1,322,740 8,025 1,314,710 68,605 1,246,105 5.2
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 2,328,560 39,150 2,289,410 160,020 2,129,390 7.0
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 659,020 5,120 653,900 90,225 563,680 13.8
6 Sales and service occupations 4,795,520 48,950 4,746,570 660,120 4,086,445 13.9
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,877,690 36,715 2,840,975 255,270 2,585,710 9.0
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 483,565 11,530 472,030 55,540 416,495 11.8
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 884,755 5,605 879,150 73,630 805,520 8.4


Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period


Symbol ...

not applicable


Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act


Symbol F

too unreliable to be published



Footnote 1

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person aged 15 years and over worked for pay or in self-employment in 2015 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 2

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

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Footnote 3

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 4

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

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Footnote 5

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons aged 15 years and over as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2016.

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Footnote 7

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who never worked for pay or self-employment, or last worked for pay or self-employment prior to 2015.

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Footnote 8

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who have worked at some point in time between January 2015 and May 2016.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016299.

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