Data tables, 2016 Census

Visible Minority (15), Age (15A), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (900) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

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This table details visible minority , age , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households in Canada
Data quality
Selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics (900) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total - Household type of person for the population in private households - 25% sample data 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,810
Persons in one-census-family households without additional persons 2,702,115 1,244,635 1,457,480
In a couple census family without children (no other persons present in the household) 487,880 220,400 267,480
In a couple census family with children (no other persons present in the household) 1,889,710 936,640 953,075
In a lone-parent census family (no other persons present in the household) 324,520 87,590 236,930
Persons in multigenerational householdsFootnote 2 517,665 232,800 284,865
Persons in other census family householdsFootnote 3 476,945 219,470 257,470
Persons in two-or-more-person non-census-family households 202,810 117,310 85,505
Persons living alone (one-person households) 329,215 178,720 150,495
Total - Marital status for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 4 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
Married or living common law 2,958,310 1,413,925 1,544,380
Married 2,711,965 1,293,275 1,418,690
Living common law 246,345 120,645 125,695
Not married and not living common law 1,270,445 579,010 691,430
Never married 867,820 450,290 417,530
Separated 124,180 43,850 80,330
Divorced 224,795 76,790 148,010
Widowed 53,645 8,085 45,560
Total - Mobility status 1 year ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 5 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
Non-movers 3,478,190 1,625,865 1,852,330
Movers 750,560 367,075 383,480
Non-migrants 444,620 217,360 227,260
Migrants 305,940 149,715 156,225
Internal migrants 168,390 82,770 85,620
Intraprovincial migrants 130,935 63,455 67,475
Interprovincial migrants 37,460 19,315 18,145
External migrants 137,545 66,945 70,605
Total - Mobility status 5 years ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 6 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
Non-movers 2,024,180 940,370 1,083,810
Movers 2,204,570 1,052,565 1,152,005
Non-migrants 1,107,405 527,470 579,940
Migrants 1,097,160 525,095 572,065
Internal migrants 494,645 240,560 254,085
Intraprovincial migrants 376,325 180,875 195,445
Interprovincial migrants 118,320 59,685 58,635
External migrants 602,520 284,535 317,980
Total - First official language spoken for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 7 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
English 3,534,925 1,676,500 1,858,420
French 348,320 165,150 183,165
English and French 119,925 61,575 58,345
Neither English nor French 225,590 89,710 135,875
Official language minority (number)Footnote 8 408,275 195,940 212,335
Official language minority (percentage)Footnote 9 9.7 9.8 9.5
Total - Mother tongue for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 10 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
English 879,770 431,520 448,255
French 121,590 60,340 61,250
Non-official language 2,998,970 1,393,280 1,605,685
English and French 7,045 3,575 3,465
English and non-official language 184,960 86,630 98,330
French and non-official language 30,440 14,650 15,785
English, French and non-official language 5,980 2,935 3,045
Total - Language spoken most often at home for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 11 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
English 1,591,475 752,065 839,410
French 205,775 101,980 103,795
Non-official language 1,788,070 835,955 952,110
English and French 13,430 6,910 6,515
English and non-official language 554,770 260,775 293,995
French and non-official language 58,295 26,705 31,595
English, French and non-official language 16,930 8,540 8,390
Total - Number of languages known for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 12 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,810
Knowledge of one language 819,800 387,190 432,615
English only 616,670 305,280 311,390
French only 15,220 6,805 8,420
Non-official language only 187,905 75,100 112,800
Knowledge of more than one language 3,408,950 1,605,750 1,803,205
English and French only 90,265 43,840 46,430
English, French and one or more non-official languages 367,065 185,295 181,765
English and one or more non official languages 2,764,230 1,301,175 1,463,055
French and one or more non official languages 147,595 59,870 87,725
Multiple non-official languages only 39,805 15,570 24,230
Total - Citizenship for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 13 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,810
Canadian citizensFootnote 14 3,074,875 1,456,150 1,618,720
Canadian citizens only 2,693,020 1,271,185 1,421,840
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 381,850 184,965 196,880
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 15 1,153,880 536,785 617,090
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 16 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
Non-immigrantsFootnote 17 582,580 294,795 287,785
ImmigrantsFootnote 18 3,436,020 1,594,635 1,841,390
Before 1981 310,015 147,405 162,610
1981 to 1990 502,435 243,035 259,395
1991 to 2000 888,335 412,325 476,010
2001 to 2010 1,100,530 501,355 599,175
2001 to 2005 526,515 242,635 283,880
2006 to 2010 574,020 258,720 315,295
2011 to 2016Footnote 19 634,705 290,510 344,200
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 20 210,145 103,500 106,640
Total - Age at immigration for the immigrant population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 21 3,436,025 1,594,635 1,841,385
Under 5 years 125,225 62,525 62,700
5 to 14 years 399,075 200,640 198,440
15 to 24 years 777,315 341,245 436,075
25 to 44 years 1,904,235 877,620 1,026,615
45 years and over 230,165 112,615 117,550
Total - Admission category and applicant type for the immigrant population in private households who landed between 1980 and 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 22 3,178,875 1,473,690 1,705,185
Economic immigrantsFootnote 23 1,623,140 781,240 841,900
Principal applicantsFootnote 24 824,355 484,040 340,310
Secondary applicantsFootnote 25 798,785 297,195 501,590
Immigrants sponsored by familyFootnote 26 1,029,770 413,995 615,775
RefugeesFootnote 27 489,370 260,850 228,515
Other immigrantsFootnote 28 36,590 17,610 18,985
Total - Place of birth for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 29 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
Born in Canada 573,180 290,030 283,150
Born outside Canada 3,655,570 1,702,905 1,952,670
Americas 583,490 266,940 316,545
North America 17,340 8,665 8,675
Greenland 10 10 0
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0 0 0
United StatesFootnote 30 17,330 8,660 8,675
Central America 112,685 55,050 57,630
Belize 485 215 275
Costa Rica 3,075 1,405 1,670
El Salvador 38,325 19,275 19,055
Guatemala 13,795 7,320 6,475
Honduras 5,815 2,800 3,015
Mexico 41,175 19,190 21,980
Nicaragua 8,095 3,910 4,190
Panama 1,910 925 980
Caribbean and Bermuda 258,960 115,330 143,625
Anguilla 30 20 10
Antigua and Barbuda 1,205 590 620
Aruba 185 100 90
Bahamas 1,140 590 550
Barbados 6,780 3,190 3,595
Bermuda 330 200 130
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 10 0 10
Cayman Islands 85 50 35
Cuba 9,820 4,805 5,015
Curaçao 160 55 105
Dominica 1,830 755 1,070
Dominican Republic 8,365 4,045 4,320
Grenada 7,660 2,940 4,725
Guadeloupe 390 190 195
Haiti 65,725 29,060 36,665
Jamaica 95,525 42,870 52,655
Martinique 520 265 255
Montserrat 265 115 150
Puerto Rico 285 135 150
Saint Barthélemy 0 0 0
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,105 515 590
Saint Lucia 4,840 1,870 2,980
Saint Martin (French part) 70 40 25
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,405 3,325 6,080
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 45 25 15
Trinidad and Tobago 43,065 19,530 23,530
Turks and Caicos Islands 15 15 0
Virgin Islands, British 60 20 35
Virgin Islands, United States 55 25 25
South America 194,515 87,895 106,615
Argentina 6,430 3,025 3,400
BoliviaFootnote 31 1,925 880 1,045
Brazil 15,250 6,840 8,400
Chile 16,310 8,140 8,175
Colombia 46,590 20,950 25,640
Ecuador 10,290 4,560 5,730
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 0 0 0
French Guiana 230 105 125
Guyana 60,765 27,105 33,660
Paraguay 435 165 270
Peru 20,340 8,755 11,585
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 0 0 0
Suriname 725 410 315
Uruguay 2,335 1,180 1,155
VenezuelaFootnote 32 12,885 5,780 7,105
Europe 43,940 21,055 22,880
Western Europe 12,025 5,985 6,035
Austria 185 100 85
Belgium 720 380 340
France 7,475 3,730 3,745
Germany 2,375 1,165 1,215
Liechtenstein 0 0 0
Luxembourg 10 10 10
Monaco 15 10 10
Netherlands 780 375 405
Switzerland 455 220 235
Eastern Europe 1,970 890 1,075
Belarus 25 10 15
Bulgaria 75 60 15
Czech Republic 105 50 60
Estonia 10 10 0
Hungary 80 30 50
Latvia 10 10 0
Lithuania 10 10 10
MoldovaFootnote 33 50 15 30
Poland 185 60 120
Romania 200 105 100
Russian Federation 985 460 525
Slovakia 45 25 20
Ukraine 195 65 130
Northern Europe 27,215 12,765 14,450
Åland Islands 0 0 0
Denmark 140 60 80
Faroe Islands 0 0 0
Finland 30 15 15
Guernsey 0 0 0
Iceland 0 0 0
IrelandFootnote 34 230 110 125
Isle of Man 0 0 0
Jersey 0 0 0
Norway 140 65 75
Sark 0 0 0
Svalbard and Jan Mayen 0 0 0
Sweden 185 85 90
United KingdomFootnote 35 26,495 12,430 14,060
Southern Europe 2,735 1,420 1,315
Albania 70 35 35
Andorra 0 0 0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 45 15 25
Croatia 30 10 20
Gibraltar 0 0 0
Greece 210 95 115
Holy See (Vatican City State) 0 0 0
Italy 780 390 390
KosovoFootnote 36 50 30 20
Macedonia, Republic ofFootnote 37 10 0 0
Malta 25 15 10
Montenegro 0 0 0
Portugal 650 360 295
San Marino 0 0 0
SerbiaFootnote 38 65 25 35
Slovenia 0 0 0
Spain 795 435 365
Africa 400,790 203,255 197,530
Western Africa 87,260 45,850 41,410
Benin 2,265 1,315 950
Burkina Faso 1,670 875 785
Cabo Verde 140 65 70
Côte d'Ivoire 8,055 4,280 3,780
Gambia 495 290 205
Ghana 19,950 10,010 9,940
Guinea 3,960 2,045 1,920
Guinea-Bissau 60 50 10
Liberia 1,880 885 995
Mali 1,810 1,010 800
Mauritania 795 510 280
Niger 825 425 395
Nigeria 33,755 17,580 16,175
Saint HelenaFootnote 39 10 0 10
Senegal 6,410 3,660 2,755
Sierra Leone 2,410 1,215 1,195
Togo 2,780 1,640 1,150
Eastern Africa 139,245 66,180 73,065
Burundi 6,410 3,125 3,290
Comoros 150 70 80
Djibouti 1,395 565 830
Eritrea 11,845 6,020 5,820
Ethiopia 27,345 13,435 13,910
Kenya 16,370 7,445 8,925
Madagascar 2,645 1,220 1,425
Malawi 415 210 205
Mauritius 11,305 5,535 5,765
Mayotte 0 0 0
Mozambique 395 160 230
Réunion 170 80 85
Rwanda 4,480 1,995 2,480
Seychelles 760 330 430
Somalia 22,830 10,065 12,765
South Sudan 4,400 2,395 2,005
TanzaniaFootnote 40 11,875 5,710 6,165
Uganda 8,170 3,855 4,315
Zambia 2,215 1,080 1,130
Zimbabwe 6,085 2,875 3,210
Northern Africa 128,195 68,680 59,515
Algeria 28,265 14,895 13,370
Egypt 32,010 17,115 14,895
Libya 5,075 2,885 2,190
Morocco 42,855 22,645 20,210
SudanFootnote 41 7,140 3,620 3,530
Tunisia 12,850 7,525 5,325
Western Sahara 0 0 0
Central Africa 38,885 19,145 19,750
Angola 1,390 740 650
Cameroon 14,065 7,005 7,065
Central African Republic 590 290 305
Chad 1,105 625 485
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 18,780 8,900 9,885
Congo, Republic of the 2,050 1,175 870
Equatorial Guinea 55 35 15
Gabon 825 360 460
Sao Tome and Principe 25 20 0
Southern Africa 7,205 3,405 3,795
Botswana 570 245 325
Lesotho 70 35 40
Namibia 550 210 335
South Africa, Republic of 5,740 2,825 2,920
Swaziland 275 95 185
Asia 2,606,445 1,202,065 1,404,385
West Central Asia and the Middle East 311,305 159,705 151,600
Afghanistan 39,995 20,240 19,755
Armenia 215 90 125
Azerbaijan 435 190 245
Bahrain 1,430 795 635
Cyprus 80 40 35
Georgia 65 35 30
IranFootnote 42 107,425 54,035 53,385
Iraq 40,830 20,590 20,235
Israel 1,775 985 795
Jordan 6,630 3,520 3,110
Kazakhstan 1,145 470 675
Kuwait 10,805 5,635 5,170
Kyrgyzstan 600 265 340
Lebanon 45,505 24,410 21,090
Oman 595 290 305
Qatar 1,015 590 430
Saudi Arabia 13,465 7,320 6,150
SyriaFootnote 43 21,350 10,735 10,615
Tajikistan 265 90 180
Turkey 3,285 1,825 1,465
Turkmenistan 130 60 75
United Arab Emirates 7,405 3,855 3,545
Uzbekistan 1,040 465 580
West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)Footnote 44 3,960 2,205 1,755
Yemen 1,855 985 870
Eastern Asia 810,145 355,790 454,355
ChinaFootnote 45 471,700 209,235 262,465
Hong KongFootnote 46 161,275 74,730 86,540
Japan 23,690 5,985 17,705
Korea, NorthFootnote 47 310 130 180
Korea, SouthFootnote 48 99,550 43,080 56,475
MacaoFootnote 49 3,245 1,395 1,850
Mongolia 1,115 470 650
Taiwan 49,255 20,765 28,495
Southeast Asia 671,075 277,405 393,675
Brunei Darussalam 3,605 1,875 1,735
Burma (Myanmar) 5,925 2,915 3,005
Cambodia 19,015 8,625 10,395
Indonesia 9,195 3,745 5,440
LaosFootnote 50 12,555 6,140 6,410
Malaysia 16,585 7,300 9,280
Philippines 445,110 175,275 269,835
Singapore 7,370 3,230 4,145
Thailand 12,340 3,940 8,400
Timor-Leste 20 10 15
Viet Nam 139,355 64,350 75,005
Southern Asia 813,920 409,165 404,755
Bangladesh 46,920 24,125 22,800
Bhutan 3,610 1,790 1,820
British Indian Ocean Territory 0 0 0
India 507,815 254,425 253,390
Maldives 15 15 0
Nepal 9,355 4,870 4,485
Pakistan 142,490 72,545 69,945
Sri Lanka 103,700 51,390 52,310
Oceania 20,895 9,575 11,320
American Samoa 0 0 0
Australia 925 460 460
Christmas Island 0 0 0
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0 0 0
Cook Islands 0 10 0
Fiji 18,560 8,380 10,180
French Polynesia 115 60 55
Guam 15 0 15
Kiribati 10 0 0
Marshall Islands 10 0 10
Micronesia, Federated States of 10 0 0
Nauru 20 10 10
New Caledonia 80 50 25
New Zealand 735 395 335
Niue 0 0 0
Norfolk Island 0 0 0
Northern Mariana Islands 20 15 10
Palau 15 15 0
Papua New Guinea 160 55 105
Pitcairn 0 0 0
Samoa 85 45 45
Solomon Islands 25 10 15
Tokelau 0 0 0
Tonga 100 55 50
Tuvalu 0 0 0
United States Minor Outlying Islands 0 0 0
Vanuatu 15 15 0
Wallis and Futuna 10 10 0
Other places of birthFootnote 51 10 0 0
Total - Generation status for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 52 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
First generationFootnote 53 3,655,570 1,702,905 1,952,665
Second generationFootnote 54 504,985 255,860 249,125
Third generation or moreFootnote 55 68,195 34,170 34,025
Total - Ethnic origin for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 56 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
North American Aboriginal origins 7,840 3,490 4,350
First Nations (North American Indian) 7,190 3,225 3,960
Inuit 160 75 85
Métis 520 200 320
Other North American origins 113,700 56,095 57,610
Acadian 345 135 210
American 13,665 6,995 6,670
Canadian 100,835 49,445 51,390
New Brunswicker 15 10 10
Newfoundlander 155 90 65
Nova Scotian 560 265 295
Ontarian 55 35 15
Québécois 1,190 640 545
Other North American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 57 55 25 30
European origins 333,525 151,665 181,860
British Isles origins 111,550 51,580 59,970
Channel Islander 10 0 0
Cornish 20 0 10
English 57,770 27,070 30,700
Irish 29,235 13,440 15,795
Manx 20 15 10
Scottish 34,105 15,355 18,745
Welsh 2,785 1,250 1,535
British Isles origins, n.i.e.Footnote 58 12,365 5,540 6,825
French origins 41,960 19,170 22,790
Alsatian 15 0 10
Breton 50 20 30
Corsican 80 40 40
French 41,875 19,150 22,725
Western European origins (except French origins) 38,695 17,855 20,835
Austrian 1,400 660 740
Bavarian 0 0 0
Belgian 1,370 595 775
Dutch 10,635 5,040 5,595
Flemish 45 30 20
Frisian 15 10 10
German 25,720 11,810 13,910
Luxembourger 15 10 10
Swiss 1,380 640 740
Western European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 59 65 40 25
Northern European origins (except British Isles origins) 5,875 2,710 3,170
Danish 1,305 675 625
Finnish 690 265 425
Icelandic 430 190 240
Norwegian 1,710 795 915
Swedish 1,585 735 850
Northern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 60 470 210 265
Eastern European origins 16,610 7,670 8,945
Bulgarian 185 75 110
Byelorussian 70 45 25
Czech 610 255 350
Czechoslovakian, n.o.s.Footnote 61 200 105 95
Estonian 175 55 120
Hungarian 1,895 885 1,010
Latvian 155 60 95
Lithuanian 265 120 145
Moldovan 25 10 15
Polish 4,535 2,140 2,390
Romanian 805 400 410
Russian 4,765 2,120 2,640
Slovak 255 115 140
Ukrainian 4,245 2,030 2,215
Eastern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 62 215 65 155
Southern European origins 174,150 77,360 96,790
Albanian 230 120 115
Bosnian 65 55 10
Catalan 105 60 40
Croatian 630 345 285
Cypriot 55 15 40
Greek 3,240 1,625 1,615
Italian 23,685 11,325 12,355
Kosovar 20 10 10
Macedonian 105 30 75
Maltese 315 180 135
Montenegrin 0 10 0
Portuguese 34,035 15,575 18,460
Serbian 265 125 140
Sicilian 100 50 50
Slovenian 160 95 65
Spanish 125,695 54,630 71,070
Yugoslavian, n.o.s.Footnote 63 310 125 185
Southern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 64 125 40 80
Other European origins 6,755 3,035 3,725
Basque 510 300 205
Jewish 3,470 1,530 1,940
Roma (Gypsy) 75 40 30
Slavic, n.o.s.Footnote 65 55 35 20
Other European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 66 2,690 1,145 1,545
Caribbean origins 343,415 155,165 188,255
Antiguan 1,895 880 1,015
Bahamian 1,250 640 610
Barbadian 15,050 6,890 8,160
Bermudan 460 245 215
Carib 1,490 480 1,010
Cuban 10,795 4,905 5,890
Dominican 9,525 4,245 5,285
Grenadian 8,530 3,370 5,160
Guadeloupean 500 220 285
Haitian 80,210 35,900 44,305
Jamaican 137,395 62,590 74,810
Kittitian/Nevisian 1,380 645 740
Martinican 835 395 445
Montserratan 445 215 225
Puerto Rican 895 460 440
St. Lucian 4,105 1,715 2,390
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 35,535 16,465 19,075
Vincentian/Grenadinian 7,765 3,015 4,745
West Indian, n.o.s.Footnote 67 35,095 15,190 19,905
Caribbean origins, n.i.e.Footnote 68 12,965 5,755 7,210
Latin, Central and South American origins 278,095 129,240 148,850
Aboriginal from Central/South America (except Arawak and Maya) 11,235 5,275 5,955
Arawak 770 310 460
Argentinian 4,340 2,090 2,250
Belizean 435 200 235
Bolivian 1,750 790 955
Brazilian 10,310 4,575 5,735
Chilean 16,115 7,860 8,250
Colombian 45,775 20,665 25,110
Costa Rican 2,220 1,050 1,170
Ecuadorian 10,735 4,805 5,930
Guatemalan 11,835 6,280 5,555
Guyanese 38,920 17,480 21,445
Hispanic 4,890 2,285 2,605
Honduran 4,460 2,130 2,330
Maya 3,230 1,795 1,435
Mexican 40,755 18,865 21,885
Nicaraguan 6,175 2,895 3,280
Panamanian 2,005 860 1,140
Paraguayan 355 140 215
Peruvian 18,325 7,990 10,335
Salvadorean 31,930 15,805 16,125
Uruguayan 1,720 870 855
Venezuelan 11,350 4,980 6,375
Latin, Central and South American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 69 13,000 6,265 6,735
African origins 443,880 223,150 220,730
Central and West African origins 111,315 57,380 53,935
Akan 1,095 610 480
Angolan 1,235 615 625
Ashanti 875 490 390
Beninese 2,550 1,370 1,180
Burkinabe 1,545 850 700
Cameroonian 11,990 5,985 6,010
Chadian 705 385 320
Congolese 16,800 8,125 8,670
Edo 960 525 435
Ewe 425 250 175
Gabonese 655 260 395
Gambian 375 210 165
Ghanaian 18,470 9,130 9,340
Guinean 3,405 1,800 1,610
Ibo 2,490 1,350 1,135
Ivorian 5,325 2,740 2,585
Liberian 1,095 465 635
Malian 1,995 1,045 950
Malinké 545 310 235
Nigerian 23,930 12,475 11,455
Peulh 1,155 625 535
Senegalese 5,210 2,930 2,280
Sierra Leonean 1,270 635 630
Togolese 2,615 1,485 1,130
Wolof 510 305 200
Yoruba 4,690 2,570 2,115
Central and West African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 70 7,290 3,855 3,430
North African origins 122,140 65,230 56,915
Algerian 20,825 10,885 9,935
Berber 7,050 3,945 3,110
Coptic 1,415 770 645
Dinka 390 240 150
Egyptian 36,070 19,165 16,895
Libyan 2,910 1,665 1,240
Maure 520 300 220
Moroccan 35,995 18,925 17,065
Sudanese 8,560 4,400 4,155
Tunisian 10,435 5,990 4,445
North African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 71 2,405 1,375 1,030
Southern and East African origins 109,630 51,950 57,675
Afrikaner 85 40 50
Amhara 920 505 410
Bantu, n.o.s.Footnote 72 1,995 1,040 960
Burundian 5,135 2,535 2,600
Djiboutian 640 250 385
Eritrean 13,895 6,900 6,990
Ethiopian 23,480 11,350 12,135
Harari 295 125 170
Kenyan 5,455 2,410 3,040
Malagasy 2,175 995 1,175
Mauritian 4,465 2,205 2,260
Oromo 1,675 940 725
Rwandan 5,430 2,325 3,105
Seychellois 555 250 305
Somali 26,095 11,500 14,595
South African 3,250 1,580 1,675
Tanzanian 2,255 1,095 1,160
Tigrian 1,205 670 540
Ugandan 2,985 1,445 1,545
Zambian 925 455 465
Zimbabwean 3,680 1,805 1,870
Zulu 480 245 235
Southern and East African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 73 8,860 4,220 4,640
Other African origins 107,560 52,015 55,540
Black, n.o.s.Footnote 74 12,695 5,780 6,920
Other African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 75 96,415 47,040 49,375
Asian origins 3,174,220 1,485,185 1,689,040
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins 365,665 187,820 177,845
Afghan 40,515 20,380 20,135
Arab, n.o.s.Footnote 76 47,635 25,590 22,050
Armenian 4,210 2,080 2,135
Assyrian 5,365 2,695 2,665
Azerbaijani 1,915 1,045 870
Georgian 180 115 60
Hazara 785 440 345
Iranian 116,005 58,095 57,905
Iraqi 30,650 15,405 15,245
Israeli 1,135 565 565
Jordanian 5,815 3,075 2,735
Kazakh 720 275 440
Kurd 6,375 3,515 2,860
Kuwaiti 990 515 475
Kyrgyz 375 160 215
Lebanese 60,355 31,740 28,620
Palestinian 17,415 9,380 8,030
Pashtun 2,225 1,215 1,010
Saudi Arabian 2,970 1,710 1,260
Syrian 22,410 11,020 11,390
Tajik 1,135 555 575
Tatar 260 90 170
Turk 9,860 5,030 4,830
Turkmen 405 190 210
Uighur 610 285 325
Uzbek 1,305 625 680
Yemeni 2,450 1,225 1,230
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins, n.i.e.Footnote 77 9,430 5,085 4,345
South Asian origins 1,063,000 529,325 533,670
Bangladeshi 26,410 13,620 12,790
Bengali 12,845 6,600 6,250
Bhutanese 1,800 870 935
East Indian 750,745 372,355 378,390
Goan 2,995 1,405 1,590
Gujarati 4,735 2,385 2,345
Kashmiri 1,660 850 815
Nepali 10,005 5,115 4,890
Pakistani 107,475 54,800 52,675
Punjabi 61,810 30,805 31,005
Sinhalese 3,950 1,900 2,050
Sri Lankan 83,985 41,335 42,645
Tamil 26,620 13,535 13,090
South Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 78 41,515 20,665 20,855
East and Southeast Asian origins 1,759,575 774,645 984,930
Burmese 4,420 2,100 2,320
Cambodian (Khmer) 21,515 9,905 11,610
Chinese 976,385 447,085 529,305
Filipino 475,695 191,895 283,790
Hmong 420 195 225
Indonesian 8,430 3,505 4,920
Japanese 55,945 21,450 34,495
Karen 1,945 955 990
Korean 112,525 49,480 63,045
Laotian 14,130 6,925 7,205
Malaysian 9,245 4,005 5,245
Mongolian 2,755 1,205 1,555
Singaporean 1,570 725 845
Taiwanese 21,485 9,000 12,490
Thai 10,615 3,210 7,410
Tibetan 4,950 2,465 2,490
Vietnamese 132,295 61,485 70,810
East and Southeast Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 79 3,580 1,695 1,885
Other Asian origins 12,000 5,800 6,200
Other Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 80 12,000 5,800 6,205
Oceania origins 13,350 6,360 6,990
Australian 705 365 340
New Zealander 290 170 120
Pacific Islands origins 12,545 5,940 6,605
Fijian 10,215 4,735 5,480
Hawaiian 420 200 220
Maori 435 245 190
Samoan 370 240 130
Polynesian, n.o.s.Footnote 81 475 215 255
Pacific Islands origins, n.i.e.Footnote 82 915 435 475
Total - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 83 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,810
No certificate, diploma or degree 451,765 210,315 241,450
Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificateFootnote 84 877,760 431,430 446,335
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 2,899,220 1,351,185 1,548,030
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma 225,120 128,160 96,960
Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 85 142,725 74,220 68,510
Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 86 82,390 53,940 28,450
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 712,965 302,345 410,620
University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 185,220 79,455 105,765
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 1,775,915 841,230 934,685
Bachelor's degree 1,142,815 513,615 629,200
University certificate or diploma above bachelor level 107,015 49,250 57,765
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 64,075 31,260 32,815
Master's degree 401,350 207,990 193,355
Earned doctorateFootnote 87 60,670 39,120 21,550
Total - Major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2016 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 88 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 89 1,329,530 641,750 687,785
Education 110,025 20,675 89,350
13. Education 110,025 20,680 89,345
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 87,375 36,380 50,995
10. Communications technologies/technicians and support services 11,045 8,095 2,955
50. Visual and performing arts 76,330 28,285 48,040
Humanities 168,205 52,970 115,240
16. Aboriginal and foreign languages, literatures and linguistics 26,690 5,860 20,835
23. English language and literature/letters 39,215 9,015 30,195
24. Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities 66,770 21,705 45,075
30A Interdisciplinary humanitiesFootnote 90 330 155 180
38. Philosophy and religious studies 7,685 3,920 3,770
39. Theology and religious vocations 8,995 6,120 2,880
54. History 12,325 4,840 7,480
55. French language and literature/letters 6,185 1,355 4,835
Social and behavioural sciences and law 322,615 107,995 214,620
05. Area, ethnic, cultural, gender, and group studies 4,195 955 3,235
09. Communication, journalism and related programs 31,090 10,600 20,490
19. Family and consumer sciences/human sciences 51,885 5,235 46,655
22. Legal professions and studies 48,665 17,670 31,000
30B Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciencesFootnote 91 5,070 1,295 3,770
42. Psychology 40,795 9,080 31,715
45. Social sciences 140,915 63,160 77,755
Business, management and public administration 744,960 308,995 435,970
30.16 Accounting and computer science 1,490 585 905
44. Public administration and social service professions 31,720 7,865 23,855
52. Business, management, marketing and related support services 711,755 300,540 411,215
Physical and life sciences and technologies 154,780 71,510 83,265
26. Biological and biomedical sciences 63,830 24,725 39,105
30.01 Biological and physical sciences 36,775 16,140 20,635
30C Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciencesFootnote 92 2,830 1,090 1,745
40. Physical sciences 46,550 27,910 18,640
41. Science technologies/technicians 4,790 1,650 3,135
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 215,685 136,670 79,015
11. Computer and information sciences and support services 180,120 119,190 60,935
25. Library science 3,955 700 3,255
27. Mathematics and statistics 29,210 15,235 13,970
30D Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciencesFootnote 93 2,400 1,545 855
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 529,490 436,785 92,705
04. Architecture and related services 25,930 14,950 10,980
14. Engineering 302,005 235,200 66,800
15. Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 78,700 68,075 10,630
30.12 Historic preservation and conservation 45 10 35
46. Construction trades 37,825 36,480 1,345
47. Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 57,835 56,115 1,720
48. Precision production 27,150 25,960 1,195
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 35,480 19,280 16,195
01. Agriculture, agriculture operations and related sciences 25,185 13,960 11,225
03. Natural resources and conservation 10,295 5,320 4,975
Health and related fields 427,840 109,635 318,200
31. Parks, recreation, leisure and fitness studies 14,510 8,305 6,200
51. Health professions and related programs 396,020 92,145 303,875
60. Dental, medical and veterinary residency programs 17,310 9,185 8,125
Personal, protective and transportation services 102,480 50,155 52,320
12. Personal and culinary services 67,110 21,200 45,910
28. Military science, leadership and operational art 265 245 25
29. Military technologies and applied sciences 380 360 15
43. Security and protective services 16,325 11,805 4,520
49. Transportation and materials moving 18,395 16,550 1,845
Other 285 130 155
30.99 Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other 280 130 155
Total - Location of study compared with province or territory of residence with countries outside Canada for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 94 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 1,329,530 641,750 687,780
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 95 2,899,220 1,351,190 1,548,030
Location of study inside Canada 1,500,485 707,240 793,245
Same as province or territory of residence 1,337,570 622,615 714,950
Different than province or territory of residence 162,920 84,620 78,295
Location of study outside CanadaFootnote 96 1,398,735 643,950 754,790
United StatesFootnote 97 74,275 42,365 31,915
Philippines 262,910 95,935 166,975
India 239,135 117,215 121,915
United KingdomFootnote 98 40,675 22,295 18,380
ChinaFootnote 99 175,430 79,400 96,030
France 18,700 10,840 7,860
Other 587,615 275,895 311,720
Total - Population aged 15 years and over by Labour force status - 25% sample dataFootnote 100 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
In the labour force 3,365,270 1,723,510 1,641,760
Employed 3,111,190 1,603,925 1,507,265
Unemployed 254,080 119,585 134,490
Not in the labour force 863,480 269,425 594,055
Participation rate 79.6 86.5 73.4
Employment rate 73.6 80.5 67.4
Unemployment rate 7.6 6.9 8.2
Total population aged 15 years and over by work activity during the reference year - 25% sample dataFootnote 101 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
Did not workFootnote 102 891,895 288,505 603,390
Worked 3,336,855 1,704,430 1,632,425
Worked full year, full timeFootnote 103 1,688,925 935,955 752,975
Worked part year and/or part timeFootnote 104 1,647,925 768,475 879,450
Average weeks worked in reference year 43.3 44.3 42.3
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of worker - 25% sample dataFootnote 105 3,365,270 1,723,510 1,641,760
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 106 92,795 37,090 55,705
All classes of workersFootnote 107 3,272,475 1,686,420 1,586,060
Employee 2,878,785 1,433,370 1,445,410
Self-employedFootnote 108 393,690 253,050 140,645
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 109 3,365,270 1,723,510 1,641,755
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 110 92,800 37,090 55,705
All occupationsFootnote 111 3,272,475 1,686,420 1,586,060
0 Management occupations 318,635 196,730 121,900
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 526,435 189,440 337,000
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 329,495 252,155 77,340
3 Health occupations 286,940 71,700 215,245
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 342,330 99,590 242,740
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 66,980 33,455 33,520
6 Sales and service occupations 785,620 352,245 433,380
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 368,180 342,300 25,880
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 28,370 19,070 9,295
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 219,480 129,730 89,750
Total Labour Force population aged 15 years and over by Industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2012 - 25% sample dataFootnote 112 3,365,270 1,723,515 1,641,755
Industry - NAICS2012 - not applicableFootnote 113 92,795 37,095 55,700
All industry categoriesFootnote 114 3,272,475 1,686,420 1,586,055
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 26,150 14,475 11,675
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 25,615 18,545 7,075
22 Utilities 16,480 11,290 5,195
23 Construction 143,725 124,450 19,280
31-33 Manufacturing 348,270 229,550 118,720
41 Wholesale trade 131,940 82,655 49,285
44-45 Retail trade 329,185 158,470 170,715
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 202,870 159,345 43,525
51 Information and cultural industries 81,870 51,065 30,810
52 Finance and insurance 212,425 96,425 116,000
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 67,605 38,200 29,405
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 295,260 174,395 120,860
55 Management of companies and enterprises 5,785 2,655 3,130
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 172,825 93,075 79,755
61 Educational services 182,980 66,635 116,340
62 Health care and social assistance 431,890 91,880 340,010
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 36,865 19,605 17,255
72 Accommodation and food services 272,490 127,275 145,215
81 Other services (except public administration) 156,060 60,650 95,410
91 Public administration 132,175 65,770 66,405
Total - Language used most often at work for the population in private households aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 115 3,459,165 1,759,610 1,699,550
English 2,820,995 1,434,105 1,386,890
French 252,060 124,610 127,455
Non-official language 185,015 96,890 88,125
English and French 87,185 47,130 40,055
English and non-official language 103,940 52,100 51,845
French and non-official language 3,885 1,735 2,145
English, French and non-official language 6,080 3,040 3,040
Total - Income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 116 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
Number of total income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 4,128,235 1,959,475 2,168,760
Median total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 33,355 38,342 29,646
Average total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 43,427 50,154 37,348
Number of after-tax income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 4,130,445 1,961,300 2,169,140
Median after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 30,554 34,239 27,677
Average after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 36,578 41,220 32,380
Number of market income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 3,679,755 1,809,760 1,869,995
Median market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 34,423 40,156 29,384
Average market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 44,885 52,307 37,703
Number of government transfers recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 2,902,475 1,185,885 1,716,590
Median government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 1,753 842 3,232
Average government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 4,861 3,047 6,114
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 3,419,400 1,714,240 1,705,165
Median employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 35,114 40,197 30,527
Average employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 44,756 51,395 38,082
Total - Employment income statistics for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 117 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households who worked full year full time in 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 118 1,637,990 903,315 734,670
Median employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 119 48,604 52,775 44,434
Average employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 120 58,904 64,393 52,156
Composition of total income in 2015 of the population aged 15 years and over in private households (%) - 25% sample dataFootnote 121 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%)Footnote 122 92.1 96.3 87.0
Employment income (%)Footnote 123 85.4 89.6 80.2
Government transfers (%)Footnote 124 7.9 3.7 13.0
Total - Total income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 125 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,810
Without total income 100,515 33,460 67,050
With total income 4,128,235 1,959,475 2,168,760
Percentage with total income 97.6 98.3 97.0
Under $10,000 (including loss) 670,110 273,440 396,665
$10,000 to $19,999 613,945 259,020 354,930
$20,000 to $29,999 591,785 247,575 344,210
$30,000 to $39,999 534,005 237,845 296,165
$40,000 to $49,999 453,325 214,215 239,115
$50,000 to $59,999 328,240 166,755 161,480
$60,000 to $69,999 234,905 128,520 106,385
$70,000 to $79,999 173,985 98,915 75,070
$80,000 to $89,999 133,560 77,970 55,590
$90,000 to $99,999 103,165 60,110 43,060
$100,000 and over 291,205 195,115 96,090
$100,000 to $149,999 203,590 132,155 71,435
$150,000 and over 87,610 62,960 24,655
Total - After-tax income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 126 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,810
Without after-tax income 98,310 31,635 66,675
With after-tax income 4,130,445 1,961,305 2,169,135
Percentage with after-tax income 97.7 98.4 97.0
Under $10,000 (including loss) 680,505 279,750 400,755
$10,000 to $19,999 651,010 276,980 374,030
$20,000 to $29,999 697,000 300,015 396,985
$30,000 to $39,999 631,535 290,005 341,530
$40,000 to $49,999 488,010 240,020 247,990
$50,000 to $59,999 318,235 169,215 149,020
$60,000 to $69,999 217,000 122,545 94,450
$70,000 to $79,999 152,420 88,650 63,765
$80,000 and over 294,730 194,120 100,610
$80,000 to $89,999 99,995 61,085 38,915
$90,000 to $99,999 60,140 38,930 21,210
$100,000 and over 134,595 94,105 40,490
Total - Employment income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 127 4,228,750 1,992,935 2,235,815
Without employment income 809,350 278,700 530,650
With employment income 3,419,400 1,714,240 1,705,160
Percentage with employment income 80.9 86.0 76.3
Under $5,000 (including loss) 264,185 103,730 160,455
$5,000 to $9,999 233,070 98,060 135,010
$10,000 to $19,999 496,405 223,760 272,640
$20,000 to $29,999 483,120 213,925 269,195
$30,000 to $39,999 445,300 212,065 233,235
$40,000 to $49,999 383,955 193,115 190,840
$50,000 to $59,999 282,015 153,470 128,540
$60,000 to $69,999 207,860 119,190 88,670
$70,000 to $79,999 158,755 93,680 65,070
$80,000 and over 464,750 303,240 161,510
$80,000 to $89,999 121,330 72,750 48,580
$90,000 to $99,999 93,265 55,675 37,595
$100,000 and over 250,150 174,815 75,335
Total - Economic family income decile group for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 128 4,228,750 1,992,940 2,235,815
In the bottom half of the distribution 2,365,610 1,099,675 1,265,935
In the bottom decile 576,630 268,755 307,880
In the second decile 452,405 203,320 249,085
In the third decile 466,355 216,230 250,125
In the fourth decile 444,580 208,860 235,720
In the fifth decile 425,640 202,515 223,125
In the top half of the distribution 1,863,140 893,265 969,880
In the sixth decile 405,645 193,300 212,350
In the seventh decile 383,725 184,215 199,510
In the eighth decile 372,420 179,305 193,120
In the ninth decile 365,320 175,005 190,320
In the top decile 336,020 161,440 174,585
Total - Low-income status in 2015 for the population in private households to whom low-income concepts are applicable - 25% sample dataFootnote 129 4,221,945 1,989,795 2,232,145
In low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) 763,035 348,200 414,835
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) (%) 18.1 17.5 18.6
In low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) 620,180 290,420 329,760
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) (%) 14.7 14.6 14.8

Symbol(s)

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not available for a specific reference period

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not applicable

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Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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too unreliable to be published

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

In households where there is at least one person living with a child and a grandchild.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

In households that are not multigenerational where there is one census family with additional persons or more than one census family.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Marital status.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

First official language spoken is specified within the framework of the Official Languages Act. It refers to the first official language (i.e., English or French) spoken by the person.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Mother tongue refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the person at the time the data was collected. If the person no longer understands the first language learned, the mother tongue is the second language learned. For a person who learned two languages at the same time in early childhood, the mother tongue is the language this person spoke most often at home before starting school. The person has two mother tongues only if the two languages were used equally often and are still understood by the person. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, the mother tongue is the language spoken most often to this child at home. The child has two mother tongues only if both languages are spoken equally often so that the child learns both languages at the same time.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Language spoken most often at home refers to the language the person speaks most often at home at the time of data collection. A person can report more than one language as 'spoken most often at home' if the languages are spoken equally often. For a person who lives alone, the language spoken most often at home is the language in which he or she feels most comfortable. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this is the language spoken most often to the child at home. Where two languages are spoken to the child, the language spoken most often at home is the language spoken most often. If both languages are used equally often, then both languages are included here.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

'Knowledge of official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

'Knowledge of non-official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in a language other than English or French. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home. The number of languages that can be reported may vary between surveys, depending on the objectives of the survey.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

Citizenship refers to the country where the person has citizenship. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization.

For more information on citizenship variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

'Canadian citizens' includes persons who are citizens of Canada only and persons who are citizens of Canada and at least one other country.

Return to footnote 14 referrer

Footnote 15

'Not Canadian citizens' includes persons who are not citizens of Canada. They may be citizens of one or more other countries. Persons who are stateless are included in this category.

Return to footnote 15 referrer

Footnote 16

Immigrant status refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.

Return to footnote 17 referrer

Footnote 18

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

Return to footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

Return to footnote 19 referrer

Footnote 20

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

Return to footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

'Age at immigration' refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrant' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 22

'Admission category' refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

'Applicant type' refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the principal applicant, the spouse or the dependant on the application for permanent residence.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.In the 2016 Census of Population, data on admission category and applicant type are available for immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 1980 and May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 23

'Economic immigrants' includes immigrants who have been selected for their ability to contribute to Canada's economy through their ability to meet labour market needs, to own and manage or to build a business, to make a substantial investment, to create their own employment or to meet specific provincial or territorial labour market needs.

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Footnote 24

'Principal applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 25

'Secondary applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the married spouse, the common-law or conjugal partner or the dependant of the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 26

'Immigrants sponsored by family' includes immigrants who were sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident and were granted permanent resident status on the basis of their relationship either as the spouse, partner, parent, grand-parent, child or other relative of this sponsor. The terms 'family class' or 'family reunification' are sometimes used to refer to this category.

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Footnote 27

'Refugees' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status on the basis of a well-founded fear of returning to their home country. This category includes persons who had a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or for political opinion (Geneva Convention refugees) as well as persons who had been seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered a massive violation of human rights. Some refugees were in Canada when they applied for refugee protection for themselves and their family members (either with them in Canada or abroad). Others were abroad and were referred for resettlement to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency, another designated referral organization or private sponsors.

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Footnote 28

'Other immigrants' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status under a program that does not fall under the economic immigrants, the immigrants sponsored by family or the refugee categories.

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Footnote 29

For more information on the place of birth variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 30

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 31

The official name of Bolivia is Plurinational State of Bolivia.

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Footnote 32

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 33

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 34

Ireland is also referred to as Republic of Ireland.

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Footnote 35

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 36

The official name of Kosovo is Republic of Kosovo.

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Footnote 37

Macedonia, Republic of: known as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United Nations and other international bodies.

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Footnote 38

Serbia excludes Kosovo.

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Footnote 39

The official name of Saint Helena is Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Footnote 40

The official name of Tanzania is United Republic of Tanzania.

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Footnote 41

The full name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan.

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Footnote 42

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 43

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 44

West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine): West Bank and Gaza Strip are the territories referred to in the Declaration of Principles, signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1993. Palestine refers to pre-1948 British mandate Palestine.

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Footnote 45

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 46

The full name of Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 47

The official name of North Korea is Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 48

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 49

The full name of Macao is Macao Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 50

The official name of Laos is Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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Footnote 51

Includes other places of birth not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea'.

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Footnote 52

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada.

For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 53

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or once were, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 54

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 55

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 56

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the census.

'Ethnic origin' refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's ancestors. An ancestor is usually more distant than a grandparent. For additional information on the collection and dissemination of ethnic origin data, refer to the Ethnic Origin Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 57

Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer').

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Footnote 58

Includes general responses indicating British Isles origins (e.g., 'British,' 'United Kingdom') as well as more specific responses indicating British Isles origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Celtic').

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Footnote 59

Includes general responses indicating Western European origins (e.g., 'Western European') as well as more specific responses indicating Western European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Liechtensteiner').

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Footnote 60

Includes general responses indicating Northern European origins (e.g., 'Northern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Northern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Faroese,' 'Scandinavian').

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Footnote 61

Includes responses of 'Czechoslovakian,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 62

Includes general responses indicating Eastern European origins (e.g., 'Eastern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Eastern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baltic').

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Footnote 63

Includes responses of 'Yugoslavian,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 64

Includes general responses indicating Southern European origins (e.g., 'Southern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Gibraltarian').

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Footnote 65

Includes responses of 'Slavic,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 66

Includes general responses indicating Other European origins (e.g., 'European') as well as more specific responses indicating European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Central European').

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Footnote 67

Includes responses of 'West Indian,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 68

Includes general responses indicating Caribbean origins (e.g., 'Antilles,' 'Caribbean') as well as more specific responses indicating Caribbean origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Aruban').

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Footnote 69

Includes general responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins (e.g., 'South American') as well as more specific responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Surinamese').

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Footnote 70

Includes general responses indicating Central or West African origins (e.g., 'West African') as well as more specific responses indicating Central or West African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Luba,' 'Mossi').

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Footnote 71

Includes general responses indicating North African origins (e.g., 'North African') as well as more specific responses indicating North African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maghreb').

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Footnote 72

Includes responses of 'Bantu,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 73

Includes general responses indicating Southern or East African origins (e.g., 'East African') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern or East African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Hutu,' 'Shona').

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Footnote 74

Includes responses of 'Black,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 75

Includes general responses indicating Other African origins (e.g., 'African') as well as more specific responses indicating Other African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Saharan').

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Footnote 76

Includes responses of 'Arab,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 77

Includes general responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins (e.g., 'West Asian,' 'Middle Eastern') as well as more specific responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baloch,' 'Circassian').

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Footnote 78

Includes general responses indicating South Asian origins (e.g., 'South Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating South Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Telugu').

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Footnote 79

Includes general responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins (e.g., 'Southeast Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bruneian').

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Footnote 80

Includes general responses indicating Other Asian origins (e.g., 'Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating Other Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Eurasian').

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Footnote 81

Includes responses of 'Polynesian,' not otherwise specified.

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Footnote 82

Includes general responses indicating Pacific Islands origins (e.g., 'Pacific Islander') as well as more specific responses indicating Pacific Islands origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Tahitian').

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Footnote 83

Highest certificate, diploma or degree is the classification used in the census to measure the broader concept of 'Educational attainment.'

This variable refers to the highest level of education that a person has successfully completed and is derived from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported.

The general hierarchy used in deriving this variable (high school, trades, college, university) is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education. At the detailed level, someone who has completed one type of certificate, diploma or degree will not necessarily have completed the credentials listed below it in the hierarchy. For example, a person with an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma may not have completed a high school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a 'master's degree' necessarily have a 'certificate or diploma above bachelor level.' Although the hierarchy may not fit all programs perfectly, it gives a general measure of educational attainment.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

Users are advised to consult data quality comments for 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree', available in the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 84

'Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificate' includes only people who have this as their highest educational qualification. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 85

'Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' includes trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres and similar institutions.

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Footnote 86

'Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' also includes Journeyperson's designations.

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Footnote 87

'Earned doctorate' refers to persons who have completed a doctorate degree awarded by a university. This includes, for example, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.). It does not include honorary doctorates.

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Footnote 88

'Field of study' refers to the discipline or area of learning/training associated with a particular course or programme of study.

This variable refers to the predominant discipline or area of learning or training of a person's highest completed postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree, classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2016.

This 'Major field of study' variable can be used either independently or in conjunction with the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable. When the latter is used with 'Major field of study,' it should be noted that different fields of study will be more common for different types of postsecondary qualifications. At the detailed program level, some programs are only offered by certain types of institutions.

There was an explicit instruction in the questionnaire which instructed respondents to be as specific as possible in indicating a subfield or subcategory of specialization within a broad discipline or area of training.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

This variable shows the 'Variant of CIP 2016 - Alternative primary groupings' CIP variant, with the hierarchy of the primary groupings and two-digit series. When a primary grouping contains more than one subseries from series '30. Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies,' these subseries are grouped together. An exception is made for '30.01 Biological and physical sciences' due to its large size. For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2016: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/concepts/classification.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Certain series and their subcomponents are not used when coding major field of study for the census. These are series 21, 32 to 37 and 53, which represent non-credit and personal improvement fields of study.

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Footnote 89

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma; a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma; or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 90

'Interdisciplinary humanities' includes '30.13 Medieval and renaissance studies,' '30.21 Holocaust and related studies,' '30.22 Classical and ancient studies' and '30.29 Maritime studies.'

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Footnote 91

'Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciences' includes '30.05 Peace studies and conflict resolution,' '30.10 Biopsychology,' '30.11 Gerontology,' '30.14 Museology/museum studies,' '30.15 Science, technology and society,' '30.17 Behavioural sciences,' '30.20 International/global studies,' '30.23 Intercultural/multicultural and diversity studies,' '30.25 Cognitive science,' '30.26 Cultural studies/critical theory and analysis,' '30.28 Dispute resolution,' '30.31 Human computer interaction' and '30.33 Sustainability studies.'

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Footnote 92

'Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciences' includes '30.18 Natural sciences,' '30.19 Nutrition sciences,' '30.27 Human biology' and '30.32 Marine sciences.'

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Footnote 93

'Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciences' includes '30.06 Systems science and theory,' '30.08 Mathematics and computer science' and '30.30 Computational science.'

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Footnote 94

'Location of study' refers to either:

- the province, territory or country of the institution from which a person obtained a certificate, diploma or degree, or;

- the province, territory or country of the institution that a person attended during a specified reference period, or for a specific level of education.

In both cases, location of study refers to the location of the institution granting the certificate, diploma or degree, not the location of the person at the time he or she obtained the qualification or was attending the institution. The geographic location is specified according to boundaries current at the time the data are collected, not the boundaries at the time of study.

This is a summary variable that indicates whether the 'Location of study' of the person's highest certificate, diploma or degree was the same province or territory where the person lived at the time of the 2016 Census of Population, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. This variable is derived from 'Location of study' and 'Province or territory of current residence.' It only applies to individuals who had completed a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

'Location of study outside Canada' may be further sub-classified using the Standard Classification of Countries and Areas of Interest (SCCAI). When using the SCCAI for this sub-classification, the class 'Canada' is not used.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for 'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 95

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 96

Refers to all locations of study outside Canada, including the six locations outside Canada most often reported at the national level. These will not necessarily be the top six countries for other geographies.

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Footnote 97

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 98

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 99

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 100

Refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016.

Early enumeration was conducted in remote, isolated parts of the provinces and territories. When enumeration has taken place before May 2016, the reference date used is the date on which the household was enumerated.

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 101

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person aged 15 years and over worked for pay or in self-employment in 2015 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 102

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2015 and persons who worked in 2016, but not in 2015.

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Footnote 103

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year (49 weeks and over) and mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) in 2015.

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Footnote 104

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year mostly part time or part year mostly full time or part year mostly part time in 2015. Part year is less than 49 weeks and part time is less than 30 hours per week.

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Footnote 105

Class of worker refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over is an employee or is self-employed.

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Footnote 106

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 107

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 108

Includes persons aged 15 years and over with or without an incorporated business with paid help or without paid help, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 109

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons aged 15 years and over as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2016.

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Footnote 110

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 111

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016 were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 112

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The data are produced according to the NAICS 2012.

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Footnote 113

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 114

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 115

Language used most often at work refers to the language the person uses most often at work. A person can report more than one language as 'used most often at work' if the languages are used equally often.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 116

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period.

It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 117

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 118

Full-year full-time workers - Persons aged 15 years and over who worked mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) and full year (49 weeks and over per year) in 2015. For more information, see variable work activity in 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 119

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median.

Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 120

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group.

Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 121

Composition of total income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 122

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 123

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 124

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 125

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 126

After-tax income - After-tax income refers to total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 126 referrer

Footnote 127

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 127 referrer

Footnote 128

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 129

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.3 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

Return to footnote 129 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016192.

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