Data tables, 2016 Census

Ethnic Origin (101), Age (15A), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (651) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

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This table details ethnic origin , age , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households of canada in Quebec / Québec
Data quality
Selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics (651) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total - Household type of person for the population in private households - 25% sample data 7,965,455 3,941,435 4,024,015
Persons in one-census-family households without additional persons 5,956,710 2,961,060 2,995,645
In a couple census family without children (no other persons present in the household) 1,841,460 924,170 917,295
In a couple census family with children (no other persons present in the household) 3,301,620 1,690,525 1,611,100
In a lone-parent census family (no other persons present in the household) 813,625 346,370 467,260
Persons in multigenerational householdsFootnote 2 247,240 111,500 135,745
Persons in other census family householdsFootnote 3 298,705 149,210 149,490
Persons in two-or-more-person non-census-family households 288,110 159,450 128,660
Persons living alone (one-person households) 1,174,695 560,215 614,480
Total - Marital status for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 4 6,634,280 3,260,040 3,374,240
Married or living common law 3,798,575 1,901,325 1,897,255
Married 2,299,280 1,150,230 1,149,055
Living common law 1,499,295 751,095 748,200
Not married and not living common law 2,835,705 1,358,715 1,476,990
Never married 1,963,595 1,060,360 903,235
Separated 98,955 43,400 55,560
Divorced 466,210 186,200 280,010
Widowed 306,945 68,760 238,195
Total - Mobility status 1 year ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 5 7,880,315 3,897,740 3,982,575
Non-movers 6,965,520 3,447,325 3,518,190
Movers 914,795 450,415 464,385
Non-migrants 547,410 269,850 277,560
Migrants 367,385 180,565 186,825
Internal migrants 305,465 149,335 156,135
Intraprovincial migrants 284,275 137,950 146,325
Interprovincial migrants 21,190 11,385 9,805
External migrants 61,915 31,230 30,690
Total - Mobility status 5 years ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 6 7,520,960 3,714,155 3,806,805
Non-movers 4,825,870 2,388,805 2,437,065
Movers 2,695,090 1,325,350 1,369,740
Non-migrants 1,507,665 741,225 766,440
Migrants 1,187,425 584,125 603,295
Internal migrants 949,170 464,830 484,340
Intraprovincial migrants 893,800 436,530 457,275
Interprovincial migrants 55,370 28,305 27,070
External migrants 238,255 119,295 118,960
Total - First official language spoken for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 7 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,010
English 960,110 481,845 478,265
French 6,657,460 3,287,545 3,369,915
English and French 275,625 142,910 132,720
Neither English nor French 72,250 29,140 43,110
Official language minority (number)Footnote 8 1,097,920 553,295 544,630
Official language minority (percentage)Footnote 9 13.8 14.0 13.5
Total - Mother tongue for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 10 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,015
English 598,045 301,320 296,725
French 6,129,855 3,034,215 3,095,640
Non-official language 1,062,890 517,840 545,055
Aboriginal 45,385 22,360 23,025
Non-Aboriginal 1,017,505 495,475 522,030
English and French 67,995 34,960 33,035
English and non-official language 25,730 12,605 13,125
French and non-official language 64,900 32,260 32,640
English, French and non-official language 16,030 8,240 7,790
Total - Language spoken most often at home for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 11 7,965,450 3,941,435 4,024,010
English 780,750 390,925 389,820
French 6,283,305 3,112,675 3,170,630
Non-official language 588,890 283,980 304,910
Aboriginal 40,065 20,085 19,980
Non-Aboriginal 548,825 263,895 284,930
English and French 82,940 42,245 40,690
English and non-official language 53,425 25,965 27,455
French and non-official language 137,285 65,735 71,550
English, French and non-official language 38,870 19,915 18,950
Total - Number of languages known for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 12 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,010
Knowledge of one language 3,809,110 1,792,395 2,016,715
English only 167,205 84,420 82,790
French only 3,574,175 1,680,250 1,893,925
Non-official language only 67,730 27,730 40,000
Knowledge of more than one language 4,156,340 2,149,045 2,007,300
English and French only 2,613,090 1,400,510 1,212,580
English, French and one or more non-official languages 948,840 471,885 476,955
English and one or more non official languages 201,555 101,660 99,900
French and one or more non official languages 386,240 172,495 213,740
Multiple non-official languages only 6,610 2,495 4,125
Total - Citizenship for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 13 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,010
Canadian citizensFootnote 14 7,585,540 3,753,195 3,832,350
Canadian citizens only 7,254,480 3,586,115 3,668,360
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 331,065 167,075 163,990
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 15 379,905 188,245 191,660
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 16 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,015
Non-immigrantsFootnote 17 6,788,085 3,365,345 3,422,740
ImmigrantsFootnote 18 1,091,305 530,330 560,980
Before 1981 238,650 117,075 121,575
1981 to 1990 127,345 63,155 64,185
1991 to 2000 187,860 89,210 98,645
2001 to 2010 322,280 155,780 166,500
2001 to 2005 140,170 67,835 72,335
2006 to 2010 182,110 87,950 94,165
2011 to 2016Footnote 19 215,170 105,100 110,065
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 20 86,065 45,765 40,295
Total - Age at immigration for the immigrant population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 21 1,091,305 530,330 560,980
Under 5 years 112,930 54,605 58,330
5 to 14 years 174,020 87,165 86,855
15 to 24 years 215,355 98,875 116,475
25 to 44 years 515,775 256,095 259,675
45 years and over 73,230 33,590 39,640
Total - Admission category and applicant type for the immigrant population in private households who landed between 1980 and 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 22 867,685 420,465 447,220
Economic immigrantsFootnote 23 469,015 243,915 225,100
Principal applicantsFootnote 24 224,715 137,975 86,745
Secondary applicantsFootnote 25 244,300 105,945 138,355
Immigrants sponsored by familyFootnote 26 241,225 96,125 145,100
RefugeesFootnote 27 146,295 75,100 71,195
Other immigrantsFootnote 28 11,145 5,320 5,830
Total - Place of birth for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 29 7,965,455 3,941,435 4,024,010
Born in Canada 6,760,560 3,351,265 3,409,290
Born outside Canada 1,204,895 590,175 614,720
Americas 273,680 126,715 146,965
North America 37,795 18,770 19,025
Greenland 10 10 0
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 185 85 100
United StatesFootnote 30 37,600 18,680 18,925
Central America 42,300 20,825 21,475
Belize 80 40 45
Costa Rica 980 530 445
El Salvador 11,380 5,625 5,750
Guatemala 6,220 3,395 2,825
Honduras 2,730 1,345 1,380
Mexico 18,090 8,420 9,665
Nicaragua 1,760 895 865
Panama 1,070 565 500
Caribbean and Bermuda 115,870 51,115 64,760
Anguilla 0 0 0
Antigua and Barbuda 155 95 60
Aruba 50 35 20
Bahamas 215 95 120
Barbados 2,095 905 1,185
Bermuda 130 70 55
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 0 0 0
Cayman Islands 15 10 10
Cuba 6,585 3,255 3,330
Curaçao 55 20 35
Dominica 250 105 150
Dominican Republic 5,960 2,720 3,235
Grenada 1,275 415 860
Guadeloupe 655 335 315
Haiti 83,955 36,895 47,060
Jamaica 4,845 2,170 2,675
Martinique 845 390 455
Montserrat 210 90 115
Puerto Rico 90 15 70
Saint Barthélemy 0 0 10
Saint Kitts and Nevis 270 105 165
Saint Lucia 575 240 340
Saint Martin (French part) 40 20 25
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3,395 1,235 2,160
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 10 0 10
Trinidad and Tobago 4,170 1,875 2,300
Turks and Caicos Islands 15 10 10
Virgin Islands, British 0 0 0
Virgin Islands, United States 10 10 0
South America 77,710 36,000 41,705
Argentina 4,855 2,365 2,485
BoliviaFootnote 31 1,035 420 615
Brazil 9,155 4,450 4,710
Chile 8,930 4,470 4,455
Colombia 26,895 12,250 14,640
Ecuador 1,565 710 860
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 0 0 0
French Guiana 205 85 115
Guyana 2,525 1,095 1,430
Paraguay 290 125 165
Peru 13,785 6,180 7,605
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 0 0 0
Suriname 70 15 60
Uruguay 1,645 810 835
VenezuelaFootnote 32 6,755 3,020 3,735
Europe 351,475 176,065 175,410
Western Europe 141,910 74,570 67,340
Austria 1,605 760 840
Belgium 10,720 5,415 5,310
France 107,270 57,385 49,885
Germany 13,005 6,015 6,985
Liechtenstein 0 0 0
Luxembourg 265 120 145
Monaco 105 80 25
Netherlands 2,345 1,220 1,125
Switzerland 6,595 3,575 3,015
Eastern Europe 84,555 39,190 45,370
Belarus 1,580 745 835
Bulgaria 6,070 2,975 3,100
Czech Republic 1,515 690 825
Estonia 160 70 85
Hungary 3,440 1,685 1,755
Latvia 360 180 175
Lithuania 390 140 245
MoldovaFootnote 33 9,210 4,460 4,750
Poland 11,010 4,785 6,225
Romania 28,945 13,815 15,120
Russian Federation 11,830 5,175 6,655
Slovakia 1,045 500 545
Ukraine 9,005 3,960 5,045
Northern Europe 17,800 9,240 8,565
Åland Islands 0 0 0
Denmark 460 235 230
Faroe Islands 0 0 0
Finland 320 105 210
Guernsey 0 0 0
Iceland 80 45 30
IrelandFootnote 34 945 580 370
Isle of Man 10 0 0
Jersey 10 0 0
Norway 215 95 120
Sark 0 0 0
Svalbard and Jan Mayen 0 0 0
Sweden 695 330 370
United KingdomFootnote 35 15,065 7,835 7,230
Southern Europe 107,205 53,065 54,135
Albania 1,725 850 875
Andorra 35 10 30
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,815 1,900 1,910
Croatia 2,280 1,165 1,115
Gibraltar 10 0 10
Greece 19,075 9,485 9,585
Holy See (Vatican City State) 0 0 0
Italy 52,430 26,075 26,350
KosovoFootnote 36 780 415 360
Macedonia, Republic ofFootnote 37 210 95 110
Malta 55 20 40
Montenegro 245 95 150
Portugal 19,410 9,375 10,030
San Marino 0 0 0
SerbiaFootnote 38 1,860 855 1,010
Slovenia 670 330 345
Spain 4,605 2,385 2,225
Africa 259,805 135,710 124,095
Western Africa 37,105 20,010 17,100
Benin 2,825 1,620 1,200
Burkina Faso 2,015 1,030 985
Cabo Verde 55 25 30
Côte d'Ivoire 9,950 5,130 4,820
Gambia 95 65 35
Ghana 1,995 1,065 935
Guinea 4,255 2,170 2,085
Guinea-Bissau 65 40 20
Liberia 180 85 95
Mali 2,100 1,130 970
Mauritania 705 440 265
Niger 890 485 400
Nigeria 1,630 920 705
Saint HelenaFootnote 39 0 0 0
Senegal 7,215 3,995 3,215
Sierra Leone 200 100 100
Togo 2,950 1,715 1,235
Eastern Africa 24,860 11,960 12,900
Burundi 4,630 2,325 2,305
Comoros 115 50 65
Djibouti 565 260 305
Eritrea 280 120 155
Ethiopia 1,040 520 520
Kenya 875 400 475
Madagascar 3,370 1,585 1,785
Malawi 35 10 25
Mauritius 6,425 3,115 3,310
Mayotte 0 0 0
Mozambique 210 115 95
Réunion 485 240 250
Rwanda 3,280 1,535 1,745
Seychelles 710 300 410
Somalia 580 275 305
South Sudan 20 15 10
TanzaniaFootnote 40 1,135 590 535
Uganda 460 165 295
Zambia 180 85 95
Zimbabwe 470 245 230
Northern Africa 163,645 86,715 76,930
Algeria 61,675 32,490 29,185
Egypt 20,210 10,705 9,505
Libya 1,305 770 530
Morocco 63,425 33,005 30,420
SudanFootnote 41 230 120 110
Tunisia 16,805 9,630 7,175
Western Sahara 0 0 0
Central Africa 33,015 16,430 16,580
Angola 750 370 385
Cameroon 14,015 7,130 6,885
Central African Republic 950 445 500
Chad 1,070 570 500
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 13,205 6,305 6,900
Congo, Republic of the 1,960 1,115 845
Equatorial Guinea 20 15 10
Gabon 1,040 485 560
Sao Tome and Principe 10 10 0
Southern Africa 1,185 600 580
Botswana 105 35 75
Lesotho 0 0 0
Namibia 35 15 20
South Africa, Republic of 1,030 550 480
Swaziland 15 10 0
Asia 317,260 150,200 167,060
West Central Asia and the Middle East 119,155 61,360 57,800
Afghanistan 7,530 3,775 3,755
Armenia 1,570 695 875
Azerbaijan 390 155 240
Bahrain 125 70 55
Cyprus 315 150 170
Georgia 425 190 230
IranFootnote 42 19,275 9,700 9,575
Iraq 3,875 2,030 1,850
Israel 5,405 2,835 2,575
Jordan 1,530 825 705
Kazakhstan 2,365 1,050 1,320
Kuwait 1,720 900 820
Kyrgyzstan 645 315 335
Lebanon 40,555 21,630 18,930
Oman 85 40 40
Qatar 280 160 120
Saudi Arabia 2,830 1,555 1,280
SyriaFootnote 43 18,725 9,290 9,435
Tajikistan 215 85 130
Turkey 7,010 3,635 3,370
Turkmenistan 55 20 35
United Arab Emirates 1,560 880 680
Uzbekistan 1,015 470 550
West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)Footnote 44 1,415 795 620
Yemen 225 110 115
Eastern Asia 73,965 30,860 43,105
ChinaFootnote 45 56,820 23,360 33,470
Hong KongFootnote 46 4,980 2,390 2,590
Japan 2,355 685 1,670
Korea, NorthFootnote 47 35 15 10
Korea, SouthFootnote 48 6,225 2,955 3,270
MacaoFootnote 49 185 80 105
Mongolia 230 95 130
Taiwan 3,140 1,280 1,860
Southeast Asia 70,755 29,940 40,815
Brunei Darussalam 30 25 10
Burma (Myanmar) 310 145 165
Cambodia 9,535 4,470 5,060
Indonesia 745 290 460
LaosFootnote 50 3,935 1,975 1,955
Malaysia 725 335 390
Philippines 26,335 9,445 16,890
Singapore 440 240 205
Thailand 2,260 795 1,465
Timor-Leste 0 0 0
Viet Nam 26,430 12,225 14,210
Southern Asia 53,380 28,045 25,340
Bangladesh 8,270 4,205 4,065
Bhutan 650 320 335
British Indian Ocean Territory 0 0 0
India 22,160 12,025 10,135
Maldives 0 0 0
Nepal 595 280 325
Pakistan 10,690 5,705 4,985
Sri Lanka 11,005 5,510 5,495
Oceania 2,660 1,480 1,180
American Samoa 0 0 0
Australia 1,450 820 635
Christmas Island 0 0 0
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0 0 0
Cook Islands 0 0 0
Fiji 70 35 30
French Polynesia 350 170 175
Guam 0 0 0
Kiribati 0 0 0
Marshall Islands 10 0 0
Micronesia, Federated States of 0 0 0
Nauru 0 0 0
New Caledonia 315 150 165
New Zealand 435 275 160
Niue 0 0 0
Norfolk Island 0 0 0
Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 0
Palau 0 0 0
Papua New Guinea 0 0 0
Pitcairn 0 0 0
Samoa 0 0 0
Solomon Islands 10 0 0
Tokelau 0 0 0
Tonga 0 0 0
Tuvalu 0 0 0
United States Minor Outlying Islands 0 0 0
Vanuatu 0 0 0
Wallis and Futuna 15 10 0
Other places of birthFootnote 51 10 0 10
Total - Generation status for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 52 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,015
First generationFootnote 53 1,204,895 590,175 614,720
Second generationFootnote 54 792,085 399,535 392,550
Third generation or moreFootnote 55 5,968,475 2,951,730 3,016,740
Total - Visible minority for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 56 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,015
Total visible minority populationFootnote 57 1,032,370 505,180 527,190
South AsianFootnote 58 90,335 46,745 43,585
Chinese 99,505 44,370 55,135
Black 319,230 154,110 165,115
Filipino 34,910 14,275 20,635
Latin American 133,915 64,655 69,260
Arab 213,740 113,420 100,320
Southeast AsianFootnote 59 62,820 29,960 32,860
West AsianFootnote 60 32,405 16,195 16,210
Korean 8,055 3,865 4,195
Japanese 4,570 1,750 2,815
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 61 9,845 4,670 5,170
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 62 23,040 11,155 11,885
Not a visible minorityFootnote 63 6,933,085 3,436,260 3,496,830
Total - Aboriginal identity for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 64 7,965,450 3,941,435 4,024,015
Aboriginal identityFootnote 65 182,890 91,895 90,995
Single Aboriginal responsesFootnote 66 175,960 88,635 87,325
First Nations (North American Indian)Footnote 67 92,655 45,510 47,145
Métis 69,360 36,260 33,095
Inuk (Inuit) 13,945 6,865 7,075
Multiple Aboriginal responsesFootnote 68 2,760 1,330 1,435
Aboriginal responses not included elsewhereFootnote 69 4,170 1,925 2,245
Non-Aboriginal identity 7,782,560 3,849,545 3,933,015
Total - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 70 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,240
No certificate, diploma or degree 1,323,065 674,955 648,115
Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificateFootnote 71 1,426,980 674,820 752,160
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 3,884,235 1,910,260 1,973,970
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma 1,120,735 681,515 439,220
Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 72 806,585 435,085 371,495
Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 73 314,145 246,425 67,720
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 1,165,510 506,775 658,740
University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 236,255 93,680 142,575
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 1,361,730 628,295 733,440
Bachelor's degree 872,060 384,280 487,785
University certificate or diploma above bachelor level 118,955 54,255 64,695
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 39,045 19,860 19,185
Master's degree 281,215 139,280 141,930
Earned doctorateFootnote 74 50,455 30,615 19,840
Total - Major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2016 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 75 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,245
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 76 2,750,045 1,349,775 1,400,270
Education 273,320 62,470 210,850
13. Education 273,315 62,470 210,850
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 156,720 71,480 85,240
10. Communications technologies/technicians and support services 25,385 18,280 7,100
50. Visual and performing arts 131,340 53,200 78,135
Humanities 215,735 86,060 129,670
16. Aboriginal and foreign languages, literatures and linguistics 32,180 7,165 25,015
23. English language and literature/letters 12,900 4,065 8,835
24. Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities 103,115 42,685 60,430
30A Interdisciplinary humanitiesFootnote 77 880 400 485
38. Philosophy and religious studies 10,400 6,650 3,750
39. Theology and religious vocations 10,125 6,205 3,925
54. History 17,055 9,990 7,070
55. French language and literature/letters 29,075 8,915 20,155
Social and behavioural sciences and law 381,000 125,020 255,975
05. Area, ethnic, cultural, gender, and group studies 4,315 1,170 3,150
09. Communication, journalism and related programs 48,530 16,685 31,845
19. Family and consumer sciences/human sciences 77,470 6,070 71,395
22. Legal professions and studies 67,185 25,790 41,395
30B Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciencesFootnote 78 9,910 2,035 7,875
42. Psychology 57,335 14,035 43,300
45. Social sciences 116,255 59,245 57,015
Business, management and public administration 879,190 321,455 557,740
30.16 Accounting and computer science 820 300 520
44. Public administration and social service professions 47,710 10,490 37,225
52. Business, management, marketing and related support services 830,660 310,670 519,995
Physical and life sciences and technologies 140,995 76,780 64,215
26. Biological and biomedical sciences 49,700 20,900 28,805
30.01 Biological and physical sciences 23,215 13,860 9,350
30C Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciencesFootnote 79 21,895 10,815 11,080
40. Physical sciences 39,060 27,545 11,520
41. Science technologies/technicians 7,125 3,660 3,465
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 152,105 104,850 47,260
11. Computer and information sciences and support services 125,485 92,735 32,750
25. Library science 11,110 2,145 8,960
27. Mathematics and statistics 13,410 8,360 5,050
30D Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciencesFootnote 80 2,100 1,605 495
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 828,405 758,350 70,050
04. Architecture and related services 29,015 17,050 11,960
14. Engineering 150,455 124,585 25,870
15. Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 150,640 135,445 15,195
30.12 Historic preservation and conservation 55 20 40
46. Construction trades 185,385 179,995 5,385
47. Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 184,280 178,505 5,770
48. Precision production 128,575 122,745 5,835
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 85,485 56,900 28,585
01. Agriculture, agriculture operations and related sciences 51,775 30,870 20,900
03. Natural resources and conservation 33,710 26,025 7,685
Health and related fields 480,225 95,450 384,780
31. Parks, recreation, leisure and fitness studies 27,955 14,675 13,280
51. Health professions and related programs 441,110 74,630 366,475
60. Dental, medical and veterinary residency programs 11,165 6,140 5,020
Personal, protective and transportation services 290,005 151,070 138,935
12. Personal and culinary services 164,590 43,720 120,875
28. Military science, leadership and operational art 295 275 20
29. Military technologies and applied sciences 1,340 1,245 100
43. Security and protective services 54,620 42,415 12,210
49. Transportation and materials moving 69,160 63,425 5,735
Other 1,055 375 680
30.99 Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other 1,055 380 680
Total - Location of study compared with province or territory of residence with countries outside Canada for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 81 6,634,280 3,260,040 3,374,240
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 2,750,045 1,349,775 1,400,270
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 82 3,884,230 1,910,265 1,973,970
Location of study inside Canada 3,509,610 1,716,730 1,792,880
Same as province or territory of residence 3,367,195 1,642,930 1,724,270
Different than province or territory of residence 142,410 73,800 68,610
Location of study outside CanadaFootnote 83 374,625 193,530 181,090
United StatesFootnote 84 28,325 16,910 11,405
Philippines 12,520 3,600 8,920
India 6,805 3,655 3,145
United KingdomFootnote 85 11,250 6,535 4,715
ChinaFootnote 86 17,155 7,755 9,400
France 69,665 39,885 29,775
Other 228,905 115,185 113,720
Total - Population aged 15 years and over by Labour force status - 25% sample dataFootnote 87 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,240
In the labour force 4,255,495 2,214,735 2,040,765
Employed 3,949,325 2,037,105 1,912,225
Unemployed 306,175 177,630 128,540
Not in the labour force 2,378,780 1,045,305 1,333,475
Participation rate 64.1 67.9 60.5
Employment rate 59.5 62.5 56.7
Unemployment rate 7.2 8.0 6.3
Total population aged 15 years and over by work activity during the reference year - 25% sample dataFootnote 88 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,240
Did not workFootnote 89 2,228,315 967,660 1,260,655
Worked 4,405,960 2,292,380 2,113,585
Worked full year, full timeFootnote 90 2,084,015 1,145,805 938,210
Worked part year and/or part timeFootnote 91 2,321,950 1,146,575 1,175,375
Average weeks worked in reference year 42.5 42.7 42.3
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of worker - 25% sample dataFootnote 92 4,255,500 2,214,735 2,040,765
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 93 101,485 51,640 49,845
All classes of workersFootnote 94 4,154,010 2,163,095 1,990,915
Employee 3,664,920 1,863,740 1,801,180
Self-employedFootnote 95 489,090 299,355 189,735
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 96 4,255,495 2,214,735 2,040,765
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 97 101,485 51,640 49,850
All occupationsFootnote 98 4,154,015 2,163,095 1,990,920
0 Management occupations 418,455 263,580 154,875
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 677,390 210,530 466,860
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 286,270 222,375 63,895
3 Health occupations 295,765 57,160 238,605
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 502,945 147,145 355,800
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 135,735 64,370 71,365
6 Sales and service occupations 988,605 449,815 538,790
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 574,670 544,105 30,570
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 67,295 55,610 11,685
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 206,880 148,405 58,475
Total Labour Force population aged 15 years and over by Industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2012 - 25% sample dataFootnote 99 4,255,495 2,214,735 2,040,765
Industry - NAICS2012 - not applicableFootnote 100 101,490 51,640 49,845
All industry categoriesFootnote 101 4,154,010 2,163,095 1,990,915
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 84,060 60,465 23,600
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 20,920 18,175 2,745
22 Utilities 28,405 20,655 7,760
23 Construction 254,055 223,770 30,285
31-33 Manufacturing 458,315 332,075 126,235
41 Wholesale trade 157,360 104,885 52,475
44-45 Retail trade 508,165 239,620 268,545
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 187,555 142,550 45,000
51 Information and cultural industries 100,775 59,705 41,070
52 Finance and insurance 165,140 66,175 98,965
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 61,380 36,505 24,875
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 288,715 161,030 127,685
55 Management of companies and enterprises 3,305 1,275 2,035
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 176,185 108,285 67,900
61 Educational services 306,580 96,175 210,410
62 Health care and social assistance 532,680 99,380 433,300
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 84,130 44,235 39,895
72 Accommodation and food services 278,495 123,230 155,265
81 Other services (except public administration) 193,700 89,455 104,245
91 Public administration 264,080 135,450 128,630
Total - Language used most often at work for the population in private households aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 102 4,529,770 2,352,115 2,177,650
English 541,720 294,940 246,780
French 3,611,985 1,857,350 1,754,635
Non-official language 34,160 17,190 16,970
Aboriginal 12,675 6,180 6,495
Non-Aboriginal 21,485 11,010 10,480
English and French 315,620 169,365 146,255
English and non-official language 6,550 3,655 2,890
French and non-official language 7,520 3,460 4,065
English, French and non-official language 12,210 6,160 6,055
Total - Income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 103 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,240
Number of total income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 6,417,010 3,159,420 3,257,595
Average total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 42,546 49,087 36,203
Median total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 32,995 37,867 28,517
Number of after-tax income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 6,418,440 3,159,550 3,258,895
Average after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 34,887 39,292 30,616
Median after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 29,549 33,112 26,127
Number of market income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 5,685,900 2,866,415 2,819,490
Average market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 40,505 47,810 33,079
Median market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 30,085 35,593 25,019
Number of government transfers recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 4,972,650 2,299,600 2,673,050
Average government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 8,590 7,846 9,229
Median government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 7,320 5,847 8,271
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 4,627,775 2,408,655 2,219,120
Average employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 40,382 45,974 34,313
Median employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 31,286 35,596 27,255
Total - Employment income statistics for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 104 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,245
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households who worked full year full time in 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 105 2,036,965 1,114,940 922,025
Median employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 106 47,111 51,622 42,433
Average employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 107 56,564 62,750 49,085
Composition of total income in 2015 of the population aged 15 years and over in private households (%) - 25% sample dataFootnote 108 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%)Footnote 109 84.4 88.4 79.1
Employment income (%)Footnote 110 68.4 71.4 64.6
Government transfers (%)Footnote 111 15.6 11.6 20.9
Total - Total income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 112 6,634,280 3,260,040 3,374,245
Without total income 217,270 100,620 116,645
With total income 6,417,010 3,159,420 3,257,590
Percentage with total income 96.7 96.9 96.5
Under $10,000 (including loss) 787,550 351,640 435,910
$10,000 to $19,999 1,189,560 476,595 712,965
$20,000 to $29,999 976,660 428,700 547,955
$30,000 to $39,999 851,280 412,965 438,315
$40,000 to $49,999 747,820 378,115 369,700
$50,000 to $59,999 543,060 293,745 249,315
$60,000 to $69,999 374,685 213,990 160,695
$70,000 to $79,999 286,470 164,590 121,880
$80,000 to $89,999 189,465 113,770 75,690
$90,000 to $99,999 122,190 79,800 42,390
$100,000 and over 348,275 245,505 102,770
$100,000 to $149,999 236,085 163,590 72,500
$150,000 and over 112,190 81,915 30,270
Total - After-tax income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 113 6,634,280 3,260,035 3,374,240
Without after-tax income 215,840 100,485 115,350
With after-tax income 6,418,440 3,159,550 3,258,890
Percentage with after-tax income 96.7 96.9 96.6
Under $10,000 (including loss) 820,195 358,630 461,555
$10,000 to $19,999 1,248,670 505,400 743,270
$20,000 to $29,999 1,191,245 540,130 651,120
$30,000 to $39,999 1,095,650 552,995 542,655
$40,000 to $49,999 796,145 425,960 370,190
$50,000 to $59,999 499,275 283,600 215,675
$60,000 to $69,999 308,110 180,000 128,105
$70,000 to $79,999 167,430 108,300 59,130
$80,000 and over 291,720 204,540 87,175
$80,000 to $89,999 95,610 65,130 30,480
$90,000 to $99,999 55,875 38,605 17,270
$100,000 and over 140,225 100,800 39,425
Total - Employment income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 114 6,634,280 3,260,040 3,374,245
Without employment income 2,006,505 851,380 1,155,120
With employment income 4,627,775 2,408,655 2,219,125
Percentage with employment income 69.8 73.9 65.8
Under $5,000 (including loss) 606,965 312,370 294,600
$5,000 to $9,999 366,690 161,465 205,225
$10,000 to $19,999 681,970 306,835 375,135
$20,000 to $29,999 584,510 269,765 314,745
$30,000 to $39,999 566,160 277,500 288,660
$40,000 to $49,999 476,250 246,430 229,825
$50,000 to $59,999 360,640 204,700 155,935
$60,000 to $69,999 266,985 156,110 110,870
$70,000 to $79,999 224,465 129,880 94,580
$80,000 and over 493,135 343,595 149,545
$80,000 to $89,999 139,685 90,245 49,440
$90,000 to $99,999 93,300 63,970 29,330
$100,000 and over 260,150 189,380 70,770
Total - Economic family income decile group for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 115 7,965,450 3,941,440 4,024,015
In the bottom half of the distribution 4,578,505 2,216,120 2,362,385
In the bottom decile 743,970 366,105 377,865
In the second decile 898,890 408,040 490,850
In the third decile 1,001,140 484,815 516,325
In the fourth decile 995,560 489,525 506,040
In the fifth decile 938,940 467,635 471,300
In the top half of the distribution 3,386,945 1,725,320 1,661,625
In the sixth decile 884,355 446,055 438,300
In the seventh decile 805,215 408,990 396,225
In the eighth decile 698,655 356,580 342,070
In the ninth decile 558,290 287,095 271,190
In the top decile 440,435 226,600 213,835
Total - Low-income status in 2015 for the population in private households to whom low-income concepts are applicable - 25% sample dataFootnote 116 7,921,500 3,919,510 4,001,985
In low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) 1,160,225 541,915 618,310
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) (%) 14.6 13.8 15.5
In low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) 728,140 356,035 372,100
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) (%) 9.2 9.1 9.3

Symbol(s)

Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period

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Symbol ...

not applicable

...

Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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too unreliable to be published

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the census.

The ethnic groups selected are the most frequently reported at the Canada level.

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Footnote 2

In households where there is at least one person living with a child and a grandchild.

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Footnote 3

In households that are not multigenerational where there is one census family with additional persons or more than one census family.

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Footnote 4

For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Marital status.

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Footnote 5

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 7

First official language spoken is specified within the framework of the Official Languages Act. It refers to the first official language (i.e., English or French) spoken by the person.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 8

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

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Footnote 9

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

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Footnote 10

Mother tongue refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the person at the time the data was collected. If the person no longer understands the first language learned, the mother tongue is the second language learned. For a person who learned two languages at the same time in early childhood, the mother tongue is the language this person spoke most often at home before starting school. The person has two mother tongues only if the two languages were used equally often and are still understood by the person. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, the mother tongue is the language spoken most often to this child at home. The child has two mother tongues only if both languages are spoken equally often so that the child learns both languages at the same time.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 11

Language spoken most often at home refers to the language the person speaks most often at home at the time of data collection. A person can report more than one language as 'spoken most often at home' if the languages are spoken equally often. For a person who lives alone, the language spoken most often at home is the language in which he or she feels most comfortable. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this is the language spoken most often to the child at home. Where two languages are spoken to the child, the language spoken most often at home is the language spoken most often. If both languages are used equally often, then both languages are included here.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 12

'Knowledge of official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

'Knowledge of non-official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in a language other than English or French. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home. The number of languages that can be reported may vary between surveys, depending on the objectives of the survey.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 13

Citizenship refers to the country where the person has citizenship. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization.

For more information on citizenship variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 14

'Canadian citizens' includes persons who are citizens of Canada only and persons who are citizens of Canada and at least one other country.

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Footnote 15

'Not Canadian citizens' includes persons who are not citizens of Canada. They may be citizens of one or more other countries. Persons who are stateless are included in this category.

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Footnote 16

Immigrant status refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 17

'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.

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Footnote 18

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 19

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 20

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 21

'Age at immigration' refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrant' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 22

'Admission category' refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

'Applicant type' refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the principal applicant, the spouse or the dependant on the application for permanent residence.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.In the 2016 Census of Population, data on admission category and applicant type are available for immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 1980 and May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 23

'Economic immigrants' includes immigrants who have been selected for their ability to contribute to Canada's economy through their ability to meet labour market needs, to own and manage or to build a business, to make a substantial investment, to create their own employment or to meet specific provincial or territorial labour market needs.

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Footnote 24

'Principal applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 25

'Secondary applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the married spouse, the common-law or conjugal partner or the dependant of the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 26

'Immigrants sponsored by family' includes immigrants who were sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident and were granted permanent resident status on the basis of their relationship either as the spouse, partner, parent, grand-parent, child or other relative of this sponsor. The terms 'family class' or 'family reunification' are sometimes used to refer to this category.

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Footnote 27

'Refugees' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status on the basis of a well-founded fear of returning to their home country. This category includes persons who had a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or for political opinion (Geneva Convention refugees) as well as persons who had been seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered a massive violation of human rights. Some refugees were in Canada when they applied for refugee protection for themselves and their family members (either with them in Canada or abroad). Others were abroad and were referred for resettlement to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency, another designated referral organization or private sponsors.

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Footnote 28

'Other immigrants' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status under a program that does not fall under the economic immigrants, the immigrants sponsored by family or the refugee categories.

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Footnote 29

For more information on the place of birth variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 30

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 31

The official name of Bolivia is Plurinational State of Bolivia.

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Footnote 32

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 33

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 34

Ireland is also referred to as Republic of Ireland.

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Footnote 35

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 36

The official name of Kosovo is Republic of Kosovo.

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Footnote 37

Macedonia, Republic of: known as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United Nations and other international bodies.

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Footnote 38

Serbia excludes Kosovo.

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Footnote 39

The official name of Saint Helena is Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Footnote 40

The official name of Tanzania is United Republic of Tanzania.

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Footnote 41

The full name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan.

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Footnote 42

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 43

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 44

West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine): West Bank and Gaza Strip are the territories referred to in the Declaration of Principles, signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1993. Palestine refers to pre-1948 British mandate Palestine.

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Footnote 45

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 46

The full name of Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 47

The official name of North Korea is Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 48

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 49

The full name of Macao is Macao Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 50

The official name of Laos is Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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Footnote 51

Includes other places of birth not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea'.

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Footnote 52

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada.

For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 53

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or once were, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 54

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 55

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 56

Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.' The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

For more information on the Visible minority variable, including information on its classification, the questions from which it is derived, data quality and its comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 57

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 58

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan', etc.

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Footnote 59

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Laotian,' 'Thai,' etc.

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Footnote 60

For example, 'Afghan,' 'Iranian,' etc.

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Footnote 61

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes persons with a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 62

Includes persons who gave more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in responses, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 63

Includes persons who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal group question (Question 18), as well as persons who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 64

Aboriginal identity refers to whether the person identified with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. This includes those who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For more information on Aboriginal variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016 and the Aboriginal Peoples Technical Report, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 65

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 66

'Single Aboriginal responses' includes persons who are in only one Aboriginal group, that is First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 67

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For additional information, refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 68

'Multiple Aboriginal responses' includes persons who are any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 69

'Aboriginal responses not included elsewhere' includes persons who are not First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who have Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or Membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 70

Highest certificate, diploma or degree is the classification used in the census to measure the broader concept of 'Educational attainment.'

This variable refers to the highest level of education that a person has successfully completed and is derived from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported.

The general hierarchy used in deriving this variable (high school, trades, college, university) is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education. At the detailed level, someone who has completed one type of certificate, diploma or degree will not necessarily have completed the credentials listed below it in the hierarchy. For example, a person with an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma may not have completed a high school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a 'master's degree' necessarily have a 'certificate or diploma above bachelor level.' Although the hierarchy may not fit all programs perfectly, it gives a general measure of educational attainment.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

Users are advised to consult data quality comments for 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree', available in the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 71

'Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificate' includes only people who have this as their highest educational qualification. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 72

'Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' includes trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres and similar institutions.

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Footnote 73

'Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' also includes Journeyperson's designations.

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Footnote 74

'Earned doctorate' refers to persons who have completed a doctorate degree awarded by a university. This includes, for example, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.). It does not include honorary doctorates.

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Footnote 75

'Field of study' refers to the discipline or area of learning/training associated with a particular course or programme of study.

This variable refers to the predominant discipline or area of learning or training of a person's highest completed postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree, classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2016.

This 'Major field of study' variable can be used either independently or in conjunction with the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable. When the latter is used with 'Major field of study,' it should be noted that different fields of study will be more common for different types of postsecondary qualifications. At the detailed program level, some programs are only offered by certain types of institutions.

There was an explicit instruction in the questionnaire which instructed respondents to be as specific as possible in indicating a subfield or subcategory of specialization within a broad discipline or area of training.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

This variable shows the 'Variant of CIP 2016 - Alternative primary groupings' CIP variant, with the hierarchy of the primary groupings and two-digit series. When a primary grouping contains more than one subseries from series '30. Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies,' these subseries are grouped together. An exception is made for '30.01 Biological and physical sciences' due to its large size. For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2016: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/concepts/classification.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Certain series and their subcomponents are not used when coding major field of study for the census. These are series 21, 32 to 37 and 53, which represent non-credit and personal improvement fields of study.

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Footnote 76

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma; a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma; or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 77

'Interdisciplinary humanities' includes '30.13 Medieval and renaissance studies,' '30.21 Holocaust and related studies,' '30.22 Classical and ancient studies' and '30.29 Maritime studies.'

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Footnote 78

'Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciences' includes '30.05 Peace studies and conflict resolution,' '30.10 Biopsychology,' '30.11 Gerontology,' '30.14 Museology/museum studies,' '30.15 Science, technology and society,' '30.17 Behavioural sciences,' '30.20 International/global studies,' '30.23 Intercultural/multicultural and diversity studies,' '30.25 Cognitive science,' '30.26 Cultural studies/critical theory and analysis,' '30.28 Dispute resolution,' '30.31 Human computer interaction' and '30.33 Sustainability studies.'

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Footnote 79

'Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciences' includes '30.18 Natural sciences,' '30.19 Nutrition sciences,' '30.27 Human biology' and '30.32 Marine sciences.'

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Footnote 80

'Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciences' includes '30.06 Systems science and theory,' '30.08 Mathematics and computer science' and '30.30 Computational science.'

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Footnote 81

'Location of study' refers to either:

- the province, territory or country of the institution from which a person obtained a certificate, diploma or degree, or;

- the province, territory or country of the institution that a person attended during a specified reference period, or for a specific level of education.

In both cases, location of study refers to the location of the institution granting the certificate, diploma or degree, not the location of the person at the time he or she obtained the qualification or was attending the institution. The geographic location is specified according to boundaries current at the time the data are collected, not the boundaries at the time of study.

This is a summary variable that indicates whether the 'Location of study' of the person's highest certificate, diploma or degree was the same province or territory where the person lived at the time of the 2016 Census of Population, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. This variable is derived from 'Location of study' and 'Province or territory of current residence.' It only applies to individuals who had completed a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

'Location of study outside Canada' may be further sub-classified using the Standard Classification of Countries and Areas of Interest (SCCAI). When using the SCCAI for this sub-classification, the class 'Canada' is not used.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for 'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 82

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 83

Refers to all locations of study outside Canada, including the six locations outside Canada most often reported at the national level. These will not necessarily be the top six countries for other geographies.

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Footnote 84

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 85

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 86

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 87

Refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016.

Early enumeration was conducted in remote, isolated parts of the provinces and territories. When enumeration has taken place before May 2016, the reference date used is the date on which the household was enumerated.

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 88

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person aged 15 years and over worked for pay or in self-employment in 2015 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 89

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2015 and persons who worked in 2016, but not in 2015.

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Footnote 90

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year (49 weeks and over) and mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) in 2015.

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Footnote 91

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year mostly part time or part year mostly full time or part year mostly part time in 2015. Part year is less than 49 weeks and part time is less than 30 hours per week.

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Footnote 92

Class of worker refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over is an employee or is self-employed.

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Footnote 93

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 94

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 95

Includes persons aged 15 years and over with or without an incorporated business with paid help or without paid help, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 96

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons aged 15 years and over as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2016.

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Footnote 97

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 98

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016 were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 99

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The data are produced according to the NAICS 2012.

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Footnote 100

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 101

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 102

Language used most often at work refers to the language the person uses most often at work. A person can report more than one language as 'used most often at work' if the languages are used equally often.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 103

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period.

It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 104

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 105

Full-year full-time workers - Persons aged 15 years and over who worked mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) and full year (49 weeks and over per year) in 2015. For more information, see variable work activity in 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 106

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median.

Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 107

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group.

Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 108

Composition of total income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 109

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 110

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 111

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 112

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 113

After-tax income - After-tax income refers to total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 114

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 115

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 116

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.3 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

Return to footnote 116 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016189.

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