Data tables, 2016 Census
Low-income Indicators (4), Individual Low-income Status (6), Age (14) and Census Family and Household Type Characteristics of Persons (31) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 100% Data
|Census family and household type characteristics of persons (31)||Individual low-income status (6)|
|Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 2||Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 3||Low-income status - applicable||In low income||Not in low income||Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 4|
|Total - Persons by census family characteristics including sex of lone parentFootnote 5||34,460,065||491,770||33,968,300||4,809,940||29,158,360||14.2|
|Persons in census families||28,352,805||416,770||27,936,035||3,192,915||24,743,115||11.4|
|Persons in couple census families||24,263,125||290,765||23,972,360||2,080,540||21,891,820||8.7|
|Persons in lone-parent census families||4,089,680||126,005||3,963,675||1,112,385||2,851,290||28.1|
|In a male lone-parent census family||852,800||32,830||819,970||157,630||662,340||19.2|
|In female lone-parent census family||3,236,880||93,180||3,143,700||954,750||2,188,950||30.4|
|Persons not in census families||6,107,260||74,990||6,032,265||1,617,020||4,415,245||26.8|
|Total - Persons by census family characteristics including number of children aged 0 to 17Footnote 6||34,460,065||491,765||33,968,300||4,809,940||29,158,360||14.2|
|Persons in census families||28,352,800||416,770||27,936,030||3,192,920||24,743,115||11.4|
|In a couple census family with children aged 0 to 17 years||12,061,425||188,850||11,872,570||1,238,105||10,634,470||10.4|
|Three or more children||2,812,950||84,840||2,728,105||437,490||2,290,615||16.0|
|In a lone-parent census family with children aged 0 to 17 years||2,493,030||95,755||2,397,280||875,280||1,521,995||36.5|
|Three or more children||460,065||35,770||424,300||230,945||193,350||54.4|
|Persons not in census familiesFootnote 7||6,107,260||74,990||6,032,270||1,617,020||4,415,245||26.8|
|Persons living alone||3,969,790||34,445||3,935,345||1,260,775||2,674,570||32.0|
|Persons living with other relativesFootnote 8||793,715||28,435||765,275||115,250||650,025||15.1|
|Persons living with non-relatives only||1,343,755||12,110||1,331,645||240,995||1,090,655||18.1|
|Total - Persons by household type including census family structureFootnote 9||34,460,060||491,765||33,968,295||4,809,940||29,158,360||14.2|
|Persons in one-census-family households without additional persons||24,835,785||280,385||24,555,400||2,926,860||21,628,535||11.9|
|In a couple census family without other persons in the household||21,641,340||215,830||21,425,515||1,925,290||19,500,225||9.0|
|In a lone-parent census family without other persons in the household||3,194,440||64,555||3,129,885||1,001,570||2,128,315||32.0|
|Persons in other census-family householdsFootnote 10||4,314,025||161,875||4,152,150||341,650||3,810,495||8.2|
|In a couple census family with other persons in the household||2,621,785||74,935||2,546,845||155,245||2,391,600||6.1|
|In a lone-parent census family with other persons in the household||895,240||61,455||833,785||110,810||722,975||13.3|
|Not in a census family, living with persons who are in a census family||797,005||25,490||771,520||75,590||695,925||9.8|
|Persons in two-or-more-person non-census-family households||1,340,465||15,055||1,325,405||280,655||1,044,755||21.2|
|Persons living alone (one-person households)||3,969,790||34,445||3,935,345||1,260,775||2,674,570||32.0|
- Symbol ..
not available for a specific reference period
- Symbol ...
- Symbol x
suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
- Symbol F
too unreliable to be published
- Footnote 1
Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.
Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.
When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.
- Footnote 2
Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.
For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.
- Footnote 3
The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.
- Footnote 4
Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.
- Footnote 5
For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Census family.
- Footnote 6
For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Census family; Child presence any age.
- Footnote 7
For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Household living arrangements of persons not in census families.
- Footnote 8
Includes foster children.
- Footnote 9
For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Household type; Census family.
- Footnote 10
Persons living in one-census-family households with additional persons and persons in multiple-census-family households.
Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016124.
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