Data tables, 2016 Census

Admission Category and Applicant Type (47), Selected Income Characteristics (92), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (10A), Age (10B) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

Data table

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This table details admission category and applicant type , selected income characteristics , immigrant status and period of immigration , age and sex for the population in private households in Nunavut
Data quality
Selected income characteristics (92) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total - Income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 3 23,930 12,180 11,755
Number of total income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 22,435 11,345 11,090
Median total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 29,743 28,817 30,326
Average total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 50,689 50,882 50,492
Number of after-tax income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 22,435 11,345 11,090
Median after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 28,635 27,517 29,403
Average after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 43,247 42,937 43,564
Number of market income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 19,220 9,905 9,315
Median market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 30,583 31,667 29,517
Average market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 52,115 53,453 50,693
Number of government transfers recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 21,885 11,045 10,840
Median government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 2,524 1,275 4,682
Average government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 6,191 4,314 8,103
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 18,590 9,605 8,985
Median employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 29,724 30,603 28,640
Average employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 51,195 52,454 49,849
Total - Employment income statistics for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 4 23,935 12,180 11,755
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households who worked full year full time in 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 5 7,580 3,925 3,655
Median employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 6 90,230 88,548 91,332
Average employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 7 88,321 89,311 87,259
Composition of total income in 2015 of the population aged 15 years and over in private households (%) - 25% sample dataFootnote 8 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%)Footnote 9 88.1 91.7 84.3
Employment income (%)Footnote 10 83.6 87.3 80.0
Government transfers (%)Footnote 11 11.9 8.3 15.7
Total - Total income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 12 23,935 12,175 11,755
Without total income 1,495 830 665
With total income 22,435 11,345 11,090
Percentage with total income 93.7 93.2 94.3
Under $10,000 (including loss) 5,320 3,165 2,160
$10,000 to $19,999 3,345 1,480 1,865
$20,000 to $29,999 2,610 1,135 1,475
$30,000 to $39,999 1,805 845 960
$40,000 to $49,999 1,190 580 615
$50,000 to $59,999 810 400 410
$60,000 to $69,999 730 375 360
$70,000 to $79,999 735 370 365
$80,000 to $89,999 820 440 380
$90,000 to $99,999 835 375 460
$100,000 and over 4,230 2,190 2,040
$100,000 to $149,999 3,220 1,575 1,645
$150,000 and over 1,015 610 400
Total - After-tax income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 13 23,935 12,175 11,755
Without after-tax income 1,495 830 665
With after-tax income 22,435 11,345 11,090
Percentage with after-tax income 93.7 93.2 94.3
Under $10,000 (including loss) 5,340 3,165 2,170
$10,000 to $19,999 3,410 1,530 1,880
$20,000 to $29,999 2,825 1,250 1,570
$30,000 to $39,999 1,915 915 1,005
$40,000 to $49,999 1,270 605 665
$50,000 to $59,999 985 500 480
$60,000 to $69,999 1,015 505 510
$70,000 to $79,999 1,090 555 530
$80,000 and over 4,595 2,315 2,280
$80,000 to $89,999 1,090 505 590
$90,000 to $99,999 1,025 480 550
$100,000 and over 2,475 1,335 1,145
Total - Employment income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 14 23,930 12,175 11,755
Without employment income 5,345 2,570 2,770
With employment income 18,590 9,605 8,985
Percentage with employment income 77.7 78.9 76.4
Under $5,000 (including loss) 3,925 1,925 2,005
$5,000 to $9,999 1,805 875 925
$10,000 to $19,999 2,155 1,135 1,015
$20,000 to $29,999 1,440 815 625
$30,000 to $39,999 1,025 580 445
$40,000 to $49,999 810 435 385
$50,000 to $59,999 710 350 360
$60,000 to $69,999 655 355 300
$70,000 to $79,999 680 360 320
$80,000 and over 5,390 2,780 2,610
$80,000 to $89,999 760 405 350
$90,000 to $99,999 800 345 455
$100,000 and over 3,830 2,020 1,810
Total - Economic family income decile group for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 15 35,580 18,140 17,440
In the bottom half of the distribution 19,105 9,745 9,360
In the bottom decile 5,320 2,730 2,585
In the second decile 4,460 2,250 2,210
In the third decile 3,730 1,915 1,815
In the fourth decile 2,870 1,470 1,395
In the fifth decile 2,730 1,380 1,355
In the top half of the distribution 16,475 8,395 8,080
In the sixth decile 2,280 1,200 1,085
In the seventh decile 2,420 1,250 1,170
In the eighth decile 2,555 1,290 1,260
In the ninth decile 3,185 1,630 1,550
In the top decile 6,035 3,020 3,015
Total - Low-income status in 2015 for the population in private households to whom low-income concepts are applicable - 25% sample dataFootnote 16 0 0 0
In low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) 0 0 0
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) (%) not applicable ... not applicable ... not applicable ...
In low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) 0 0 0
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) (%) not applicable ... not applicable ... not applicable ...

Symbol(s)

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not available for a specific reference period

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not applicable

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Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

'Admission category' refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

'Applicant type' refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the 'principal applicant' or 'secondary applicant' on the application for permanent residence.'Secondary applicant' includes immigrants who were identified as the married spouse, the common-law or conjugal partner or the dependant of the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.

In the 2016 Census of Population, data on admission category and applicant type are available for immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 1980, and May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

'Immigrant status' refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

'Period of immigration' refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

Non-permanent residents and immigrants who landed between 2015 and 2016 are included in the 'Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration.' The categories for 'Non-permanent residents' and period of immigration '2015 to 2016' are not presented elsewhere in this table with income as they may not have a complete year of applicable income. The income data for the 2016 Census of Population are for the year 2015.

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit, or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period.

It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Full-year full-time workers - Persons aged 15 years and over who worked mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) and full year (49 weeks and over per year) in 2015. For more information, see variable work activity in 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median.

Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group.

Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

Composition of total income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

After-tax income - After-tax income refers to total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 14 referrer

Footnote 15

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Return to footnote 15 referrer

Footnote 16

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.3 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016367.

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