Data tables, 2016 Census

Visible Minority (15), Individual Low-income Status (6), Low-income Indicators (4), Generation Status (4), Age (6) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

Data table

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This table details visible minority , individual low-income status , low-income indicators , generation status , age and sex for the population in private households in Canada
Data quality
Visible minority (15) Individual low-income status (6)
Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 3 Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 4 Low-income status - applicable In low income Not in low income Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 5
Total - Visible minorityFootnote 6 34,460,065 491,875 33,968,190 4,809,340 29,158,855 14.2
Total visible minority populationFootnote 7 7,674,580 11,185 7,663,400 1,590,245 6,073,155 20.8
South AsianFootnote 8 1,924,635 1,560 1,923,075 317,245 1,605,830 16.5
Chinese 1,577,060 1,315 1,575,745 368,880 1,206,870 23.4
Black 1,198,545 1,820 1,196,725 285,805 910,915 23.9
Filipino 780,125 3,110 777,020 57,525 719,490 7.4
Latin American 447,320 550 446,770 88,555 358,210 19.8
Arab 523,235 295 522,935 189,375 333,560 36.2
Southeast AsianFootnote 9 313,260 540 312,720 54,900 257,820 17.6
West AsianFootnote 10 264,300 785 263,515 91,385 172,135 34.7
Korean 188,710 340 188,370 61,405 126,960 32.6
Japanese 92,920 380 92,540 11,920 80,620 12.9
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 11 132,090 185 131,905 24,405 107,500 18.5
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 12 232,375 295 232,080 38,845 193,235 16.7
Not a visible minorityFootnote 13 26,785,485 480,695 26,304,790 3,219,095 23,085,695 12.2


Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period


Symbol ...

not applicable


Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act


Symbol F

too unreliable to be published



Footnote 1

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

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Footnote 2

For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 3

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 4

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

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Footnote 5

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

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Footnote 6

For more information on the Visible minority variable, including information on its classification, the questions from which it is derived, data quality and its comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 7

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 8

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

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Footnote 9

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Laotian,' 'Thai,' etc.

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Footnote 10

For example, 'Afghan,' 'Iranian,' etc.

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Footnote 11

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes persons with a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 12

Includes persons who gave more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in responses, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 13

Includes persons who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal group question (Question 18), as well as persons who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016211.

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