Data tables, 2016 Census

Mother Tongue (10), Income Statistics (17), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (15), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (10), Work Activity During the Reference Year (4A) and Sex and Age (15) for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

Data table

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This table details mother tongue , income statistics , highest certificate, diploma or degree , immigrant status and period of immigration , work activity during the reference year and sex and age for the population aged 15 years and over in private households in Canada
Data quality
Income statistics (17) Mother tongue (10)
Total - Mother tongue English French Non-official language Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal English and French English and non-official language French and non-official language English, French and non-official language
Total - Income statisticsFootnote 4 28,643,015 15,693,255 5,934,955 6,436,920 152,490 6,284,430 112,040 385,310 60,485 20,050
With total income 27,489,400 15,047,735 5,767,185 6,134,010 142,805 5,991,200 105,650 359,620 56,830 18,360
Percentage with total income (%) 96.0 95.9 97.2 95.3 93.6 95.3 94.3 93.3 94.0 91.6
Median total income ($) 34,205 37,249 35,000 27,149 19,587 27,376 30,384 30,055 26,685 27,676
Average total income ($) 47,487 52,131 44,246 39,762 28,561 40,029 41,537 40,842 36,298 38,749
With after-tax income 27,500,230 15,054,230 5,768,825 6,136,535 142,810 5,993,725 105,660 359,780 56,830 18,365
Percentage with after-tax income (%) 96.0 95.9 97.2 95.3 93.7 95.4 94.3 93.4 94.0 91.6
Median after-tax income ($) 30,861 33,335 31,006 25,539 19,532 25,699 27,684 27,725 25,256 25,753
Average after-tax income ($) 38,977 42,414 36,267 33,529 26,669 33,693 34,530 34,450 30,886 32,083
With employment income 20,428,675 11,557,975 4,178,695 4,270,470 86,945 4,183,530 80,850 283,295 42,755 14,630
Percentage with employment income (%) 71.3 73.6 70.4 66.3 57.0 66.6 72.2 73.5 70.7 73.0
Median employment income ($) 33,683 35,735 33,064 30,039 20,900 30,176 29,330 31,363 26,014 26,616
Average employment income ($) 46,057 49,457 41,819 41,563 30,658 41,789 40,472 41,219 35,589 37,793
With wages, salaries and commissions 18,811,420 10,699,830 3,896,825 3,821,575 85,700 3,735,880 76,210 263,980 39,435 13,565
Percentage with wages, salaries and commissions (%) 65.7 68.2 65.7 59.4 56.2 59.4 68.0 68.5 65.2 67.7
Median wages, salaries and commissions ($) 35,551 37,428 34,446 32,611 21,040 32,895 30,544 32,967 28,085 28,845
Average wages, salaries and commissions ($) 47,102 50,450 42,269 43,261 30,697 43,550 40,927 42,185 36,437 38,406


Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period


Symbol ...

not applicable


Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act


Symbol F

too unreliable to be published



Footnote 1

Users are advised to consult data quality comments for 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree,' available in the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

'Immigrant status' refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

'Period of immigration' refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

Non-permanent residents and immigrants who landed between 2015 and 2016 are included in the 'Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration.' The categories for 'Non-permanent residents' and period of immigration '2015 to 2016' are not presented elsewhere in this table with income as they may not have a complete year of applicable income. The income data for the 2016 Census of Population are for the year 2015.

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit, or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 3

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person aged 15 years and over worked for pay or in self-employment in 2015 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week). Full year is 49 weeks or over. Part year is less than 49 weeks.

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Footnote 4

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:
- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

Wages, salaries and commissions - Gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income taxes, pension plan contributions and employment insurance premiums during the reference period. While other employee remuneration such as security options benefits, board and lodging and other taxable allowances and benefits are included in this source, employers' contributions to pension plans and employment insurance plans are excluded. Other receipts included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses associated with paid employment, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union, research grants, royalties from a work or invention with no associated expenses and all types of casual earnings during the reference period.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016199.

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