Data tables, 2016 Census

Ethnic Origin (101), Age (15A), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (651) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

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This table details ethnic origin , age , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households of canada in Nunavut
Data quality
Selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics (651) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total - Household type of person for the population in private households - 25% sample data 35,580 18,140 17,445
Persons in one-census-family households without additional persons 20,710 10,445 10,265
In a couple census family without children (no other persons present in the household) 1,915 955 965
In a couple census family with children (no other persons present in the household) 15,320 7,955 7,360
In a lone-parent census family (no other persons present in the household) 3,470 1,535 1,935
Persons in multigenerational householdsFootnote 2 7,755 3,820 3,935
Persons in other census family householdsFootnote 3 4,145 2,105 2,030
Persons in two-or-more-person non-census-family households 1,120 655 470
Persons living alone (one-person households) 1,855 1,105 745
Total - Marital status for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 4 23,930 12,175 11,755
Married or living common law 12,835 6,440 6,400
Married 6,570 3,315 3,255
Living common law 6,270 3,130 3,145
Not married and not living common law 11,095 5,740 5,360
Never married 9,575 5,170 4,410
Separated 395 180 215
Divorced 435 185 250
Widowed 690 200 485
Total - Mobility status 1 year ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 5 34,875 17,750 17,125
Non-movers 29,480 15,105 14,375
Movers 5,400 2,640 2,750
Non-migrants 3,560 1,760 1,800
Migrants 1,835 885 950
Internal migrants 1,785 865 920
Intraprovincial migrants 795 385 415
Interprovincial migrants 990 480 505
External migrants 55 20 30
Total - Mobility status 5 years ago - 25% sample dataFootnote 6 31,430 16,015 15,420
Non-movers 18,455 9,570 8,880
Movers 12,975 6,440 6,535
Non-migrants 8,745 4,355 4,390
Migrants 4,230 2,085 2,145
Internal migrants 4,050 2,000 2,045
Intraprovincial migrants 1,510 760 760
Interprovincial migrants 2,535 1,245 1,290
External migrants 185 85 100
Total - First official language spoken for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 7 35,580 18,140 17,445
English 32,895 16,745 16,150
French 575 335 240
English and French 90 45 40
Neither English nor French 2,020 1,010 1,015
Official language minority (number)Footnote 8 620 355 260
Official language minority (percentage)Footnote 9 1.7 2.0 1.5
Total - Mother tongue for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 10 35,580 18,135 17,445
English 10,970 5,705 5,255
French 585 345 240
Non-official language 23,295 11,710 11,580
Aboriginal 22,570 11,340 11,235
Non-Aboriginal 725 375 355
English and French 25 10 15
English and non-official language 690 350 335
French and non-official language 10 10 10
English, French and non-official language 10 0 10
Total - Language spoken most often at home for the population in private households - 25% Sample DataFootnote 11 35,580 18,135 17,445
English 16,610 8,425 8,180
French 345 185 155
Non-official language 18,020 9,220 8,800
Aboriginal 17,705 9,055 8,650
Non-Aboriginal 315 165 150
English and French 20 10 10
English and non-official language 580 285 295
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total - Number of languages known for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 12 35,580 18,135 17,445
Knowledge of one language 8,220 4,280 3,940
English only 6,145 3,240 2,905
French only 45 35 15
Non-official language only 2,025 1,010 1,015
Knowledge of more than one language 27,360 13,855 13,500
English and French only 950 495 455
English, French and one or more non-official languages 555 295 265
English and one or more non official languages 25,830 13,060 12,765
French and one or more non official languages 10 10 0
Multiple non-official languages only 15 10 10
Total - Citizenship for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 13 35,580 18,140 17,445
Canadian citizensFootnote 14 35,285 17,995 17,290
Canadian citizens only 35,175 17,940 17,235
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 110 55 60
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 15 295 145 155
Total - Immigrant status and period of immigration for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 16 35,580 18,140 17,440
Non-immigrantsFootnote 17 34,605 17,625 16,975
ImmigrantsFootnote 18 920 485 435
Before 1981 155 95 60
1981 to 1990 100 60 40
1991 to 2000 160 85 75
2001 to 2010 335 170 165
2001 to 2005 160 90 70
2006 to 2010 175 80 95
2011 to 2016Footnote 19 165 75 90
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 20 55 25 30
Total - Age at immigration for the immigrant population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 21 920 485 435
Under 5 years 105 45 55
5 to 14 years 160 90 70
15 to 24 years 160 90 75
25 to 44 years 440 220 215
45 years and over 55 35 25
Total - Admission category and applicant type for the immigrant population in private households who landed between 1980 and 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 22 765 390 375
Economic immigrantsFootnote 23 430 205 220
Principal applicantsFootnote 24 230 115 115
Secondary applicantsFootnote 25 195 95 105
Immigrants sponsored by familyFootnote 26 240 115 120
RefugeesFootnote 27 105 65 40
Other immigrantsFootnote 28 0 10 0
Total - Place of birth for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 29 35,580 18,140 17,445
Born in Canada 34,550 17,610 16,950
Born outside Canada 1,030 530 495
Americas 190 85 105
North America 90 35 50
Greenland 0 0 10
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0 0 0
United StatesFootnote 30 85 35 45
Central America 15 10 10
Belize 0 0 0
Costa Rica 0 0 0
El Salvador 0 0 0
Guatemala 0 0 0
Honduras 0 0 0
Mexico 0 10 0
Nicaragua 0 0 0
Panama 0 0 0
Caribbean and Bermuda 65 35 35
Anguilla 0 0 0
Antigua and Barbuda 0 0 0
Aruba 0 0 0
Bahamas 0 0 0
Barbados 0 0 0
Bermuda 0 0 0
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 0 0 0
Cayman Islands 0 0 0
Cuba 0 0 0
Curaçao 0 0 0
Dominica 0 0 10
Dominican Republic 10 10 0
Grenada 0 0 0
Guadeloupe 0 0 0
Haiti 10 0 0
Jamaica 25 10 15
Martinique 0 0 0
Montserrat 0 0 0
Puerto Rico 0 0 0
Saint Barthélemy 0 0 0
Saint Kitts and Nevis 0 0 0
Saint Lucia 0 0 0
Saint Martin (French part) 0 0 0
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0 0 0
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 0 0 0
Trinidad and Tobago 10 0 10
Turks and Caicos Islands 0 0 0
Virgin Islands, British 0 0 0
Virgin Islands, United States 0 0 0
South America 25 10 15
Argentina 0 0 10
BoliviaFootnote 31 0 0 0
Brazil 0 0 0
Chile 0 0 0
Colombia 0 0 0
Ecuador 10 0 10
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 0 0 0
French Guiana 0 0 0
Guyana 0 0 0
Paraguay 0 0 0
Peru 0 0 10
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 0 0 0
Suriname 0 0 0
Uruguay 0 0 0
VenezuelaFootnote 32 0 0 0
Europe 220 140 80
Western Europe 50 25 25
Austria 0 0 0
Belgium 0 0 0
France 10 0 10
Germany 30 25 10
Liechtenstein 0 0 0
Luxembourg 0 0 0
Monaco 0 0 0
Netherlands 10 0 0
Switzerland 0 0 0
Eastern Europe 40 25 15
Belarus 0 0 0
Bulgaria 0 0 0
Czech Republic 0 0 0
Estonia 0 0 0
Hungary 0 0 0
Latvia 0 0 0
Lithuania 0 0 0
MoldovaFootnote 33 0 0 0
Poland 15 15 0
Romania 10 0 10
Russian Federation 0 0 0
Slovakia 0 0 0
Ukraine 0 0 0
Northern Europe 105 65 40
Åland Islands 0 0 0
Denmark 0 10 0
Faroe Islands 0 0 0
Finland 10 10 0
Guernsey 0 0 0
Iceland 0 0 0
IrelandFootnote 34 0 0 0
Isle of Man 0 0 0
Jersey 0 0 0
Norway 10 0 10
Sark 0 0 0
Svalbard and Jan Mayen 0 0 0
Sweden 0 0 0
United KingdomFootnote 35 85 55 30
Southern Europe 20 15 10
Albania 0 0 0
Andorra 0 0 0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0 0
Croatia 0 0 0
Gibraltar 0 0 0
Greece 0 0 0
Holy See (Vatican City State) 0 0 0
Italy 0 0 10
KosovoFootnote 36 0 0 0
Macedonia, Republic ofFootnote 37 0 0 0
Malta 0 0 0
Montenegro 10 0 0
Portugal 0 10 0
San Marino 0 0 0
SerbiaFootnote 38 0 0 0
Slovenia 0 0 0
Spain 0 0 0
Africa 200 120 80
Western Africa 65 40 30
Benin 0 0 0
Burkina Faso 0 0 0
Cabo Verde 0 0 0
Côte d'Ivoire 10 10 0
Gambia 0 0 0
Ghana 10 10 0
Guinea 0 0 0
Guinea-Bissau 0 0 0
Liberia 0 0 0
Mali 0 0 0
Mauritania 0 0 0
Niger 10 0 0
Nigeria 30 15 15
Saint HelenaFootnote 39 0 0 0
Senegal 0 0 0
Sierra Leone 0 0 0
Togo 10 0 0
Eastern Africa 90 50 40
Burundi 0 0 0
Comoros 0 0 0
Djibouti 0 0 0
Eritrea 0 0 0
Ethiopia 20 15 10
Kenya 10 10 0
Madagascar 0 0 0
Malawi 0 0 0
Mauritius 0 0 0
Mayotte 0 0 0
Mozambique 0 0 0
Réunion 0 0 0
Rwanda 0 0 0
Seychelles 0 0 0
Somalia 10 10 0
South Sudan 0 0 0
TanzaniaFootnote 40 0 0 0
Uganda 10 10 0
Zambia 0 0 0
Zimbabwe 35 20 15
Northern Africa 10 10 0
Algeria 0 0 0
Egypt 0 10 0
Libya 0 0 0
Morocco 10 0 0
SudanFootnote 41 0 0 0
Tunisia 0 0 0
Western Sahara 0 0 0
Central Africa 20 10 10
Angola 0 0 0
Cameroon 20 10 10
Central African Republic 0 0 0
Chad 0 0 0
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0 0 10
Congo, Republic of the 0 0 0
Equatorial Guinea 0 0 0
Gabon 0 0 0
Sao Tome and Principe 0 0 0
Southern Africa 20 10 10
Botswana 0 0 0
Lesotho 0 0 0
Namibia 0 0 0
South Africa, Republic of 15 0 0
Swaziland 0 0 0
Asia 400 180 220
West Central Asia and the Middle East 45 30 15
Afghanistan 0 0 0
Armenia 0 0 0
Azerbaijan 0 0 0
Bahrain 0 0 0
Cyprus 0 0 0
Georgia 0 0 0
IranFootnote 42 10 0 0
Iraq 10 10 0
Israel 0 0 0
Jordan 10 0 0
Kazakhstan 0 0 0
Kuwait 0 0 0
Kyrgyzstan 0 0 0
Lebanon 15 15 0
Oman 0 0 0
Qatar 0 0 0
Saudi Arabia 0 0 0
SyriaFootnote 43 0 0 0
Tajikistan 0 0 0
Turkey 10 0 0
Turkmenistan 0 0 0
United Arab Emirates 0 0 0
Uzbekistan 0 0 0
West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)Footnote 44 10 0 0
Yemen 0 0 0
Eastern Asia 45 20 25
ChinaFootnote 45 25 10 10
Hong KongFootnote 46 0 0 0
Japan 0 0 0
Korea, NorthFootnote 47 0 0 0
Korea, SouthFootnote 48 10 0 0
MacaoFootnote 49 0 0 0
Mongolia 0 0 0
Taiwan 0 0 0
Southeast Asia 220 80 140
Brunei Darussalam 10 0 10
Burma (Myanmar) 10 0 0
Cambodia 0 0 0
Indonesia 0 0 10
LaosFootnote 50 0 0 0
Malaysia 10 0 0
Philippines 205 80 125
Singapore 0 0 0
Thailand 0 0 0
Timor-Leste 0 0 0
Viet Nam 0 0 0
Southern Asia 95 50 45
Bangladesh 20 15 10
Bhutan 0 0 0
British Indian Ocean Territory 0 0 0
India 35 15 15
Maldives 0 0 0
Nepal 0 0 0
Pakistan 30 15 10
Sri Lanka 10 0 10
Oceania 15 0 10
American Samoa 0 0 0
Australia 10 0 0
Christmas Island 0 0 0
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0 0 0
Cook Islands 0 0 0
Fiji 0 0 0
French Polynesia 0 0 0
Guam 0 0 0
Kiribati 0 0 0
Marshall Islands 0 0 0
Micronesia, Federated States of 0 0 0
Nauru 0 0 0
New Caledonia 0 0 0
New Zealand 0 0 0
Niue 0 0 0
Norfolk Island 0 0 0
Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 0
Palau 0 0 0
Papua New Guinea 0 0 0
Pitcairn 0 0 0
Samoa 0 0 0
Solomon Islands 0 0 0
Tokelau 0 0 0
Tonga 0 0 0
Tuvalu 0 0 0
United States Minor Outlying Islands 0 0 0
Vanuatu 0 0 0
Wallis and Futuna 0 0 0
Other places of birthFootnote 51 0 0 0
Total - Generation status for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 52 35,580 18,140 17,440
First generationFootnote 53 1,030 530 495
Second generationFootnote 54 925 480 445
Third generation or moreFootnote 55 33,625 17,125 16,505
Total - Visible minority for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 56 35,580 18,135 17,445
Total visible minority populationFootnote 57 910 450 455
South AsianFootnote 58 110 60 55
Chinese 70 30 40
Black 330 180 150
Filipino 230 100 135
Latin American 40 15 20
Arab 40 25 10
Southeast AsianFootnote 59 25 10 15
West AsianFootnote 60 10 0 10
Korean 10 10 10
Japanese 0 0 0
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 61 20 15 0
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 62 10 0 10
Not a visible minorityFootnote 63 34,670 17,685 16,985
Total - Aboriginal identity for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 64 35,580 18,135 17,445
Aboriginal identityFootnote 65 30,550 15,410 15,140
Single Aboriginal responsesFootnote 66 30,490 15,385 15,105
First Nations (North American Indian)Footnote 67 190 90 100
Métis 165 90 75
Inuk (Inuit) 30,140 15,210 14,930
Multiple Aboriginal responsesFootnote 68 50 20 35
Aboriginal responses not included elsewhereFootnote 69 10 0 10
Non-Aboriginal identity 5,030 2,725 2,300
Total - Highest certificate, diploma or degree for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 70 23,935 12,180 11,755
No certificate, diploma or degree 12,135 6,180 5,960
Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificateFootnote 71 3,615 1,830 1,790
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 8,180 4,170 4,010
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma 1,835 1,450 385
Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 72 1,140 840 305
Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of QualificationFootnote 73 695 615 80
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 3,580 1,530 2,050
University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 215 95 120
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 2,540 1,095 1,450
Bachelor's degree 1,680 710 970
University certificate or diploma above bachelor level 85 40 45
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 25 10 20
Master's degree 700 305 390
Earned doctorateFootnote 74 50 25 20
Total - Major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2016 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 75 23,930 12,175 11,755
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 76 15,755 8,010 7,745
Education 1,005 290 715
13. Education 1,005 290 715
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 195 110 85
10. Communications technologies/technicians and support services 30 25 10
50. Visual and performing arts 165 85 80
Humanities 370 155 215
16. Aboriginal and foreign languages, literatures and linguistics 105 20 85
23. English language and literature/letters 60 15 45
24. Liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities 75 35 40
30A Interdisciplinary humanitiesFootnote 77 0 0 0
38. Philosophy and religious studies 25 15 10
39. Theology and religious vocations 35 30 10
54. History 60 40 25
55. French language and literature/letters 10 0 0
Social and behavioural sciences and law 1,010 320 690
05. Area, ethnic, cultural, gender, and group studies 180 45 135
09. Communication, journalism and related programs 50 25 30
19. Family and consumer sciences/human sciences 310 25 290
22. Legal professions and studies 130 60 70
30B Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciencesFootnote 78 30 0 25
42. Psychology 60 20 35
45. Social sciences 250 145 110
Business, management and public administration 1,655 555 1,100
30.16 Accounting and computer science 0 0 10
44. Public administration and social service professions 210 55 155
52. Business, management, marketing and related support services 1,445 500 945
Physical and life sciences and technologies 210 110 105
26. Biological and biomedical sciences 70 30 40
30.01 Biological and physical sciences 75 30 40
30C Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciencesFootnote 79 0 0 10
40. Physical sciences 30 20 15
41. Science technologies/technicians 40 30 10
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 170 105 65
11. Computer and information sciences and support services 140 90 50
25. Library science 10 0 0
27. Mathematics and statistics 15 10 10
30D Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciencesFootnote 80 0 10 0
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 1,620 1,475 145
04. Architecture and related services 45 30 15
14. Engineering 105 90 15
15. Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 310 260 50
30.12 Historic preservation and conservation 0 0 0
46. Construction trades 715 680 40
47. Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 365 350 20
48. Precision production 75 75 10
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 215 155 60
01. Agriculture, agriculture operations and related sciences 15 10 10
03. Natural resources and conservation 200 145 50
Health and related fields 750 195 560
31. Parks, recreation, leisure and fitness studies 105 65 40
51. Health professions and related programs 645 125 520
60. Dental, medical and veterinary residency programs 0 0 0
Personal, protective and transportation services 985 710 270
12. Personal and culinary services 310 105 205
28. Military science, leadership and operational art 0 0 0
29. Military technologies and applied sciences 10 10 0
43. Security and protective services 160 130 30
49. Transportation and materials moving 505 465 35
Other 0 0 0
30.99 Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other 0 0 0
Total - Location of study compared with province or territory of residence with countries outside Canada for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 81 23,935 12,175 11,755
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 15,755 8,005 7,750
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 82 8,175 4,170 4,010
Location of study inside Canada 7,645 3,900 3,740
Same as province or territory of residence 3,335 1,485 1,850
Different than province or territory of residence 4,315 2,420 1,895
Location of study outside CanadaFootnote 83 535 270 265
United StatesFootnote 84 115 65 60
Philippines 130 50 85
India 20 10 10
United KingdomFootnote 85 70 40 30
ChinaFootnote 86 10 0 0
France 0 0 0
Other 180 100 80
Total - Population aged 15 years and over by Labour force status - 25% sample dataFootnote 87 23,935 12,180 11,755
In the labour force 16,340 8,515 7,825
Employed 12,825 6,430 6,395
Unemployed 3,515 2,090 1,425
Not in the labour force 7,595 3,660 3,935
Participation rate 68.3 69.9 66.6
Employment rate 53.6 52.8 54.4
Unemployment rate 21.5 24.5 18.2
Total population aged 15 years and over by work activity during the reference year - 25% sample dataFootnote 88 23,930 12,175 11,755
Did not workFootnote 89 7,415 3,600 3,820
Worked 16,515 8,580 7,935
Worked full year, full timeFootnote 90 7,760 4,040 3,720
Worked part year and/or part timeFootnote 91 8,755 4,540 4,215
Average weeks worked in reference year 38.0 37.6 38.4
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of worker - 25% sample dataFootnote 92 16,340 8,520 7,820
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 93 1,385 735 650
All classes of workersFootnote 94 14,950 7,780 7,175
Employee 14,505 7,485 7,020
Self-employedFootnote 95 450 295 150
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 - 25% sample dataFootnote 96 16,340 8,520 7,825
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 97 1,385 740 650
All occupationsFootnote 98 14,955 7,780 7,175
0 Management occupations 1,400 850 545
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 2,200 610 1,595
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 455 355 100
3 Health occupations 450 70 385
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 3,310 1,045 2,270
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 570 285 285
6 Sales and service occupations 3,505 1,685 1,815
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 2,565 2,440 125
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 295 275 15
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 205 160 40
Total Labour Force population aged 15 years and over by Industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2012 - 25% sample dataFootnote 99 16,340 8,515 7,820
Industry - NAICS2012 - not applicableFootnote 100 1,390 740 650
All industry categoriesFootnote 101 14,950 7,780 7,175
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 155 145 10
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 595 440 155
22 Utilities 285 245 40
23 Construction 930 815 115
31-33 Manufacturing 150 95 50
41 Wholesale trade 105 75 25
44-45 Retail trade 1,720 835 885
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 795 625 170
51 Information and cultural industries 195 110 85
52 Finance and insurance 110 35 80
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 495 330 165
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 290 160 140
55 Management of companies and enterprises 10 10 10
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 385 250 135
61 Educational services 1,840 520 1,320
62 Health care and social assistance 1,245 220 1,030
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 285 175 110
72 Accommodation and food services 560 220 345
81 Other services (except public administration) 460 250 210
91 Public administration 4,345 2,235 2,105
Total - Language used most often at work for the population in private households aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 102 17,000 8,780 8,220
English 12,145 6,430 5,715
French 70 40 35
Non-official language 4,495 2,165 2,330
Aboriginal 4,480 2,160 2,320
Non-Aboriginal 15 10 10
English and French 15 10 0
English and non-official language 270 135 135
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total - Income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 103 23,935 12,175 11,755
Number of total income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 22,435 11,345 11,090
Average total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 50,689 50,882 50,492
Median total income in 2015 among recipients ($) 29,743 28,817 30,326
Number of after-tax income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 22,440 11,345 11,090
Average after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 43,247 42,937 43,564
Median after-tax income in 2015 among recipients ($) 28,635 27,517 29,403
Number of market income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 19,225 9,905 9,315
Average market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 52,115 53,453 50,693
Median market income in 2015 among recipients ($) 30,583 31,667 29,517
Number of government transfers recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 21,885 11,040 10,840
Average government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 6,191 4,314 8,103
Median government transfers in 2015 among recipients ($) 2,524 1,275 4,682
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample data 18,590 9,605 8,980
Average employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 51,195 52,454 49,849
Median employment income in 2015 among recipients ($) 29,724 30,603 28,640
Total - Employment income statistics for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 104 23,935 12,175 11,755
Number of employment income recipients aged 15 years and over in private households who worked full year full time in 2015 - 25% sample dataFootnote 105 7,580 3,925 3,655
Median employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 106 90,230 88,548 91,332
Average employment income in 2015 for full-year full-time workers ($)Footnote 107 88,321 89,311 87,259
Composition of total income in 2015 of the population aged 15 years and over in private households (%) - 25% sample dataFootnote 108 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income (%)Footnote 109 88.1 91.8 84.3
Employment income (%)Footnote 110 83.7 87.3 80.0
Government transfers (%)Footnote 111 11.9 8.3 15.7
Total - Total income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 112 23,930 12,175 11,755
Without total income 1,495 830 665
With total income 22,435 11,345 11,095
Percentage with total income 93.8 93.2 94.4
Under $10,000 (including loss) 5,320 3,165 2,160
$10,000 to $19,999 3,345 1,480 1,865
$20,000 to $29,999 2,615 1,135 1,480
$30,000 to $39,999 1,810 845 965
$40,000 to $49,999 1,190 580 610
$50,000 to $59,999 810 400 410
$60,000 to $69,999 730 375 360
$70,000 to $79,999 735 365 365
$80,000 to $89,999 820 440 380
$90,000 to $99,999 835 375 460
$100,000 and over 4,230 2,190 2,045
$100,000 to $149,999 3,215 1,575 1,645
$150,000 and over 1,015 615 400
Total - After-tax income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 113 23,930 12,175 11,755
Without after-tax income 1,495 830 665
With after-tax income 22,440 11,345 11,090
Percentage with after-tax income 93.8 93.2 94.3
Under $10,000 (including loss) 5,340 3,170 2,170
$10,000 to $19,999 3,415 1,535 1,880
$20,000 to $29,999 2,820 1,245 1,570
$30,000 to $39,999 1,915 910 1,005
$40,000 to $49,999 1,270 605 665
$50,000 to $59,999 985 500 480
$60,000 to $69,999 1,010 505 510
$70,000 to $79,999 1,085 555 530
$80,000 and over 4,595 2,320 2,280
$80,000 to $89,999 1,095 505 590
$90,000 to $99,999 1,030 480 550
$100,000 and over 2,480 1,335 1,145
Total - Employment income groups in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 114 23,930 12,175 11,755
Without employment income 5,345 2,575 2,770
With employment income 18,590 9,605 8,985
Percentage with employment income 77.7 78.9 76.4
Under $5,000 (including loss) 3,930 1,925 2,005
$5,000 to $9,999 1,800 875 925
$10,000 to $19,999 2,150 1,135 1,020
$20,000 to $29,999 1,435 815 620
$30,000 to $39,999 1,025 580 440
$40,000 to $49,999 810 430 380
$50,000 to $59,999 710 350 360
$60,000 to $69,999 650 355 300
$70,000 to $79,999 680 360 320
$80,000 and over 5,390 2,775 2,615
$80,000 to $89,999 755 410 350
$90,000 to $99,999 805 345 455
$100,000 and over 3,830 2,020 1,810
Total - Economic family income decile group for the population in private households - 25% sample dataFootnote 115 35,580 18,140 17,445
In the bottom half of the distribution 19,105 9,740 9,360
In the bottom decile 5,320 2,730 2,590
In the second decile 4,460 2,255 2,210
In the third decile 3,730 1,915 1,810
In the fourth decile 2,865 1,470 1,395
In the fifth decile 2,730 1,375 1,350
In the top half of the distribution 16,475 8,395 8,080
In the sixth decile 2,280 1,200 1,085
In the seventh decile 2,420 1,250 1,170
In the eighth decile 2,550 1,290 1,265
In the ninth decile 3,180 1,635 1,550
In the top decile 6,035 3,020 3,015
Total - Low-income status in 2015 for the population in private households to whom low-income concepts are applicable - 25% sample dataFootnote 116 0 0 0
In low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) 0 0 0
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) (%) not applicable ... not applicable ... not applicable ...
In low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) 0 0 0
Prevalence of low income based on the Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) (%) not applicable ... not applicable ... not applicable ...

Symbol(s)

Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period

..

Symbol ...

not applicable

...

Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

x

Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

F

Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the census.

The ethnic groups selected are the most frequently reported at the Canada level.

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Footnote 2

In households where there is at least one person living with a child and a grandchild.

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Footnote 3

In households that are not multigenerational where there is one census family with additional persons or more than one census family.

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Footnote 4

For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Marital status.

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Footnote 5

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier at the provincial level. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants, who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 7

First official language spoken is specified within the framework of the Official Languages Act. It refers to the first official language (i.e., English or French) spoken by the person.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 8

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

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Footnote 9

The official language minority population of Quebec includes all individuals with English as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French. The official language minority population of the country overall and of every province and territory other than Quebec includes individuals with French as a first official language spoken and half of those with both English and French.

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Footnote 10

Mother tongue refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the person at the time the data was collected. If the person no longer understands the first language learned, the mother tongue is the second language learned. For a person who learned two languages at the same time in early childhood, the mother tongue is the language this person spoke most often at home before starting school. The person has two mother tongues only if the two languages were used equally often and are still understood by the person. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, the mother tongue is the language spoken most often to this child at home. The child has two mother tongues only if both languages are spoken equally often so that the child learns both languages at the same time.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 11

Language spoken most often at home refers to the language the person speaks most often at home at the time of data collection. A person can report more than one language as 'spoken most often at home' if the languages are spoken equally often. For a person who lives alone, the language spoken most often at home is the language in which he or she feels most comfortable. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this is the language spoken most often to the child at home. Where two languages are spoken to the child, the language spoken most often at home is the language spoken most often. If both languages are used equally often, then both languages are included here.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 12

'Knowledge of official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

'Knowledge of non-official languages' refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in a language other than English or French. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home. The number of languages that can be reported may vary between surveys, depending on the objectives of the survey.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 13

Citizenship refers to the country where the person has citizenship. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization.

For more information on citizenship variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 14

'Canadian citizens' includes persons who are citizens of Canada only and persons who are citizens of Canada and at least one other country.

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Footnote 15

'Not Canadian citizens' includes persons who are not citizens of Canada. They may be citizens of one or more other countries. Persons who are stateless are included in this category.

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Footnote 16

Immigrant status refers to whether the person is a non-immigrant, an immigrant or a non-permanent resident.

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 17

'Non-immigrants' includes persons who are Canadian citizens by birth.

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Footnote 18

'Immigrants' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 19

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

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Footnote 20

'Non-permanent residents' includes persons from another country who have a work or study permit or who are refugee claimants, and their family members sharing the same permit and living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 21

'Age at immigration' refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrant' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 22

'Admission category' refers to the name of the immigration program or group of programs under which an immigrant has been granted for the first time the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

'Applicant type' refers to whether an immigrant was identified as the principal applicant, the spouse or the dependant on the application for permanent residence.

'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.In the 2016 Census of Population, data on admission category and applicant type are available for immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 1980 and May 10, 2016.

For more information on immigration variables, including information on their classifications, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 23

'Economic immigrants' includes immigrants who have been selected for their ability to contribute to Canada's economy through their ability to meet labour market needs, to own and manage or to build a business, to make a substantial investment, to create their own employment or to meet specific provincial or territorial labour market needs.

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Footnote 24

'Principal applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 25

'Secondary applicants' includes immigrants who were identified as the married spouse, the common-law or conjugal partner or the dependant of the principal applicant on the application for permanent residence.

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Footnote 26

'Immigrants sponsored by family' includes immigrants who were sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident and were granted permanent resident status on the basis of their relationship either as the spouse, partner, parent, grand-parent, child or other relative of this sponsor. The terms 'family class' or 'family reunification' are sometimes used to refer to this category.

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Footnote 27

'Refugees' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status on the basis of a well-founded fear of returning to their home country. This category includes persons who had a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or for political opinion (Geneva Convention refugees) as well as persons who had been seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered a massive violation of human rights. Some refugees were in Canada when they applied for refugee protection for themselves and their family members (either with them in Canada or abroad). Others were abroad and were referred for resettlement to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency, another designated referral organization or private sponsors.

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Footnote 28

'Other immigrants' includes immigrants who were granted permanent resident status under a program that does not fall under the economic immigrants, the immigrants sponsored by family or the refugee categories.

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Footnote 29

For more information on the place of birth variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 30

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 31

The official name of Bolivia is Plurinational State of Bolivia.

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Footnote 32

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 33

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 34

Ireland is also referred to as Republic of Ireland.

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Footnote 35

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 36

The official name of Kosovo is Republic of Kosovo.

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Footnote 37

Macedonia, Republic of: known as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United Nations and other international bodies.

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Footnote 38

Serbia excludes Kosovo.

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Footnote 39

The official name of Saint Helena is Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Footnote 40

The official name of Tanzania is United Republic of Tanzania.

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Footnote 41

The full name of Sudan is the Republic of the Sudan.

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Footnote 42

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 43

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 44

West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine): West Bank and Gaza Strip are the territories referred to in the Declaration of Principles, signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1993. Palestine refers to pre-1948 British mandate Palestine.

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Footnote 45

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 46

The full name of Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 47

The official name of North Korea is Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 48

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 49

The full name of Macao is Macao Special Administrative Region of China.

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Footnote 50

The official name of Laos is Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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Footnote 51

Includes other places of birth not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea'.

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Footnote 52

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada.

For more information on generation status variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 53

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or once were, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 54

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 55

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 56

Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.' The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

For more information on the Visible minority variable, including information on its classification, the questions from which it is derived, data quality and its comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Visible Minority and Population Group Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 57

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 58

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan', etc.

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Footnote 59

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Laotian,' 'Thai,' etc.

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Footnote 60

For example, 'Afghan,' 'Iranian,' etc.

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Footnote 61

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes persons with a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 62

Includes persons who gave more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in responses, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 63

Includes persons who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal group question (Question 18), as well as persons who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 64

Aboriginal identity refers to whether the person identified with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. This includes those who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For more information on Aboriginal variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016 and the Aboriginal Peoples Technical Report, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 65

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 66

'Single Aboriginal responses' includes persons who are in only one Aboriginal group, that is First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 67

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For additional information, refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 68

'Multiple Aboriginal responses' includes persons who are any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 69

'Aboriginal responses not included elsewhere' includes persons who are not First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who have Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or Membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 70

Highest certificate, diploma or degree is the classification used in the census to measure the broader concept of 'Educational attainment.'

This variable refers to the highest level of education that a person has successfully completed and is derived from the educational qualifications questions, which asked for all certificates, diplomas and degrees to be reported.

The general hierarchy used in deriving this variable (high school, trades, college, university) is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education. At the detailed level, someone who has completed one type of certificate, diploma or degree will not necessarily have completed the credentials listed below it in the hierarchy. For example, a person with an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma may not have completed a high school certificate or diploma, nor does an individual with a 'master's degree' necessarily have a 'certificate or diploma above bachelor level.' Although the hierarchy may not fit all programs perfectly, it gives a general measure of educational attainment.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

Users are advised to consult data quality comments for 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree', available in the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 71

'Secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificate' includes only people who have this as their highest educational qualification. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 72

'Trades certificate or diploma other than Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' includes trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres and similar institutions.

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Footnote 73

'Certificate of Apprenticeship or Certificate of Qualification' also includes Journeyperson's designations.

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Footnote 74

'Earned doctorate' refers to persons who have completed a doctorate degree awarded by a university. This includes, for example, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.). It does not include honorary doctorates.

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Footnote 75

'Field of study' refers to the discipline or area of learning/training associated with a particular course or programme of study.

This variable refers to the predominant discipline or area of learning or training of a person's highest completed postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree, classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2016.

This 'Major field of study' variable can be used either independently or in conjunction with the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable. When the latter is used with 'Major field of study,' it should be noted that different fields of study will be more common for different types of postsecondary qualifications. At the detailed program level, some programs are only offered by certain types of institutions.

There was an explicit instruction in the questionnaire which instructed respondents to be as specific as possible in indicating a subfield or subcategory of specialization within a broad discipline or area of training.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

This variable shows the 'Variant of CIP 2016 - Alternative primary groupings' CIP variant, with the hierarchy of the primary groupings and two-digit series. When a primary grouping contains more than one subseries from series '30. Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies,' these subseries are grouped together. An exception is made for '30.01 Biological and physical sciences' due to its large size. For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2016: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/concepts/classification.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Certain series and their subcomponents are not used when coding major field of study for the census. These are series 21, 32 to 37 and 53, which represent non-credit and personal improvement fields of study.

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Footnote 76

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma; a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma; or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 77

'Interdisciplinary humanities' includes '30.13 Medieval and renaissance studies,' '30.21 Holocaust and related studies,' '30.22 Classical and ancient studies' and '30.29 Maritime studies.'

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Footnote 78

'Interdisciplinary social and behavioural sciences' includes '30.05 Peace studies and conflict resolution,' '30.10 Biopsychology,' '30.11 Gerontology,' '30.14 Museology/museum studies,' '30.15 Science, technology and society,' '30.17 Behavioural sciences,' '30.20 International/global studies,' '30.23 Intercultural/multicultural and diversity studies,' '30.25 Cognitive science,' '30.26 Cultural studies/critical theory and analysis,' '30.28 Dispute resolution,' '30.31 Human computer interaction' and '30.33 Sustainability studies.'

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Footnote 79

'Other interdisciplinary physical and life sciences' includes '30.18 Natural sciences,' '30.19 Nutrition sciences,' '30.27 Human biology' and '30.32 Marine sciences.'

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Footnote 80

'Interdisciplinary mathematics, computer and information sciences' includes '30.06 Systems science and theory,' '30.08 Mathematics and computer science' and '30.30 Computational science.'

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Footnote 81

'Location of study' refers to either:

- the province, territory or country of the institution from which a person obtained a certificate, diploma or degree, or;

- the province, territory or country of the institution that a person attended during a specified reference period, or for a specific level of education.

In both cases, location of study refers to the location of the institution granting the certificate, diploma or degree, not the location of the person at the time he or she obtained the qualification or was attending the institution. The geographic location is specified according to boundaries current at the time the data are collected, not the boundaries at the time of study.

This is a summary variable that indicates whether the 'Location of study' of the person's highest certificate, diploma or degree was the same province or territory where the person lived at the time of the 2016 Census of Population, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. This variable is derived from 'Location of study' and 'Province or territory of current residence.' It only applies to individuals who had completed a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

'Location of study outside Canada' may be further sub-classified using the Standard Classification of Countries and Areas of Interest (SCCAI). When using the SCCAI for this sub-classification, the class 'Canada' is not used.

This variable is reported for persons aged 15 years and over in private households.

For information on collection, classification and data quality for 'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-500-X2016013.

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Footnote 82

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 83

Refers to all locations of study outside Canada, including the six locations outside Canada most often reported at the national level. These will not necessarily be the top six countries for other geographies.

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Footnote 84

The official name of United States is United States of America.

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Footnote 85

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 86

China excludes Hong Kong and Macao.

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Footnote 87

Refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016.

Early enumeration was conducted in remote, isolated parts of the provinces and territories. When enumeration has taken place before May 2016, the reference date used is the date on which the household was enumerated.

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 88

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person aged 15 years and over worked for pay or in self-employment in 2015 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 89

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2015 and persons who worked in 2016, but not in 2015.

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Footnote 90

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year (49 weeks and over) and mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) in 2015.

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Footnote 91

Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full year mostly part time or part year mostly full time or part year mostly part time in 2015. Part year is less than 49 weeks and part time is less than 30 hours per week.

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Footnote 92

Class of worker refers to whether a person aged 15 years and over is an employee or is self-employed.

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Footnote 93

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 94

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 95

Includes persons aged 15 years and over with or without an incorporated business with paid help or without paid help, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 96

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons aged 15 years and over as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2016.

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Footnote 97

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment, or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 98

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016 were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 99

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The data are produced according to the NAICS 2012.

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Footnote 100

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who last worked prior to January 1, 2015.

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Footnote 101

Includes the experienced labour force which refers to persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday May 7, 2016, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2015 or 2016.

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Footnote 102

Language used most often at work refers to the language the person uses most often at work. A person can report more than one language as 'used most often at work' if the languages are used equally often.

For more information on language variables, including information on their classifications, the questions from which they are derived, data quality and their comparability with other sources of data, please refer to the Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 103

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

After-tax income - Total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period.

It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median. Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group. Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 104

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 105

Full-year full-time workers - Persons aged 15 years and over who worked mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) and full year (49 weeks and over per year) in 2015. For more information, see variable work activity in 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 106

Median income - The median income of a specified group is the amount that divides the income distribution of that group into two halves, i.e., the incomes of half of the units in that group are below the median, while those of the other half are above the median.

Median incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 107

Average income - Average income of a specified group is calculated by dividing the aggregate income of that group by the number of units in that group.

Average incomes of individuals are calculated for those with income (positive or negative).

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Footnote 108

Composition of total income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 109

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 110

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 111

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 112

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 113

After-tax income - After-tax income refers to total income less income taxes of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. Income taxes refers to the sum of federal income taxes, provincial and territorial income taxes, less abatement where applicable. Provincial and territorial income taxes include health care premiums in certain jurisdictions. Abatement reduces the federal income taxes payable by persons residing in Quebec or in certain self-governing Yukon First Nation settlement lands.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 114

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.


For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 115

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 116

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.3 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016189.

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