Data tables, 2016 Census

First Official Language Spoken (7), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (15), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Individual Low-income Status (6), Low-income Indicators (4), Work Activity During the Reference Year (4A) and Sex and Age (15) for the Population Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households for Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

About this variable: Low-income indicators (4)

Definition

No definition is available for this variable.

Values

  1. Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) Footnote 1
  2. Low-income measure, before tax (LIM-BT) Footnote 2
  3. Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) Footnote 3
  4. Low-income cut-offs, before tax (LICO-BT) Footnote 4

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Low-income measure, before tax (LIM-BT) - The Low-income measure, before tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted total income of private households. The household total income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household total income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted total income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-BT. Since the LIM-BT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-BT can also be reported for households.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-AT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.3 Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the after-tax income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-AT. Since the LICO-AT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-AT can also be reported for economic families.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Low-income cut-offs, before tax (LICO-BT) - The Low-income cut-offs, before tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their total income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their total income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The LICO-BT has 35 cut-offs varying by seven family sizes and five different sizes of area of residence to account for economies of scale and potential differences in cost of living in communities of different sizes. These thresholds are presented in Table 4.4 Low-income cut-offs, before tax (LICO-BT - 1992 base) for economic families and persons not in economic families, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the total income of an economic family member or a person not in an economic family falls below the threshold applicable to the person, the person is considered to be in low income according to LICO-BT. Since the LICO-BT threshold and family income are unique within each economic family, low-income status based on LICO-BT can also be reported for economic families.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

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