Data tables, 2016 Census

Housing Indicators (5), Tenure Including Presence of Mortgage Payments and Subsidized Housing (7), Age of Primary Household Maintainer (9), Household Type Including Census Family Structure (9) and Household Size (8) for Owner and Tenant Households With Household Total Income Greater Than Zero in Non-farm, Non-reserve Private Dwellings of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data

About this variable: Housing indicators (5)


No definition is available for this variable.


  1. Total - Housing indicators Footnote 1
  2. Adequacy: major repairs needed
  3. Suitability: not suitable
  4. Affordability: 30% or more of household income is spent on shelter costs
  5. Adequacy, suitability or affordability: major repairs needed, or not suitable, or 30% or more of household income is spent on shelter costs Footnote 5


Footnote 1

Adequacy, suitability and affordability are the three housing indicators presented here. The indicator for housing adequacy is the dwelling condition. The indicator for housing suitability (a topic often referred to as crowding) is whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. The indicator of housing affordability is the proportion of household total income that is spent on shelter costs, also referred to as shelter-cost-to-income ratio.

'Dwelling condition' refers to whether the dwelling is in need of repairs. This does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

The category 'major repairs needed' includes dwellings needing major repairs such as dwellings with defective plumbing or electrical wiring and dwellings needing structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings.

'Housing suitability' refers to whether a private household is living in suitable accommodations according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS); that is, whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. A household is deemed to be living in suitable accommodations if its dwelling has enough bedrooms, as calculated using the NOS.

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) on which it is based were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

The category 'not suitable' includes households where the required number of bedrooms based on the NOS exceeds the reported number of bedrooms in the dwelling.

'Shelter-cost-to-income ratio' refers to the proportion of average total income of household which is spent on shelter costs.

The category '30% or more of household income is spent on shelter costs' includes households who spend 30% or more of their average monthly total income on shelter costs.

For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Dwelling condition; Housing suitability; Shelter-cost-to-income ratio.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 5

This category includes households who fall below at least one of the adequacy, suitability or affordability housing indicators.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

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