Census Program Data Viewer
About this product

Product description

Catalogue number and how to cite

Catalogue number: 98-507-X2021001

How to cite: Statistics Canada. 2022. Census Program Data Viewer. Census of Population. Statistics Canada Catalogue number 98-507-X2021001. Ottawa. Released February 9, 2022.
https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2021/dp-pd/dv-vd/cpdv-vdpr/index-eng.cfm (accessed November 30, 2022).

Topics

Data are from the 2016 and 2021 Censuses of Population and include characteristics for:

Geographic levels

The Census Program Data Viewer provides 2016 and 2021 Census data for various levels of geography. These geographic levels include:

Release schedule

2021 Census data are available according to the 2021 Census of Population release schedule. For more information, refer to 2021 Census dissemination planning: Release plans.

About the data

Incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements

2021 Census of Population

In 2021, a total of 63 census subdivisions defined as reserves and settlements were incompletely enumerated. For these reserves and settlements, dwelling enumeration was either not permitted or could not be completed because of the various reasons below.

This represents an increase compared with the 14 census subdivisions defined as reserves and settlements that were incompletely enumerated in the 2016 Census. Health and safety restrictions put in place to slow the spread of COVID-19 and natural events (including evacuations because of forest fires) contributed to the incomplete enumeration of many reserves and settlements.

The 2021 Census population and dwelling counts are not available for the 63 incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements, and are not included in 2021 Census tabulations. Data for geographic areas containing one or more of these reserves and settlements are noted accordingly. Because of the missing data, users are cautioned that—for the affected geographic areas—comparisons (e.g., percentage change) between 2016 and 2021 may not be precise. The impact of the missing data for higher-level geographic areas (Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations) is usually very small. However, the impact can be significant for lower-level geographic areas (e.g., census divisions), where incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements account for a higher proportion of the population. This is especially true for lower-level geographic areas where a particular reserve or settlement was incompletely enumerated for the 2021 Census but enumerated for the 2016 Census and, vice versa.

Table 1 provides the list of incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements for the 2021 Census, along with population counts from the last two censuses (where available).

Table 2 shows, in alphabetical order, the list of incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements for the 2021 Census by province, census division and, where applicable, census metropolitan area or census agglomeration.

Table 1
Reserves and settlements incompletely enumerated in 2021, showing enumeration status for the 2021 Census, and 2016 and 2011 population counts (where available)
Province Incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements, 2021 Enumeration status for the 2021 Census (reasons for absence of data) Population, 2016 Population, 2011
Quebec Listuguj Permission not given 1,514Table 1 Note 1 1,865
Kahnawake Permission not given .. ..
Akwesasne Permission not given 2,378Table 1 Note 1 ..
Kanesatake Permission not given .. ..
Doncaster Permission not given .. ..
Lac-Rapide Permission not given .. ..
Pakuashipi Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 237 312
Romaine 2 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 977 1,016
Ontario Akwesasne (Part) 59 Permission not given 1,693Table 1 Note 1 ..
Six Nations (Part) 40 Permission not given .. 946
Six Nations (Part) 40 Permission not given .. 6,213
Walpole Island 46 Permission not given 1,589 ..
Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42 Permission not given .. 762
Oneida 41 Permission not given .. 1,282
Wahta Mohawk Territory Permission not given .. ..
Rankin Location 15D Permission not given .. ..
Goulais Bay 15A Permission not given .. ..
Obadjiwan 15E Permission not given 0 ...
Fort Albany (Part) 67 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 1,404 1,520
Pikangikum 14 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed .. ..
Muskrat Dam Lake Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 281 260
Manitoba Swan Lake 7 Permission not given 347 371
Little Grand Rapids 14 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 810 847
Poplar River 16 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 866 848
Pauingassi First Nation Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 307Table 1 Note 1 388
Oxford House 24 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 1,955 1,864
Granville Lake Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 10 16
Churchill 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 324 321
Pukatawagan 198 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 1,844Table 1 Note 1 1,826
Brochet 197 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 506 406
Shamattawa 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 1,019 998
Saskatchewan Kinoosao-Thomas Clark 204 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 10 40
Alberta Eden Valley 216 Permission not given 596 587
Tsuu T'ina Nation 145 Permission not given 2,271Table 1 Note 1 1,777
Big Horn 144A Permission not given 237 134
Saddle Lake 125 Permission not given .. ..
Stoney 142, 143, 144 Permission not given 3,713 3,494
Stoney 142B Permission not given 10 ...
Thebathi 196 Permission not given 15 30
Thabacha Náre 196A Permission not given 28 0
British Columbia Peters 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 30 27
Barnston Island 3 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 49 47
Hesquiat 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 5
Refuge Cove 6 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 44 72
Basque 18 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 0 5
Kumcheen 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 41 39
Kloklowuck 7 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 5
Spences Bridge Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 0
Shawniken 4B Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 16 15
Salmon River 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 39 45
Canim Lake 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 228 224
Lohbiee 3 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 91 118
Canim Lake 2 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 5
Chilco Lake 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 43
Chilco Lake 1A Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 25 0
Tanakut 4 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 15 5
Lezbye 6 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 20 0
Alexandria Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 40 52
Garden Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 10
S1/2 Tsimpsean 2 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 88 83
Omineca 1 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 5 10
Francois Lake 7 Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 10 10
Uncha Lake 13A Dwelling enumeration could not be completed 10 5
Table 2
Incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements in alphabetical order, 2021
Table summary
This table displays the results of Incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements in alphabetical order, 2021. The information is grouped by Name (appearing as row headers) and Type, Province, Census division and census metropolitan area/census agglomeration (appearing as column headers).
Name Type Province Census division CMA/CA
Akwesasne IRI Quebec Le Haut-Saint-Laurent ...
Akwesasne (Part) 59 IRI Ontario Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry ...
Alexandria IRI British Columbia Cariboo Quesnel
Barnston Island 3 IRI British Columbia Greater Vancouver Vancouver
Basque 18 IRI British Columbia Thompson-Nicola ...
Big Horn 144A IRI Alberta Division No. 9 ...
Brochet 197 IRI Manitoba Division No. 23 ...
Canim Lake 1 IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Canim Lake 2 IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Chilco Lake 1 IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Chilco Lake 1A IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42 IRI Ontario Middlesex ...
Churchill 1 IRI Manitoba Division No. 23 ...
Doncaster IRI Quebec Les Laurentides ...
Eden Valley 216 IRI Alberta Division No. 6 ...
Fort Albany (Part) 67 IRI Ontario Kenora ...
Francois Lake 7 IRI British Columbia Bulkley-Nechako ...
Garden IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Goulais Bay 15A IRI Ontario Algoma ...
Granville Lake S-É Manitoba Division No. 23 ...
Hesquiat 1 IRI British Columbia Alberni-Clayoquot ...
Kahnawake IRI Quebec Roussillon Montréal
Kanesatake S-É Quebec Deux-Montagnes Montréal
Kinoosao-Thomas Clark 204 IRI Saskatchewan Division No. 18 ...
Kloklowuck 7 IRI British Columbia Thompson-Nicola ...
Kumcheen 1 IRI British Columbia Thompson-Nicola ...
Lac-Rapide IRI Quebec La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau ...
Lezbye 6 IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Listuguj IRI Quebec Avignon Campbellton
Little Grand Rapids 14 IRI Manitoba Division No. 19 ...
Lohbiee 3 IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Muskrat Dam Lake IRI Ontario Kenora ...
Obadjiwan 15E IRI Ontario Algoma ...
Omineca 1 IRI British Columbia Bulkley-Nechako ...
Oneida 41 IRI Ontario Middlesex ...
Oxford House 24 IRI Manitoba Division No. 22 ...
Pakuashipi S-É Quebec Minganie--Le Golfe-du-Saint-Laurent ...
Pauingassi First Nation IRI Manitoba Division No. 19 ...
Peters 1 IRI British Columbia Fraser Valley ...
Pikangikum 14 IRI Ontario Kenora ...
Poplar River 16 IRI Manitoba Division No. 19 ...
Pukatawagan 198 IRI Manitoba Division No. 23 ...
Rankin Location 15D IRI Ontario Algoma Sault Ste. Marie
Refuge Cove 6 IRI British Columbia Alberni-Clayoquot ...
Romaine 2 IRI Quebec Minganie--Le Golfe-du-Saint-Laurent ...
S1/2 Tsimpsean 2 IRI British Columbia Skeena-Queen Charlotte Prince Rupert
Saddle Lake 125 IRI Alberta Division No. 12 ...
Salmon River 1 IRI British Columbia Columbia-Shuswap ...
Shamattawa 1 IRI Manitoba Division No. 23 ...
Shawniken 4B IRI British Columbia Thompson-Nicola ...
Six Nations (Part) 40 IRI Ontario Haldimand-Norfolk ...
Six Nations (Part) 40 IRI Ontario Brant Brantford
Spences Bridge IRI British Columbia Thompson-Nicola ...
Stoney 142, 143, 144 IRI Alberta Division No. 15 ...
Stoney 142B IRI Alberta Division No. 15 ...
Swan Lake 7 IRI Manitoba Division No. 4 ...
Tanakut 4 IRI British Columbia Cariboo ...
Thabacha Náre 196A IRI Alberta Division No. 16 Wood Buffalo
Thebathi 196 IRI Alberta Division No. 16 ...
Tsuu T'ina Nation 145 IRI Alberta Division No. 6 Calgary
Uncha Lake 13A IRI British Columbia Bulkley-Nechako ...
Wahta Mohawk Territory IRI Ontario Muskoka ...
Walpole Island 46 IRI Ontario Lambton ...

2016 Census of Population

In 2016, there were a total of 14 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were incompletely enumerated. For these reserves and settlements, dwelling enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed.

This represents a decrease compared to the 31 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were incompletely enumerated in the 2011 Census. Note that in 2011, of the 31 incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, 13 were not enumerated as a result of forest fires in Northern Ontario at the time of census collection. In 2016, there were no Indian reserves or Indian settlements that were not enumerated due to a natural disaster.

The 2016 Census population and dwelling counts are not available for the 14 incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, and are not included in 2016 Census tabulations. Data for geographic areas containing one or more of these reserves and settlements are noted accordingly. Because of the missing data, users are cautioned that for the affected geographic areas, comparisons (e.g., percentage change) between 2011 and 2016 may not be precise. The impact of the missing data for higher-level geographic areas (Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations) is very small. However, the impact can be significant for lower-level geographic areas (e.g., census divisions), where the incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements account for a higher proportion of the population. This is especially true for lower-level geographic areas where a particular Indian reserve or Indian settlement was incompletely enumerated for the 2016 Census and enumerated for the 2011 Census and vice versa.

Table 1 provides the list of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements for the 2016 Census, along with population counts from the last two censuses (where available).

Table 2 shows, in alphabetical order, the list of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements for the 2016 Census by province, census division and, where applicable, for the census metropolitan area or census agglomeration.

Table 1
2016 Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, showing enumeration status for the 2016 Census, 2011 and 2006 population counts (where available)
Table summary
This table displays the results of 2016 Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, showing enumeration status for the 2016 Census, 2011 and 2006 population counts (where available). The information is grouped by Province (appearing as row headers) and Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, 2016, Enumeration status for the 2016 Census (reasons for absence of data), Population, 2011 and Population, 2006 (appearing as column headers).
Province Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements, 2016 Enumeration status for the 2016 Census (reasons for absence of data) Population, 2011 Population, 2006
Quebec Kanesatake Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Doncaster Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Kahnawake Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Lac-Rapide Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Ontario Six Nations (Part) 40 Permission not given 946 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Six Nations (Part) 40 Permission not given 6,213 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42 Permission not given 762 747
Oneida 41 Permission not given 1,282 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Wahta Mohawk Territory Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Rankin Location 15D Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. 566
Goulais Bay 15A Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. 82
Pikangikum 14 Dwelling enumeration not completed – other Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. 2,100
Alberta Saddle Lake 125 Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
British Columbia Esquimalt Permission not given Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement. Note ..: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.
Table 2
Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements in alphabetical order, 2016
Table summary
This table displays the results of Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements in alphabetical order, 2016. The information is grouped by Name (appearing as row headers) and Type, Province, Census division and census metropolitan area/census agglomeration (appearing as column headers).
Name Type Province Census division CMA/CA
Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42 IRI Ontario Middlesex Note ...: not available
Doncaster IRI Quebec Les Laurentides Note ...: not available
Esquimalt IRI British Columbia Capital Victoria
Goulais Bay 15A IRI Ontario Algoma Note ...: not available
Kahnawake IRI Quebec Roussillon Montréal
Kanesatake S-É Quebec Deux-Montagnes Montréal
Lac-Rapide IRI Quebec La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau Note ...: not available
Oneida 41 IRI Ontario Middlesex Note ...: not available
Pikangikum 14 IRI Ontario Kenora Note ...: not available
Rankin Location 15D IRI Ontario Algoma Sault Ste. Marie
Saddle Lake 125 IRI Alberta Division No. 12 Note ...: not available
Six Nations (Part) 40 IRI Ontario Brant Brantford
Six Nations (Part) 40 IRI Ontario Haldimand-Norfolk Note ...: not available
Wahta Mohawk Territory IRI Ontario Muskoka Note ...: not available

Difference between census counts and population estimates

The Census of Population is designed to conduct a complete count of the population. Inevitably, however, some individuals will not be enumerated (undercoverage), while others, usually less numerous, will be enumerated more than once (overcoverage).

To determine the number of people who were missed or counted more than once, Statistics Canada conducts postcensal studies of the coverage of the census population, using representative samples of the population. Results of these studies are usually available two years after Census Day. They are used, in combination with census figures and other sources, to develop the population estimates produced by Statistics Canada on a regular basis. Population estimates are used for equalization payments, to follow trends in the Canadian population on a quarterly basis and to understand the underlying components of population change (for example, births, deaths, immigrants, emigrants and non-permanent residents). Population estimates differ from census counts and are usually higher, because census counts are not adjusted for undercoverage or overcoverage.

Data quality indicators

2021 Census data quality indicators
Digit Description Flag Flag description
First
(0XXXX)
Incomplete enumeration flag 0 Default. Not applicable.
1 Incompletely enumerated reserve or settlement (suppressed).
2 Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated reserves or settlements.
Second
(X0XXX)
Short-form data quality flag 0 Default. Data quality index showing a short-form total non-response rate lower than 10%.
1 Data quality index showing a short-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 10%, but lower than 20%.
2 Data quality index showing a short-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 20%, but lower than 30%.
3 Data quality index showing a short-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 30%, but lower than 40%.
4 Data quality index showing a short-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 40%, but lower than 50%.
5 Data quality index showing a short-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 50% (use with caution).
9 Short-form data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
Third
(XX0XX)
Short-form income confidentiality suppression flag 0 Default. Short-form income data not suppressed.
9 Short-form income data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
Fourth
(XXX0X)
Long-form data quality flag 0 Default. Data quality index showing a long-form total non-response rate lower than 10%.
1 Data quality index showing a long-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 10%, but lower than 20%.
2 Data quality index showing a long-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 20%, but lower than 30%.
3 Data quality index showing a long-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 30%, but lower than 40%.
4 Data quality index showing a long-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 40%, but lower than 50%.
5 Data quality index showing a long-form total non-response rate higher than or equal to 50% (use with caution).
9 Long-form data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
Fifth
(XXXX0)
Long-form income confidentiality suppression flag 0 Default. Long-form income data not suppressed.
9 Long-form income data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
2016 Census data quality indicators
Digit Description Flag Flag description
First
(0XXXX)
Incomplete enumeration flag 0 Default. Not applicable.
1 Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement (suppressed).
2 Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.
Second
(X0XXX)
Short-form data quality flag 0 Default. Data quality index showing a short-form global non-response rate lower than 10%.
1 Data quality index showing a short-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 10%, but lower than 20%.
2 Data quality index showing a short-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 20%, but lower than 30%.
3 Data quality index showing a short-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 30%, but lower than 40%.
4 Data quality index showing a short-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 40%, but lower than 50%.
5 Data quality index showing a short-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 50% (suppressed).
9 Short-form data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
Third
(XX0XX)
Short-form income data quality flag 0 Default. Data quality index showing a short-form income non-response rate lower than 10%.
1 Data quality index showing a short-form income non-response rate higher than or equal to 10%, but lower than 20%.
2 Data quality index showing a short-form income non-response rate higher than or equal to 20%, but lower than 30%.
3 Data quality index showing a short-form income non-response rate higher than or equal to 30%.
9 Short-form income data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
Fourth
(XXX0X)
Long-form data quality flag 0 Default. Data quality index showing a long-form global non-response rate lower than 10%.
1 Data quality index showing a long-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 10%, but lower than 20%.
2 Data quality index showing a long-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 20%, but lower than 30%.
3 Data quality index showing a long-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 30%, but lower than 40%.
4 Data quality index showing a long-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 40%, but lower than 50%.
5 Data quality index showing a long-form global non-response rate higher than or equal to 50% (suppressed).
9 Long-form data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
Fifth
(XXXX0)
Long-form income data quality flag 0 Default. Data quality index showing a long-form income non-response rate lower than 10%.
1 Data quality index showing a long-form income non-response rate higher than or equal to 10%, but lower than 20%.
2 Data quality index showing a long-form income non-response rate higher than or equal to 20%, but lower than 30%.
3 Data quality index showing a long-form income non-response rate higher than or equal to 30%.
9 Long-form income data suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

2021 Census gender note

Gender refers to an individual's personal and social identity as a man, woman or non-binary person (a person who is not exclusively a man or a woman).

Gender includes the following concepts:

A person's gender may differ from their sex at birth, and from what is indicated on their current identification or legal documents such as their birth certificate, passport or driver's licence. A person's gender may change over time.

Some people may not identify with a specific gender.

Given that the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender variable is sometimes necessary to protect the confidentiality of responses provided. In these cases, individuals in the category "non-binary persons" are distributed into the other two gender categories and are denoted by the "+" symbol.

"Men+" includes men (and/or boys), as well as some non-binary persons.

"Women+" includes women (and/or girls), as well as some non-binary persons.

For additional information, see Filling the gaps: Information on gender in the 2021 Census.

Comparison of statistics disseminated in multiple census cycles

For the 2021 Census, there were changes in the confidentiality and data rounding rules or procedures. Due to these changes, some indicators presented in this product for the 2021 Census may have slight variations to the same indicators found under the 2016 information.

Random rounding

To ensure confidentiality, the values, including totals, are randomly rounded either up or down to a multiple of '5' or '10.' To understand these data, you must be aware that each individual value is rounded. As a result, when these data are summed or grouped, the total value may not match the individual values since totals and sub-totals are independently rounded. Similarly, percentages, which are calculated on rounded data, may not necessarily add up to 100%.

Income inequality: Gini coefficient and P90/P10 ratio

The Gini coefficient, or Gini index, is a measure of inequality that indicates how equally income is distributed for a given population. It measures how much an income distribution deviates from perfect equality. Values of the Gini coefficient can range from 0 to 1. A value of 0 indicates that income is equally divided among the population, with all units receiving exactly the same amount of income. At the opposite extreme, a Gini coefficient of 1 denotes a perfectly unequal distribution, where one unit has all of the income in the economy.

For the census, Gini coefficients are calculated for three types of adjusted household income—market income, total income and after tax income. Adjusted income is computed by dividing the household income by a factor equal to the square root of the household size (known as the equivalence scale). This adjustment for different household sizes takes into account economies of scale. It reflects the fact that the needs of a household increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

The P90/P10 ratio is a measure of inequality. It is the ratio of the 90th and the 10th percentile of the adjusted household after-tax income. The 90th percentile means 90% of the population has income that falls below this threshold. The 10th percentile means 10% of the population has income that falls below this threshold.

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