Topics, 2021 Census
Language

Release date: August 17, 2022 Updated on: March 20, 2024

The 2021 Census of Population Program offers a wide range of analysis, data, reference and geographical information according to topics (subjects) that paint a portrait of Canada and its population.

2021 Census of Population products by type: Language

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2021 Census of Population products by type
Release date
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Product Product type
2023-09-12

Title:Individuals File, 2021 Census of Population (Public Use Microdata Files)

Public use microdata: 98M0001X-2021001

Description: The 2021 Census Individuals File PUMF represents a sample of the Canadian population and provides access to individual records which have been anonymized. It is a comprehensive social, demographic and economic database about Canada and its people and includes a wealth of information on population characteristics.

Data product
2023-07-14

Title:Municipal Quality of Life Dashboard

Interactive dashboard: 71-607-X2023025

Description: This interactive dashboard presents selected quality of life indicators for Canadian municipalities. It presents the most recent data available from the Census of Population for census subdivisions.

Data product
2023-03-29

Title:Census Profile, 2021: Language

Profile of a community or region: 98-316-X2021001

Description: This profile presents information from the 2021 Census of Population for various levels of geography, including provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas, communities and census tracts.

Data product
2024-03-20

Title:Special Interest Profile, 2021 Census of Population

Profile of a community or region: 98-26-00092021001

Description: This product presents 2021 Census of Population characteristic data for nine separate profiles of interest, including: age; ethnic origin; first official language; immigration; income distribution by income source; mother tongue; poverty, COVID-19 benefits and high income; religion; and visible minority. Data are available for various levels of geography, including Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas, and communities with a 2021 population of 10,000 or greater.

Data product
2024-03-20

Title:2021 Census Public Use Microdata File (PUMF), Hierarchical File

Public use microdata: 98M0001X2021002

Description: This Hierarchical File, 2021 Census Public Use Microdata File (PUMF) product provides access to non-aggregated data covering a sample of 1% of the Canadian households. It is a comprehensive social, demographic and economic database about Canada and its people, and contains a wealth of characteristics on the population.

Data product
2023-11-15

Title:Data tables: Language

Table

Description: This series of cross-tabulations presents a portrait of Canada. They range in complexity and are available for various levels of geography.

Data product
2023-03-29

Title:Highlight tables: Language

Table: 98-402-X2021003

Description: These tables provide language data from the Census of Population for various geographic levels and census years. The tables include data on mother tongue, knowledge of official languages and language spoken most often at home.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:Focus on Geography Series: Language

Profile of a community or region: 98-404-X2021001

Description: Focusing on a selected geographic area, this product presents data highlights, through text, tables and figures, for each of the major releases of the 2021 Census.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:Census Program Data Viewer (CPDV): Language

Interactive dashboard: 98-507-X2021001

Description: The Census Program Data Viewer (CPDV) is a web-based data visualization tool that makes statistical information more interpretable by presenting key indicators in a statistical dashboard. Users can click and zoom in on a map of Canada or the user can search by place name or postal codeOM. The CPDV displays the appropriate thematic map showing boundaries and other features. Results can be exported (CSV or XLSX), or the user can share their customized dashboard by a link.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:Mother tongue by geography, 2021 Census

Interactive chart: 98-505-X2021003

Description: This interactive tree map shows the proportion of the population by mother tongue. You can search by one of two criteria: region or language.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:Increasing diversity of languages, other than English or French, spoken at home

Infographic: 11-627-M2022051

Description: Based on 2021 Census data, the following infographic is about the languages spoken at home in Canada.

Data product
2023-11-15

Title:Interprovincial migration by language group in Canada from 1976 to 2021

Interactive dashboard: 71-607-X2023031

Description: This product offers a visual overview of interprovincial migration by language group in Canada from 1976 to 2021. The language variables showcased in this product are the first official language spoken and mother tongue. It provides information on the number and rate of in-migrants, out-migrants and the net migration of each province and territory from 1976 to 2021. Data can be filtered by province or territory, language variable, language group, and group of migrants.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:More than one language in the bag: The rate of English–French bilingualism is increasing in Quebec and decreasing outside Quebec

Infographic: 11-627-M2022052

Description: Based on 2021 Census data, the following infographic is about English-French bilingualism in Canada.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:Data quality tables, 2021 Census of Population

Table

Description: These tables present data quality indicators for the Census of Population. Data quality indicators are available for various levels of geography, most questions on the Census of Population questionnaires and other key variables of the Census of Population.

Data product
2022-08-17

Title:2021 Census key indicators: Language

Key indicators

Description: The key indicators provide a quick snapshot of census data highlights by topic.

Data product
2024-02-14

Title:The school closest to home: Proximity of French-language elementary schools and enrolment in the Maritime provinces

Insights on Canadian Society: 75-006-X202400100003

Description: This study examines enrolment in French-language elementary schools in the Maritime provinces—i.e., New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island—according to the distance between children’s homes and French- and English-language schools. The study is based on data from the 2021 Census of Population and on data from the 2022 Open Database on Educational Facilities.

Analytical product
2024-02-28

Title:Participation in French immersion, bilingualism and the use of French in adulthood, 2021

Census in Brief: 98-200-X2021018

Description: This article offers an initial in-depth analysis of participation in French immersion programs in Canada outside Quebec, based on 2021 Census data. This analysis examines factors that may be related to availability of French immersion programs and choosing of these programs. In addition, it looks at the possible links between schooling in a French immersion program and English–French bilingualism as well as the use of French at home or at work in adulthood.

Analytical product
2024-01-31

Title:What is the connection between working from home and the languages used at work?

Insights on Canadian Society: 75-006-X202400100002

Description: Using 2021 Census data, this article examines the link between working from home and the languages used at work. It focuses on three Census metropolitan areas (CMAs) of Moncton, Montréal and Ottawa–Gatineau—three regions where both English and French are used widely at work.

Analytical product
2023-11-15

Title:Interprovincial and interregional migration of Canada's French- and English-speaking populations

Census in Brief: 98-200-X2021017

Description: This Census in Brief article presents results on migration between provinces and regions by language, with special focus on the situation of official language minority populations. The analysis examines internal migration flows—in other words, people who moved within Canada—between two censuses, as well as the cumulative effects of these migrations in the long run, taking into account the province of birth.

Analytical product
2023-06-21

Title:English–French bilingualism in Canada: Recent trends after five decades of official bilingualism

Census in Brief: 98-200-X2021013

Description: This article in the Census in Brief series looks at the evolution of English–French bilingualism in Quebec, in Canada outside Quebec and across Canada in recent decades. It includes an analysis of how changes in the relative proportion and the rate of English–French bilingualism of different populations according to mother tongue have contributed to this evolution. Lastly, the article provides a glimpse into the link between schooling in the minority official language and English–French bilingualism.

Analytical product
2023-06-21

Title:Multilingualism of Canadian households

Census in Brief: 98-200-X2021014

Description: This article sketches a portrait of multilingualism at home in 2021. It examines the situations where more than one language is spoken at home in private Canadian households, based on certain household characteristics.

Analytical product
2022-08-17

Title:While English and French are still the main languages spoken in Canada, the country’s linguistic diversity continues to grow

The Daily

Description: Immigration drove up the number of Canadians who spoke predominantly a language other than English or French at home, from 4.0 million in 2016 to 4.6 million in 2021. English was the first official language spoken by 75.5% of the country’s population, up from 74.8% in 2016, while French was the first official language spoken by 21.4% of Canadians in 2021, down from 22.2% in 2016.

Analytical product
2023-06-21

Title:Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021

Dictionary: 98-301-X2021001

Description: The Census Dictionary is a reference document which contains detailed definitions of Census of Population concepts, variables, and geographic terms, as well as historical information.

Reference material
2022-11-30

Title:Guide to the Census of Population, 2021

Guide: 98-304-X2021001

Description: This reference document provides an overview of the Census of Population content determination, collection, processing, data quality assessment and data dissemination.

Reference material
2022-11-30

Title:Languages Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021

Guide: 98-500-X2021003

Description: This reference guide provides information to help users effectively use and interpret language data from the 2021 Census.

Reference material
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