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About the data

Help with searching

The 'Search' function allows users to type the name of virtually any area in Canada in the 'Place name' search box and obtain information on either the place entered or the surrounding area in which it is located.

There are two options available for searching. The first is 'begins with' and the second, 'contains.' Note that both these methods of searching are not case sensitive, meaning that upper case and/or lower case letters can be used. Also, accented characters can be used.

Users can also search for a place by selecting the area from a list.

About Indian bands within this profile

Indian bands are included within this profile and are defined using census subdivisions or designated places. The list uses information from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada and shows communities (census subdivisions or designated places) that are affiliated with Indian bands/First Nations. (Name changes may have occurred over time and will be added in updates to the list.)

The data for the Indian bands are for the total Aboriginal population living in the communities. People who live in the communities do not all belong to the specific Indian band/First Nation.

The 'Search' function allows you to type the name of the Indian band in the 'Place name search' box and obtain information on the grouping of communities affiliated with the Indian band/First Nation.

The following table lists the Indian bands and the communities they include.

About Inuit regions within this profile

Inuit regions are included within this profile and are defined using census subdivisions, except for 'Nunavut Inuit region,' which represents the Nunavut territory. The following table presents the Inuit regions and the census subdivisions they include.

'Inuit Nunangat' is the Inuktitut expression for 'Inuit homeland,' an expanse comprising more than one‑third of Canada's land mass, extending from northern Labrador to the Northwest Territories. In recent years, four Inuit land claims have been signed across Inuit Nunangat.

Inuit Nunangat is comprised of four Inuit regions. These four regions are:

  • Nunatsiavut: This is the most easterly region, in northern Labrador, was created through the 2005 Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement and includes about 72,500 square kilometres of land and the adjacent ocean zone.
  • Nunavik: This region in northern Quebec was established through the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. This was the first modern land claims agreement in Canada, signed in 1975. Nunavik covers 660,000 square kilometres of land.
  • Nunavut: The 1993 Nunavut Land Claims Agreement led to the creation of the territory of Nunavut in 1999. It was formed out of the eastern part of the Northwest Territories. The territory spans 2 million square kilometres.
  • Inuvialuit region: In 1984, the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) was signed, giving ownership to 90,650 square kilometres of land in the Northwest Territories to the Inuvialuit (Inuit of the western Arctic).

About Métis settlements within this profile

There are eight Métis settlements in northern Alberta: Buffalo Lake, East Prairie, Elizabeth, Fishing Lake, Gift Lake, Kikino, Paddle Prairie and Peavine. The Alberta Métis Settlement Act of 1990 transferred the land title to the Métis people and legally established the Métis Settlements General Council, along with eight settlement corporations.

Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements

In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements reported as 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For 23 reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, therefore, the NHS was not administered in those areas. In the case of the 13 reserves in Northern Ontario, enumeration was delayed because of natural events (specifically forest fires) and estimates for these communities are not included in the estimates for geographic areas that include these communities (e.g., provincial and national estimates). For more information, refer to the list of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements for the 2011 National Household Survey by province, census division and, where applicable, for the census metropolitan area or census agglomeration. A profile for the 13 Northern Ontario reserves mentioned above are also available at the following link: Profile for the National Household Survey Special Collection for 13 Indian reserves and Indian settlements in Northern Ontario, 2011.

The 2011 NHS estimates are not available for the 36 incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements and are not included in 2011 NHS tabulations. The extent of the impact will depend on the geographic area under study. It is much less for higher geographic areas such as Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations. The impact may be more significant for lower geographic areas, such as census subdivisions.

The lack of estimates for the incompletely enumerated reserves has the most impact on NHS estimates for the First Nations population living on reserve as well as the Registered or Treaty Indian population living on reserve. Estimates for other populations will also be affected.Footnote 1

Estimates associated with other variables related to First Nations, such as language and band housing, may also be affected by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the NHS. This issue does not have an impact on the estimates for the Inuit or Métis populations, as they are much less likely to live on reserve.


Most 2011 National Household Survey respondents received the 2011 National Household Survey Form N1 questionnaire, while respondents living on Indian reserves, in Indian settlements, in Inuit regions, in Métis settlements and in other remote areas received the 2011 National Household Survey Form N2 questionnaire. In N1 areas, three in ten households were surveyed, while 100% of households were surveyed in the N2 areas.

Rounding and suppression

To ensure confidentiality, the values including totals are randomly rounded either up or down to a multiple of 5 or 10. As a result, when these data are summed or grouped, the total value may not match the individual values since totals and subtotals are independently rounded.

In addition to random rounding, area and data suppression has been adopted to further protect the confidentiality of individual respondents' personal information.

Area and data suppression results in the deletion of all information for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. For example, areas with a population of less than 40 persons are suppressed. Information is also suppressed for areas where the global non-response rate to the National Household Survey was greater than 50% or greater than 25% for the Census of Population. Any income data collected from the National Household Survey are suppressed if the population in the area is less than 250 or if the number of private households is less than 40. Suppression of data can also be due to poor data quality or to other technical reasons.

Confidentiality disclosure control

Disclosure control rules have been applied to data tables available from the National Household Survey (NHS). The number of actual records used to derive any number in a table must meet a minimum criterion. For a table cell where this criterion is not met, the number is replaced by a zero. Due to this disclosure control, subtotals will not necessarily aggregate to the total. As well, users should note that random rounding has also been applied to the data.

Non-permanent residents and the NHS universe

The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) included information about non-permanent residents in Canada. Non-permanent residents are defined as persons from another country who, at the time of the survey, held a Work or Study Permit or who were refugee claimants, as well as non-Canadian-born family members living in Canada with them. The non-permanent resident population is identified from responses to the citizenship and landed immigrant status questions. Persons who are not Canadian citizens by birth and who answered 'No' to the landed immigrant status question are considered non permanent residents.

The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the NHS facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population and provides information for planning of services, such as health care, education and employment programs. As well, the inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations' recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the estimate of this population.

Comparability of low-income estimates

Low-income estimates from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) compared to previous censuses show markedly different trends than those derived from other surveys and administrative data such as the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) or the T1 Family File (T1FF).

Data to support quality estimates of low-income trends require a stable methodology over time that has similar response patterns. With the new methodology of the NHS, estimates of low income are not comparable to the census-based estimates produced in the past.

Previous census income releases compared low-income rates over time using the low-income cut-off (LICO). Given the lack of comparability of the trends and to prevent misleading conclusions arising from comparisons of LICO estimates from the NHS with earlier censuses, estimates of low income based on LICO are not available as a standard product from the NHS. They are available upon request.

Analysis of the NHS estimates suggests that it is valid to compare low-income estimates for different subpopulations within the NHS (that is, for different geographic areas or demographic groups). While many low-income measures, including the LICO, are well suited to the analysis of trends in low income, the after-tax Low Income Measure (LIM-AT) is better suited to the analysis of low income in the NHS because the threshold level of income below which one is considered to have low income is itself derived from the households that responded to the survey.

Condition of dwelling

The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimate for the percentage of dwellings requiring major repair in Nunavut was higher than the comparable rate in the 2009/2010 Nunavut Housing Needs Survey. For provinces, other territories and Canada, the percentage of dwellings requiring major repairs in the NHS was not statistically different when compared to other surveys. For more information, please consult the Housing Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011007.

Housing tenure

The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimate for homeownership in Alberta was statistically higher than the comparable rate in the 2010 Survey of Labour Income Dynamics (SLID). The 2011 NHS estimate of the homeownership rate for other provinces and for Canada was not statistically different when compared to the 2010 SLID. For more information, please consult the Housing Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011007.

Income suppression and data quality

Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding residents in collective dwellings, is less than 250, or if the number of private households is less than 40.

Tables with total income, after-tax income or earnings distributions

Total income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages and medians have been replaced with zeros or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

For information on data quality, refer to the Income Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011006.

Quality indicators

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011, Catalogue no. 99-001-X2011-001.


Footnote 1

Other affected populations include: total Aboriginal identity population, First Nations (North American Indian) identity population, total Aboriginal ancestry population, First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry population, Registered or Treaty Indian population, population who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian Band, population living on Indian reserves and Indian settlements.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

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