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2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Visible Minority (15), Age Groups (10), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (315) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey

Data table

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This table details visible minority , age groups , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households in Ottawa - Gatineau
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 1 = 22.3 %
Selected demographic, cultural, educational, labour force and income characteristics (315) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total population aged 15 years and over in private households by marital statusFootnote 2 1,005,005 485,965 519,035
Married or living with a common-law partner 577,715 288,550 289,165
Married (and not separated) 459,365 229,280 230,085
Living common law 118,355 59,270 59,085
Not married and not living with a common-law partner 427,285 197,415 229,870
Single (never legally married) 298,970 155,915 143,050
Separated 25,515 10,450 15,065
Divorced 61,460 22,845 38,620
Widowed 41,340 8,205 33,140
Total - Census family statusFootnote 3 1,215,735 592,545 623,190
Married spouses 451,365 225,705 225,655
Common-law partners 118,355 59,270 59,085
Lone parents 55,875 12,150 43,725
Children in census families 371,480 193,705 177,775
Persons not in census familiesFootnote 4 218,665 101,715 116,945
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 5 1,201,605 585,585 616,015
Non-movers 1,038,205 504,935 533,275
Movers 163,390 80,650 82,745
Non-migrants 113,325 56,130 57,195
Migrants 50,070 24,520 25,545
Internal migrants 37,855 18,660 19,190
Intraprovincial migrants 23,850 11,865 11,985
Interprovincial migrants 14,000 6,795 7,205
External migrants 12,215 5,855 6,355
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 6 1,144,745 557,025 587,720
Non-movers 666,725 323,525 343,195
Movers 478,025 233,500 244,525
Non-migrants 302,510 148,610 153,900
Migrants 175,515 84,890 90,625
Internal migrants 130,075 63,245 66,825
Intraprovincial migrants 79,620 38,620 41,000
Interprovincial migrants 50,450 24,625 25,825
External migrants 45,440 21,645 23,795
Total population by mother tongueFootnote 7 1,215,735 592,550 623,190
English 599,880 298,035 301,845
French 376,915 180,990 195,925
Non-official language 213,075 101,410 111,665
English and French 6,540 3,185 3,355
English and non-official language 13,670 6,230 7,440
French and non-official language 4,930 2,330 2,600
English, French and non-official language 730 375 355
Total population by language spoken most often at homeFootnote 8 1,215,735 592,545 623,185
English 715,095 353,125 361,970
French 347,985 166,980 181,010
Non-official language 111,595 52,985 58,610
English and French 7,915 3,895 4,020
English and non-official language 26,515 12,630 13,880
French and non-official language 5,510 2,425 3,085
English, French and non-official language 1,120 505 615
Total population by knowledge of official languagesFootnote 9 1,215,735 592,550 623,185
English only 555,315 281,030 274,280
French only 103,765 45,420 58,345
English and French 543,375 260,815 282,555
Neither English nor French 13,285 5,285 8,000
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 10 741,950 375,775 366,170
English 550,760 285,860 264,900
French 147,300 68,770 78,530
Non-official language 3,935 1,810 2,125
Aboriginal 55 0 45
Non-Aboriginal 3,880 1,805 2,075
English and French 36,915 17,875 19,040
English and non-official language 2,255 1,095 1,160
French and non-official language 145 70 75
English, French and non-official language 640 290 350
Total population by citizenshipFootnote 11 1,215,735 592,550 623,185
Canadian citizens 1,152,870 563,555 589,315
Canadian citizens only 1,104,180 540,065 564,115
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 48,690 23,490 25,205
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 12 62,865 28,995 33,870
Total population in private households by immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 13 1,215,730 592,550 623,185
Non-immigrantsFootnote 14 967,845 475,570 492,275
ImmigrantsFootnote 15 235,340 110,820 124,520
Before 1971 38,285 18,660 19,620
1971 to 1980 26,925 13,205 13,720
1981 to 1990 35,930 17,205 18,725
1991 to 2000 60,565 28,195 32,365
2001 to 2011Footnote 16 73,640 33,560 40,080
2001 to 2005 33,220 14,750 18,470
2006 to 2011Footnote 17 40,420 18,810 21,615
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 18 12,555 6,155 6,395
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationFootnote 19 235,335 110,815 124,515
Under 5 years 26,865 12,770 14,085
5 to 14 years 42,375 21,590 20,785
15 to 24 years 51,120 23,080 28,040
25 to 44 years 96,790 45,240 51,555
45 years and over 18,190 8,140 10,050
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthFootnote 20 1,215,735 592,550 623,185
Non-immigrantsFootnote 21 967,850 475,570 492,275
Born in province of residence 722,830 356,900 365,925
Born outside province of residence 245,020 118,665 126,350
ImmigrantsFootnote 22 235,335 110,820 124,515
Americas 38,980 16,895 22,090
United States 9,910 4,425 5,480
Jamaica 3,035 1,265 1,770
Guyana 1,200 560 640
Haiti 7,695 2,985 4,710
Mexico 1,920 825 1,095
Trinidad and Tobago 1,325 495 825
Colombia 2,655 1,185 1,475
El Salvador 2,240 1,100 1,150
Peru 1,060 425 640
Chile 625 325 300
Other places of birth in Americas 7,315 3,305 4,010
Europe 67,695 32,585 35,110
United KingdomFootnote 23 18,835 9,305 9,530
Italy 5,765 2,905 2,860
Germany 4,865 2,120 2,745
Poland 4,450 2,000 2,450
Portugal 3,685 1,885 1,800
Netherlands 2,340 1,180 1,155
France 4,140 2,040 2,100
Romania 3,070 1,410 1,660
Russian Federation 3,090 1,335 1,760
Greece 1,110 620 485
Ukraine 1,695 705 990
Croatia 1,175 630 545
Hungary 985 490 500
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,210 1,035 1,170
Serbia 980 495 485
Ireland, Republic of 805 400 410
Other places of birth in Europe 8,505 4,040 4,465
Africa 33,400 15,795 17,600
Morocco 2,485 1,190 1,300
Algeria 1,925 1,065 860
Egypt 3,005 1,565 1,440
South Africa, Republic of 725 340 385
Nigeria 1,210 565 640
Ethiopia 1,855 825 1,035
Kenya 1,125 535 590
Other places of birth in Africa 21,060 9,700 11,355
Asia 94,360 45,065 49,300
India 9,285 4,700 4,585
ChinaFootnote 24 17,575 7,660 9,915
Philippines 7,725 2,820 4,905
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 3,080 1,570 1,510
Viet NamFootnote 25 6,585 3,110 3,475
Pakistan 3,745 1,870 1,875
Sri Lanka 2,910 1,465 1,450
IranFootnote 26 4,550 2,335 2,215
Korea, SouthFootnote 27 1,630 830 800
Lebanon 12,120 6,350 5,765
Taiwan 755 270 480
Iraq 3,170 1,680 1,485
Bangladesh 2,565 1,365 1,195
Afghanistan 1,700 945 755
Japan 630 145 485
Turkey 1,370 685 685
Other places of birth in Asia 14,965 7,250 7,720
Oceania and otherFootnote 28 900 480 420
Fiji 0 0 0
Other places of birthFootnote 29 885 480 410
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 30 12,555 6,155 6,400
Total population in private households by generation statusFootnote 31 1,215,735 592,550 623,185
First generationFootnote 32 254,880 120,520 134,360
Second generationFootnote 33 202,260 101,185 101,070
Third generation or moreFootnote 34 758,595 370,840 387,750
Total population by selected religionsFootnote 35 1,215,730 592,550 623,185
Buddhist 12,855 5,905 6,955
Christian 850,920 400,300 450,620
Anglican 60,260 27,710 32,550
Baptist 12,525 5,665 6,860
Catholic 586,410 278,280 308,130
Christian Orthodox 20,635 9,550 11,085
Lutheran 9,905 4,645 5,260
Pentecostal 12,010 5,330 6,685
Presbyterian 13,770 6,655 7,115
United Church 58,135 26,545 31,595
Other Christian 77,265 35,920 41,345
Hindu 12,295 6,350 5,945
Jewish 10,980 5,600 5,380
Muslim 65,880 33,485 32,395
Sikh 3,445 1,865 1,575
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 380 150 230
Other religions 6,185 2,695 3,490
No religious affiliation 252,795 136,205 116,590
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 36 692,055 335,310 356,740
No certificate, diploma or degree 59,090 32,275 26,820
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 37 134,820 64,000 70,820
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 38 498,145 239,045 259,100
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 39 55,225 32,360 22,865
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 149,050 68,685 80,370
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 40 29,585 12,940 16,645
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 264,280 125,065 139,220
Bachelor's degree 155,700 70,670 85,035
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 41 108,580 54,395 54,185
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 42 1,005,005 485,965 519,035
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 43 385,640 185,710 199,925
Education 40,380 9,900 30,480
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 20,920 9,755 11,165
Humanities 43,700 17,355 26,345
Social and behavioural sciences and law 97,570 38,710 58,860
Business, management and public administration 130,375 52,195 78,180
Physical and life sciences and technologies 30,135 16,025 14,115
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 41,425 26,995 14,430
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 103,820 92,410 11,410
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 9,145 5,305 3,835
Health and related fieldsFootnote 44 72,010 14,940 57,065
Personal, protective and transportation services 29,800 16,650 13,155
Other fields of studyFootnote 45 90 20 70
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceFootnote 46 1,005,005 485,970 519,040
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 385,640 185,710 199,925
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 619,365 300,255 319,115
Location of study inside Canada 535,450 258,450 277,000
Same as province or territory of residence 413,220 197,995 215,230
Another province or territory 122,230 60,460 61,770
Location of study outside Canada 83,920 41,805 42,110
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusFootnote 47 1,005,005 485,965 519,040
In the labour force 700,690 356,785 343,900
Employed 654,515 332,130 322,385
Unemployed 46,175 24,660 21,515
Not in the labour force 304,320 129,180 175,135
Participation rate 69.7 73.4 66.3
Employment rate 65.1 68.3 62.1
Unemployment rate 6.6 6.9 6.3
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 48 700,685 356,785 343,900
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 49 13,680 6,980 6,700
All classes of workerFootnote 50 687,010 349,810 337,200
Employee 624,270 310,815 313,455
Self-employedFootnote 51 62,745 38,995 23,750
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 52 700,690 356,785 343,900
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 53 13,680 6,980 6,695
All occupationsFootnote 54 687,010 349,805 337,205
0 Management occupations 81,630 48,910 32,715
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 140,075 44,900 95,175
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 77,355 58,270 19,080
3 Health occupations 40,025 9,165 30,860
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 105,400 39,030 66,375
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 24,635 10,700 13,940
6 Sales and service occupations 144,470 71,765 72,705
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 59,485 56,270 3,215
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 5,660 4,650 1,010
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 8,280 6,150 2,135
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 55 700,690 356,785 343,900
Industry - not applicableFootnote 56 13,680 6,985 6,700
All industriesFootnote 57 687,010 349,805 337,205
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 3,395 2,330 1,065
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 680 515 165
22 Utilities 2,600 2,055 550
23 Construction 36,555 32,400 4,160
31-33 Manufacturing 24,135 17,840 6,300
41 Wholesale trade 16,705 12,475 4,230
44-45 Retail trade 69,140 34,340 34,800
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 20,300 15,290 5,010
51 Information and cultural industries 17,465 10,325 7,135
52 Finance and insurance 21,695 9,215 12,480
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 11,005 6,540 4,465
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 58,625 35,530 23,100
55 Management of companies and enterprises 330 215 125
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 27,075 16,990 10,085
61 Educational services 52,475 17,900 34,575
62 Health care and social assistance 71,490 14,675 56,815
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 13,820 7,410 6,410
72 Accommodation and food services 41,220 20,590 20,630
81 Other services (except public administration) 30,695 12,400 18,300
91 Public administration 167,600 80,795 86,805
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010Footnote 58 402,720 217,505 185,215
Median employment income in 2010 $ 57,551 61,863 53,850
Average employment income in 2010 $ 65,684 72,039 58,221
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overFootnote 59 1,005,005 485,970 519,035
Without income 45,830 20,310 25,520
With income 959,175 465,655 493,520
Under $5,000Footnote 60 85,690 41,805 43,890
$5,000 to $9,999 62,685 24,715 37,975
$10,000 to $14,999 75,280 30,440 44,845
$15,000 to $19,999 70,060 27,510 42,545
$20,000 to $29,999 103,210 43,940 59,270
$30,000 to $39,999 96,400 43,845 52,555
$40,000 to $49,999 94,370 44,275 50,100
$50,000 to $59,999 89,265 42,735 46,530
$60,000 to $79,999 121,835 63,910 57,925
$80,000 to $99,999 77,245 43,660 33,585
$100,000 and over 83,140 58,830 24,310
$100,000 to $124,999 43,150 29,320 13,825
$125,000 and over 39,990 29,510 10,485
Median income $Footnote 61 38,543 44,526 33,358
Average income $Footnote 62 47,727 55,078 40,791
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overFootnote 63 1,005,005 485,965 519,035
Without after-tax income 45,990 20,325 25,665
With after-tax income 959,015 465,640 493,370
Under $5,000Footnote 64 88,540 42,340 46,195
$5,000 to $9,999 64,560 24,950 39,610
$10,000 to $14,999 76,770 30,960 45,805
$15,000 to $19,999 75,980 30,460 45,520
$20,000 to $29,999 124,025 54,145 69,880
$30,000 to $39,999 124,280 58,555 65,725
$40,000 to $49,999 121,975 57,680 64,300
$50,000 to $59,999 89,470 45,840 43,635
$60,000 to $79,999 117,155 66,380 50,775
$80,000 to $99,999 43,320 29,465 13,855
$100,000 and over 32,935 24,865 8,075
Median after-tax income $Footnote 65 34,062 38,569 29,942
Average after-tax income $Footnote 66 39,111 44,337 34,179
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over %Footnote 67 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income %Footnote 68 90.8 93.2 87.8
Employment income %Footnote 69 76.7 78.4 74.4
Wages and salaries %Footnote 70 72.2 73.3 70.8
Self-employment income %Footnote 71 4.5 5.2 3.6
Investment income %Footnote 72 3.6 3.5 3.7
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities %Footnote 73 9.0 9.9 8.0
Other money income %Footnote 74 1.6 1.4 1.8
Government transfer payments %Footnote 75 9.2 6.8 12.2
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits %Footnote 76 2.7 2.4 3.1
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement %Footnote 77 2.0 1.5 2.7
Employment Insurance benefits %Footnote 78 1.1 0.7 1.6
Child benefits %Footnote 79 1.2 0.1 2.6
Other income from government sources %Footnote 80 2.2 2.1 2.2
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeFootnote 81 18.1 19.5 16.2
After-tax income as a % of total incomeFootnote 82 81.9 80.5 83.8
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeFootnote 83 1.3 1.6 0.9
Total population by income status in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measureFootnote 84 1,215,735 592,545 623,190
Population for the income status based on after-tax low-income measure 1,215,735 592,545 623,185
Low-income population 142,440 66,105 76,340
Prevalence of low income % 11.7 11.2 12.2
Other population 1,073,290 526,440 546,850
Concept not applicableFootnote 85 0 0 0

Symbol(s)

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suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

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Footnote 2

Marital status
Refers to the marital status of the person, taking into account his/her common-law status. Persons who are married or living common law may be of opposite sex or of the same sex. The classification is as follows:
Married (and not separated): A person who is married and has not separated or obtained a divorce, and whose spouse is living.

Common-law: A person who is living with another person as a couple but who is not legally married to that person.

Separated: A person who is married but who no longer lives with his/her spouse (for any reason other than illness, work or school) and who has not obtained a divorce. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Divorced: A person who has obtained a legal divorce and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Widowed: A person who has lost his/her spouse through death and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Single (never legally married): A person who has never married or a person whose marriage has been annulled and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

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Footnote 3

Classification of persons according to whether or not they are members of a census family and the status they have in the census family (a census family is composed of a married couple or two persons living common law, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling). A person can be a married spouse, a common-law partner, a lone parent, a child or a person not in a census family.

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Footnote 4

Persons not in census families may live with relatives (without forming a census family with them), they may live with non-relatives only or they may live alone.

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Footnote 5

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 7

Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 8

Refers to the language spoken most often at home by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 9

Refers to the ability to conduct a conversation in English only, in French only, in both English and French, or in neither English nor French.

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Footnote 10

Population by language used most often at work.

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 11

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

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Footnote 12

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Footnote 13

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status. A landed immigrant/permanent resident refers to a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 14

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 15

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 16

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 17

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 18

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 19

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 20

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 21

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 22

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 23

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 24

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 25

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 26

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 27

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 28

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 29

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 30

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 31

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 32

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 33

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 34

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 35

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

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Footnote 36

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 37

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 38

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 39

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 40

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 41

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 42

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.



For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.



For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 43

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 44

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 45

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 46

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.



Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees.



For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 47

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

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In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 48

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 49

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 50

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 51

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 52

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

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Footnote 53

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 54

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 55

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 56

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 57

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 58

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.


Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings.

Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 59

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 60

Including loss.

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Footnote 61

For population with income.

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Footnote 62

For population with income.

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Footnote 63

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 64

Including loss.

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Footnote 65

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 66

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 67

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 68

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Footnote 69

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

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Footnote 70

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

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Footnote 71

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

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Footnote 72

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

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Footnote 73

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

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Footnote 74

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

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Footnote 75

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in:

- the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor
- benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- child benefits
- other income from government sources.

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Footnote 76

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

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Footnote 77

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 78

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

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Footnote 79

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

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Footnote 80

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

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Footnote 81

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

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Footnote 82

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

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Footnote 83

Net capital gains or losses -
Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds).

Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

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Footnote 84

Low income can be measured in several different ways in household surveys. For the standard products of the National Household Survey, the line chosen is a relative measure: the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT).

For this measure, the income used is after-tax income of households. There are no regional variations to account for prices or cost of living differences: all applicable households in Canada face the same line adjusted for household size. This line is set at half the median of adjusted household after-tax income. To account for potential economies of scale, the income of households with more than one member is divided by the square root of the size of the household.

All household members are considered to share the household income and are attributed the same income status.

Note: Low-income estimates in the 2011 National Household Survey

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), low-income statistics are presented based on the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). This measure is not related to the low-income cut-offs (LICO) presented in the 2006 Census and prevalence rates are conceptually not comparable. Because of the sensitivity of certain income indicators to differences in methodology and response patterns, direct comparisons to establish trends with low-income estimates from other household surveys, administrative programs or the 2006 Census are discouraged. The prevalence rates observed in the NHS at the national level are generally 1 to 2 percentage points higher than seen for similar concepts in other programs. However, analysis of the NHS data suggests that it is valid to compare low-income data for different sub-populations within the NHS (i.e., for different geographic areas or demographic groups). For more information, refer to the Income Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011006.

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Footnote 85

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting or fishing) could have made the interpretation of low-income rates more difficult.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-010-X2011038.

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