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2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Profile - Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, Aboriginal Peoples, Education and Labour, Mobility and Migration, and Income and Housing for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (2013 Representation Order), National Household Survey, 2011

Data table

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This table details profile - immigration and ethnocultural diversity, aboriginal peoples, education and labour, mobility and migration, and income and housing in Ajax
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 1 = 27.6 %
Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2013 Representation Order) (960) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total population in private households by citizenshipFootnote 2 109,220 52,810 56,410
Canadian citizens 104,095 50,445 53,655
Canadian citizens aged under 18 27,465 13,980 13,485
Canadian citizens aged 18 and over 76,630 36,465 40,165
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 3 5,120 2,365 2,760
Total population in private households by immigrant status and period of immigrationFootnote 4 109,220 52,810 56,410
Non-immigrantsFootnote 5 71,365 34,915 36,450
ImmigrantsFootnote 6 37,315 17,660 19,655
Before 1971 5,770 2,755 3,010
1971 to 1980 6,630 3,195 3,440
1981 to 1990 7,160 3,375 3,785
1991 to 2000 9,500 4,480 5,020
2001 to 2011Footnote 7 8,255 3,850 4,400
2001 to 2005 5,245 2,475 2,770
2006 to 2011Footnote 8 3,010 1,375 1,635
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 9 540 235 305
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationFootnote 10 37,315 17,660 19,660
Under 5 years 3,800 1,850 1,950
5 to 14 years 7,415 3,760 3,650
15 to 24 years 9,535 4,070 5,470
25 to 44 years 13,840 6,820 7,020
45 years and over 2,725 1,165 1,565
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthFootnote 11 109,220 52,805 56,410
Non-immigrantsFootnote 12 71,365 34,915 36,455
Born in province of residence 65,290 32,170 33,120
Born outside province of residence 6,080 2,745 3,330
ImmigrantsFootnote 13 37,315 17,660 19,660
Americas 12,900 5,840 7,060
United States 780 425 360
Jamaica 4,535 2,015 2,520
Guyana 3,070 1,360 1,705
Haiti 100 40 60
Mexico 30 15 10
Trinidad and Tobago 2,290 1,000 1,285
Colombia 165 55 105
El Salvador 60 25 35
Peru 120 60 60
Chile 135 65 70
Other places of birth in Americas 1,625 765 855
Europe 7,755 3,670 4,080
United KingdomFootnote 14 3,475 1,530 1,945
Italy 705 445 260
Germany 520 215 305
Poland 360 160 200
Portugal 420 200 220
Netherlands 175 70 105
France 40 0 25
Romania 290 135 155
Russian Federation 110 45 65
Greece 425 195 230
Ukraine 60 25 40
Croatia 90 90 0
Hungary 110 70 40
Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 30 20
Serbia 45 25 25
Ireland, Republic of 215 105 110
Other places of birth in Europe 670 330 335
Africa 1,875 1,005 875
Morocco 0 0 0
Algeria 0 0 0
Egypt 305 145 155
South Africa, Republic of 140 95 50
Nigeria 115 55 60
Ethiopia 80 35 50
Kenya 170 105 65
Other places of birth in Africa 1,055 560 490
Asia 14,535 7,030 7,510
India 2,745 1,360 1,380
ChinaFootnote 15 750 350 395
Philippines 3,365 1,485 1,880
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 340 180 160
Viet NamFootnote 16 330 130 205
Pakistan 2,090 1,090 995
Sri Lanka 2,120 990 1,130
IranFootnote 17 235 125 105
Korea, SouthFootnote 18 145 60 85
Lebanon 265 160 110
Taiwan 0 0 0
Iraq 85 45 45
Bangladesh 265 130 135
Afghanistan 775 380 390
Japan 85 0 60
Turkey 20 0 0
Other places of birth in Asia 910 495 415
Oceania and otherFootnote 19 250 115 135
Fiji 175 0 125
Other places of birthFootnote 20 80 65 15
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 21 535 235 305
Total recent immigrant population in private households by selected places of birthFootnote 22 3,010 1,375 1,630
Americas 945 510 440
United States 145 115 25
Mexico 0 0 0
Cuba 15 0 0
Haiti 0 0 0
Jamaica 305 170 135
Brazil 0 0 0
Colombia 25 0 0
Guyana 190 85 110
Peru 35 0 0
VenezuelaFootnote 23 35 0 0
Other places of birth in Americas 190 85 105
Europe 220 90 125
France 0 0 0
Germany 0 0 0
Poland 0 0 0
Romania 0 0 0
MoldovaFootnote 24 0 0 0
Russian Federation 0 0 0
Ukraine 0 0 0
United KingdomFootnote 25 110 35 75
Other places of birth in Europe 75 45 30
Africa 215 80 135
Nigeria 20 0 0
Ethiopia 0 0 0
Mauritius 0 0 0
Somalia 0 0 0
Algeria 0 0 0
Egypt 75 30 45
Morocco 0 0 0
Tunisia 0 0 0
Cameroon 0 0 0
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the 0 0 0
South Africa, Republic of 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Africa 90 35 55
Asia 1,620 685 935
Philippines 385 150 235
ChinaFootnote 26 65 30 35
India 500 230 270
Pakistan 175 80 95
IranFootnote 27 0 0 0
South KoreaFootnote 28 0 0 0
Sri Lanka 165 60 105
Iraq 0 0 0
Bangladesh 30 0 15
Lebanon 25 0 15
Viet NamFootnote 29 0 0 0
Taiwan 0 0 0
Afghanistan 90 40 45
Japan 0 0 0
Turkey 0 0 0
Israel 0 0 0
Nepal 15 0 0
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 0 0 0
United Arab Emirates 0 0 0
Saudi Arabia 0 0 0
SyriaFootnote 30 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Asia 70 0 45
Oceania and otherFootnote 31 0 0 0
Total population in private households by generation statusFootnote 32 109,220 52,810 56,410
First generationFootnote 33 38,085 18,025 20,065
Second generationFootnote 34 33,540 16,260 17,280
Third generation or moreFootnote 35 37,595 18,525 19,065
Total population in private households by visible minority 109,220 52,810 56,410
Total visible minority populationFootnote 36 49,995 23,850 26,150
South AsianFootnote 37 15,020 7,395 7,625
Chinese 2,560 1,205 1,355
Black 17,505 8,395 9,115
Filipino 4,820 2,120 2,705
Latin American 1,070 445 630
Arab 1,165 665 500
Southeast AsianFootnote 38 645 255 385
West AsianFootnote 39 1,770 900 870
Korean 205 95 110
Japanese 305 115 190
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 40 2,795 1,220 1,575
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 41 2,140 1,045 1,090
Not a visible minorityFootnote 42 59,225 28,960 30,265
Total population in private households by ethnic originsFootnote 43 109,220 52,810 56,410
North American Aboriginal origins 1,870 815 1,055
First Nations (North American Indian) 1,480 640 840
Inuit 20 10 0
Métis 375 170 205
Other North American origins 23,340 11,560 11,780
Acadian 55 25 25
American 1,135 565 570
Canadian 22,550 11,210 11,335
New Brunswicker 0 0 0
Newfoundlander 100 40 60
Nova Scotian 15 0 15
Ontarian 0 0 0
Québécois 0 0 0
Other North American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 44 0 0 0
European origins 58,700 28,150 30,550
British Isles origins 40,340 19,210 21,130
Channel Islander 0 0 0
Cornish 0 0 0
English 23,010 10,735 12,275
Irish 16,230 7,855 8,375
Manx 80 50 30
Scottish 17,175 8,160 9,020
Welsh 1,690 740 950
British Isles origins, n.i.e.Footnote 45 2,530 1,165 1,360
French origins 7,265 3,205 4,065
Alsatian 0 0 0
Breton 0 0 0
French 7,265 3,200 4,060
Western European origins (except French origins) 9,015 4,445 4,570
Austrian 440 200 240
Belgian 205 80 120
Dutch 2,540 1,270 1,265
Flemish 10 0 0
Frisian 0 0 0
German 6,220 3,035 3,180
Luxembourger 0 0 0
Swiss 150 95 60
Western European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 46 0 0 0
Northern European origins (except British Isles origins) 1,645 820 825
Danish 435 275 160
Finnish 380 150 220
Icelandic 55 15 35
Norwegian 270 135 135
Swedish 520 260 270
Northern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 47 60 20 40
Eastern European origins 6,420 3,000 3,420
Bulgarian 80 20 60
Byelorussian 0 0 0
Czech 335 155 175
Czechoslovakian, n.o.s. 75 30 50
Estonian 150 80 75
Hungarian 780 390 390
Latvian 75 20 60
Lithuanian 75 40 35
Moldovan 0 0 0
Polish 2,580 1,185 1,395
Romanian 475 230 240
Russian 515 200 315
Slovak 185 100 80
Ukrainian 1,900 965 925
Eastern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 48 0 0 0
Southern European origins 14,265 7,030 7,230
Albanian 30 0 20
Bosnian 30 0 0
Croatian 220 130 90
Cypriot 70 35 40
Greek 2,080 1,060 1,025
Italian 5,405 2,680 2,725
Kosovar 0 0 0
Macedonian 930 445 485
Maltese 445 270 175
Montenegrin 0 0 0
Portuguese 3,645 1,745 1,900
Serbian 145 105 50
Sicilian 30 20 0
Slovenian 120 50 70
Spanish 2,030 935 1,100
Yugoslavian, n.o.s. 210 125 90
Southern European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 49 0 0 0
Other European origins 720 370 345
Basque 0 0 0
Jewish 645 315 330
Roma (Gypsy) 0 0 0
Slavic, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Other European origins, n.i.e.Footnote 50 65 50 10
Caribbean origins 16,435 7,770 8,665
Antiguan 80 40 45
Bahamian 0 0 0
Barbadian 995 465 535
Bermudan 25 0 15
Carib 145 85 60
Cuban 430 155 280
Dominican 225 95 125
Grenadian 590 255 335
Haitian 240 105 135
Jamaican 9,690 4,680 5,010
Kittitian/Nevisian 60 0 40
Martinican 0 0 0
Montserratan 0 0 0
Puerto Rican 0 0 0
St. Lucian 140 65 75
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 2,885 1,310 1,575
Vincentian/Grenadinian 520 235 290
West Indian, n.o.s. 1,815 840 975
Caribbean origins, n.i.e.Footnote 51 455 195 255
Latin, Central and South American origins 4,970 2,210 2,760
Aboriginal from Central/South America (except Maya) 110 70 40
Argentinian 85 30 55
Belizean 0 0 0
Bolivian 10 0 0
Brazilian 100 50 45
Chilean 245 115 130
Colombian 165 75 90
Costa Rican 0 0 0
Ecuadorian 70 40 35
Guatemalan 55 40 20
Guyanese 3,335 1,470 1,870
Hispanic 0 0 0
Honduran 0 0 0
Maya 0 0 0
Mexican 105 30 70
Nicaraguan 30 25 0
Panamanian 210 85 125
Paraguayan 0 0 0
Peruvian 110 55 55
Salvadorean 120 60 65
Uruguayan 0 0 0
Venezuelan 185 65 120
Latin, Central and South American origins, n.i.e.Footnote 52 130 55 75
African origins 4,705 2,375 2,330
Central and West African origins 870 460 410
Akan 0 0 0
Angolan 25 25 0
Ashanti 30 25 0
Beninese 0 0 0
Burkinabe 0 0 0
Cameroonian 0 0 0
Chadian 0 0 0
Congolese 40 25 0
Gabonese 0 0 0
Gambian 0 0 0
Ghanaian 370 200 175
Guinean 60 35 25
Ibo 0 0 0
Ivorian 0 0 0
Liberian 0 0 0
Malian 0 0 0
Nigerian 190 80 115
Peulh 0 0 0
Senegalese 20 0 0
Sierra Leonean 0 0 0
Togolese 45 0 0
Yoruba 35 20 0
Central and West African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 53 85 45 45
North African origins 625 325 300
Algerian 0 0 0
Berber 0 0 0
Coptic 65 30 35
Dinka 10 0 0
Egyptian 400 205 200
Libyan 45 25 25
Maure 10 0 10
Moroccan 50 30 20
Sudanese 35 25 0
Tunisian 20 0 0
North African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 54 0 0 0
Southern and East African origins 740 380 360
Afrikaner 0 0 0
Amhara 0 0 0
Bantu, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Burundian 45 0 35
Eritrean 35 0 30
Ethiopian 110 65 40
Harari 0 0 0
Kenyan 30 25 0
Malagasy 10 0 0
Mauritian 15 0 0
Oromo 35 0 20
Rwandan 30 0 0
Seychellois 20 0 0
Somali 80 0 65
South African 220 140 80
Tanzanian 35 25 0
Tigrian 0 0 0
Ugandan 40 0 20
Zambian 25 0 15
Zimbabwean 30 0 15
Zulu 0 0 0
Southern and East African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 55 65 20 40
Other African origins 2,530 1,250 1,280
Black, n.o.s.Footnote 56 520 250 270
Other African origins, n.i.e.Footnote 57 2,090 1,055 1,035
Asian origins 29,845 14,285 15,560
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins 3,695 1,895 1,805
Afghan 1,235 555 675
Arab, n.o.s. 350 240 105
Armenian 235 125 110
Assyrian 30 0 0
Azerbaijani 0 0 0
Georgian 0 0 0
Iranian 450 235 220
Iraqi 120 60 55
Israeli 0 0 0
Jordanian 20 0 0
Kazakh 0 0 0
Kurd 60 0 0
Kuwaiti 0 0 0
Lebanese 715 370 345
Palestinian 220 100 115
Pashtun 0 0 0
Saudi Arabian 85 55 35
Syrian 115 60 55
Tajik 0 0 0
Tatar 0 0 0
Turk 95 45 45
Uighur 0 0 0
Uzbek 0 0 0
Yemeni 85 45 35
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins, n.i.e.Footnote 58 170 130 45
South Asian origins 16,350 8,000 8,345
Bangladeshi 305 115 195
Bengali 95 45 50
East IndianFootnote 59 11,300 5,570 5,725
Goan 150 80 75
Gujarati 50 15 35
Kashmiri 15 0 0
Nepali 75 45 30
Pakistani 1,800 925 875
Punjabi 155 95 60
Sinhalese 205 130 75
Sri Lankan 1,855 905 945
Tamil 895 440 455
South Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 60 775 355 415
East and Southeast Asian origins 10,705 4,810 5,895
Burmese 75 45 25
Cambodian (Khmer) 40 0 25
Chinese 4,610 2,105 2,505
Filipino 5,595 2,500 3,090
Hmong 0 0 0
Indonesian 115 40 75
Japanese 400 185 215
Korean 215 100 115
Laotian 0 0 0
Malaysian 80 40 40
Mongolian 15 0 0
Singaporean 0 0 0
Taiwanese 0 0 0
Thai 0 0 0
Tibetan 0 0 0
Vietnamese 440 140 295
East and Southeast Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 61 50 0 0
Other Asian origins 215 115 100
Other Asian origins, n.i.e.Footnote 62 210 115 100
Oceania origins 380 235 140
Australian 170 105 65
New Zealander 35 25 0
Pacific Islands origins 185 110 70
Fijian 90 0 50
Hawaiian 0 0 0
Maori 0 0 0
Polynesian, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Samoan 0 0 0
Pacific Islands origins, n.i.e.Footnote 63 90 0 0
Total population in private households by religionFootnote 64 109,220 52,810 56,410
Buddhist 780 345 435
Christian 72,780 34,375 38,405
Anglican 6,560 3,070 3,490
Baptist 2,030 945 1,085
Catholic 34,100 16,425 17,680
Christian Orthodox 3,005 1,500 1,505
Lutheran 860 365 500
Pentecostal 4,595 1,950 2,645
Presbyterian 2,435 1,235 1,200
United Church 6,240 2,630 3,610
Other Christian 12,940 6,250 6,695
Hindu 6,490 3,050 3,440
Jewish 410 180 230
Muslim 7,550 3,760 3,795
Sikh 590 285 305
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 0 0 0
Other religions 250 125 120
No religious affiliation 20,365 10,680 9,680
Total population in private households by Aboriginal identity 109,220 52,810 56,410
Aboriginal identityFootnote 65 1,080 530 550
First Nations (North American Indian) single identityFootnote 66 710 340 370
Métis single identity 315 165 150
Inuk (Inuit) single identity 15 0 0
Multiple Aboriginal identitiesFootnote 67 15 0 0
Aboriginal identities not included elsewhereFootnote 68 25 0 20
Non-Aboriginal identity 108,140 52,285 55,860
Total population in private households by Registered or Treaty Indian statusFootnote 69 109,220 52,810 56,415
Registered or Treaty IndianFootnote 70 300 105 195
Not a Registered or Treaty Indian 108,920 52,705 56,215
Total population in private households by Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 71 109,220 52,810 56,410
Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 72 1,870 815 1,060
First Nations (North American Indian) Aboriginal ancestryFootnote 73 1,485 640 840
Métis ancestry 375 170 205
Inuit ancestry 20 15 0
Non-Aboriginal ancestry onlyFootnote 74 107,350 51,990 55,355
Total population in private households by non-official languages spokenFootnote 75 27,700 13,110 14,595
Aboriginal languages 0 0 0
Algonquin 0 0 0
Atikamekw 0 0 0
Blackfoot 0 0 0
Cree languagesFootnote 76 0 0 0
Mi'kmaq 0 0 0
Innu/Montagnais 0 0 0
Ojibway 0 0 0
Oji-Cree 0 0 0
Carrier 0 0 0
Dene 0 0 0
Tlicho (Dogrib) 0 0 0
Slavey, n.o.s. 0 0 0
Stoney 0 0 0
Inuktitut 0 0 0
Other Aboriginal languagesFootnote 77 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal languages 27,700 13,105 14,595
Italian 1,505 760 750
Portuguese 735 350 385
Romanian 325 150 175
Spanish 1,590 705 890
Dutch 250 130 125
Flemish 15 15 0
German 1,085 485 605
Yiddish 0 0 0
Danish 30 0 30
Norwegian 0 0 0
Swedish 50 20 35
Afrikaans 55 35 25
Gaelic languages 0 0 0
Bosnian 0 0 0
Bulgarian 60 0 55
Croatian 70 45 25
Czech 70 30 40
Macedonian 490 195 295
Polish 565 225 340
Russian 200 90 110
Serbian 150 80 70
Serbo-Croatian 65 25 0
Slovak 65 25 40
Slovenian 30 0 0
Ukrainian 105 60 45
Latvian 30 0 25
Lithuanian 0 0 0
Greek 1,020 515 505
Armenian 90 40 50
Albanian 0 0 0
Estonian 60 25 30
Finnish 40 15 25
Hungarian 265 145 115
Turkish 45 25 25
Berber languages (Kabyle) 0 0 0
Oromo 40 20 25
Somali 40 0 25
Amharic 75 30 45
Arabic 1,315 710 605
Hebrew 75 45 0
Maltese 15 15 0
Tigrigna 0 0 0
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 95 60 40
Bengali 525 250 275
Gujarati 905 455 450
Hindi 2,380 1,195 1,185
Konkani 20 0 0
Marathi 45 20 30
Panjabi (Punjabi) 1,255 595 665
Sindhi 200 95 100
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 415 210 205
Urdu 3,155 1,645 1,510
Nepali 30 0 15
Kurdish 60 0 0
Pashto 170 70 95
Persian (Farsi) 1,425 665 760
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 60 35 30
Kannada 40 20 15
Malayalam 190 110 80
Tamil 2,710 1,310 1,400
Telugu 175 95 85
Japanese 170 75 100
Korean 170 75 95
Cantonese 645 300 340
Fukien 0 0 0
Hakka 20 0 0
Mandarin 470 215 250
Taiwanese 0 0 0
Chinese, n.o.s. 555 235 315
Lao 0 0 0
Thai 0 0 0
Khmer (Cambodian) 30 0 20
Vietnamese 310 120 190
Bisayan languages 120 30 95
Ilocano 45 0 35
Malay 145 70 75
Tagalog (Pilipino,Filipino) 3,250 1,410 1,840
Akan (Twi) 200 105 90
Lingala 20 15 0
Rundi (Kirundi) 0 0 0
Rwanda (Kinyarwanda) 0 0 0
Swahili 120 75 45
Bantu languages, n.i.e. 65 35 25
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 135 70 70
African languages, n.i.e. 35 25 0
Creoles 315 145 170
Other non-Aboriginal languagesFootnote 78 395 200 190
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 79 107,965 52,210 55,755
Non-movers 97,060 46,950 50,105
Movers 10,910 5,260 5,655
Non-migrants 4,320 2,060 2,265
Migrants 6,590 3,200 3,390
Internal migrants 6,045 2,935 3,110
Intraprovincial migrants 5,820 2,820 3,000
Interprovincial migrants 225 120 105
External migrants 545 260 280
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 80 101,895 49,010 52,895
Non-movers 63,350 30,865 32,485
Movers 38,550 18,145 20,410
Non-migrants 13,415 6,250 7,165
Migrants 25,135 11,895 13,245
Internal migrants 22,580 10,745 11,840
Intraprovincial migrants 21,955 10,485 11,470
Interprovincial migrants 625 260 370
External migrants 2,555 1,150 1,405
Total population aged 15 years and over by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 81 86,545 41,250 45,290
No certificate, diploma or degree 12,655 6,150 6,510
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 82 25,240 12,175 13,070
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 83 48,645 22,925 25,715
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 84 5,565 3,700 1,865
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 20,050 8,925 11,125
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 85 4,955 2,235 2,725
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 18,070 8,060 10,005
Bachelor's degree 12,300 5,135 7,160
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 86 5,775 2,925 2,850
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 87 60,915 28,580 32,340
No certificate, diploma or degree 4,210 2,020 2,185
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 88 15,815 7,600 8,215
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 89 40,900 18,960 21,940
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 90 4,310 2,865 1,445
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 16,960 7,415 9,545
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 91 4,030 1,795 2,230
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 15,600 6,890 8,715
Bachelor's degree 10,620 4,430 6,190
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 92 4,980 2,460 2,520
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 93 86,540 41,250 45,290
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 94 37,900 18,325 19,575
Education 2,550 600 1,950
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 1,870 1,055 815
Humanities 2,405 810 1,595
Social and behavioural sciences and law 5,935 1,610 4,325
Business, management and public administration 12,475 4,900 7,575
Physical and life sciences and technologies 1,885 820 1,065
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 2,435 1,615 820
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 9,625 8,715 910
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 525 365 160
Health and related fieldsFootnote 95 6,425 1,255 5,175
Personal, protective and transportation services 2,515 1,180 1,340
Other fields of studyFootnote 96 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceFootnote 97 86,545 41,250 45,290
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 37,895 18,320 19,575
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 48,645 22,925 25,715
Location of study inside Canada 38,135 17,545 20,590
Same as province or territory of residence 35,865 16,390 19,475
Another province or territory 2,275 1,160 1,115
Location of study outside Canada 10,505 5,380 5,130
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 98 64,930 32,110 32,815
Single responses 64,485 31,955 32,535
English 64,025 31,795 32,230
French 210 55 160
Non-official languages 250 110 145
Chinese, n.o.s. 35 10 20
Cantonese 20 0 0
Panjabi (Punjabi) 0 0 0
Mandarin 25 0 0
Spanish 20 0 0
Korean 0 0 0
German 0 0 0
Cree languagesFootnote 99 0 0 0
Portuguese 0 0 0
Inuktitut 0 0 0
Other languages 125 65 60
Multiple responses 440 150 280
English and French 235 75 160
English and non-official language 205 85 120
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 100 64,925 32,110 32,820
English 64,020 31,795 32,230
French 215 55 160
Non-official language 255 110 145
Aboriginal 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal 250 110 145
English and French 235 70 160
English and non-official language 205 85 125
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusFootnote 101 86,545 41,250 45,295
In the labour force 63,065 31,180 31,885
Employed 57,570 28,590 28,980
Unemployed 5,495 2,590 2,905
Not in the labour force 23,480 10,075 13,405
Participation rate 72.9 75.6 70.4
Employment rate 66.5 69.3 64.0
Unemployment rate 8.7 8.3 9.1
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 102 63,065 31,180 31,890
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 103 2,125 935 1,190
All classes of workerFootnote 104 60,940 30,240 30,700
Employee 56,345 27,270 29,075
Self-employedFootnote 105 4,595 2,970 1,625
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 106 63,065 31,175 31,890
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 107 2,125 935 1,190
All occupationsFootnote 108 60,940 30,245 30,700
0 Management occupations 7,890 4,810 3,080
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 12,965 3,650 9,310
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 5,050 3,870 1,175
3 Health occupations 3,630 650 2,980
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 6,275 1,810 4,465
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 1,610 715 905
6 Sales and service occupations 13,690 6,185 7,500
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 6,750 6,285 465
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 620 535 90
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 2,465 1,735 735
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 109 63,065 31,175 31,890
Industry - not applicableFootnote 110 2,125 935 1,190
All industriesFootnote 111 60,940 30,240 30,700
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 105 55 50
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 95 90 0
22 Utilities 1,310 800 510
23 Construction 3,430 2,985 445
31-33 Manufacturing 5,040 3,525 1,520
41 Wholesale trade 3,095 1,885 1,215
44-45 Retail trade 6,700 3,225 3,470
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 2,825 2,140 680
51 Information and cultural industries 2,560 1,415 1,140
52 Finance and insurance 6,235 2,520 3,720
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1,165 605 565
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 4,590 2,260 2,335
55 Management of companies and enterprises 45 0 30
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 2,805 1,615 1,185
61 Educational services 3,610 1,060 2,545
62 Health care and social assistance 6,610 960 5,655
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 960 540 420
72 Accommodation and food services 3,445 1,550 1,900
81 Other services (except public administration) 2,410 1,170 1,240
91 Public administration 3,910 1,825 2,080
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by work activity in 2010Footnote 112 63,065 31,175 31,885
Did not work in 2010Footnote 113 4,165 1,950 2,215
Worked in 2010 58,895 29,230 29,670
1 to 13 weeks 3,115 1,375 1,745
14 to 26 weeks 4,400 1,895 2,510
27 to 39 weeks 2,780 1,395 1,385
40 to 48 weeks 7,700 3,695 4,010
49 to 52 weeks 40,900 20,870 20,030
Average weeks worked in 2010 45.2 45.8 44.7
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by full-time or part-time weeks worked in 2010Footnote 114 63,065 31,180 31,890
Did not work in 2010Footnote 115 4,165 1,950 2,220
Worked in 2010 58,900 29,230 29,670
Worked full-time in 2010 47,770 25,300 22,475
Worked part-time in 2010 11,130 3,930 7,200
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by place of work statusFootnote 116 57,570 28,590 28,980
Worked at home 2,780 1,270 1,515
Worked outside Canada 110 80 25
No fixed workplace address 6,055 4,385 1,670
Worked at usual place 48,625 22,850 25,770
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by mode of transportationFootnote 117 54,680 27,235 27,445
Car, truck or van - as a driver 40,445 22,060 18,385
Car, truck or van - as a passenger 3,355 1,135 2,220
Public transit 8,710 3,100 5,615
Walked 1,340 540 800
Bicycle 180 125 55
Other methods 650 280 370
Total employed population aged 15 years and over with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address by median commuting durationFootnote 118 54,680 27,235 27,445
Median commuting duration 35.1 35.4 30.9
Total employed population aged 15 years and over by time leaving for workFootnote 119 54,680 27,235 27,445
Between 5 and 6:59 a.m. 16,425 9,480 6,940
Between 7 and 9:00 a.m. 27,390 11,950 15,440
Anytime after 9:00 a.m. 10,870 5,805 5,065
Total number of occupied private dwellings by condition of dwellingFootnote 120 35,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Only regular maintenance or minor repairs needed 33,790 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Major repairs needed 1,245 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by period of constructionFootnote 121 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1960 or before 2,630 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1961 to 1980 6,115 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1981 to 1990 9,165 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1991 to 2000 5,325 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2001 to 2005 5,810 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2006 to 2011Footnote 122 5,995 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of roomsFootnote 123 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1 to 4 rooms 3,905 not applicable ... not applicable ...
5 rooms 4,480 not applicable ... not applicable ...
6 rooms 5,560 not applicable ... not applicable ...
7 rooms 6,675 not applicable ... not applicable ...
8 or more rooms 14,415 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average number of rooms per dwelling 7.1 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of occupied private dwellings by number of bedroomsFootnote 124 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
0 to 1 bedroom 1,360 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2 bedrooms 3,760 not applicable ... not applicable ...
3 bedrooms 15,680 not applicable ... not applicable ...
4 or more bedrooms 14,240 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by tenureFootnote 125 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Owner 30,465 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Renter 4,575 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Band housing 0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by condominium statusFootnote 126 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Part of a condominium development 2,810 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Not part of a condominium development 32,225 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by number of household maintainersFootnote 127 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
1 household maintainer 17,500 not applicable ... not applicable ...
2 household maintainers 16,550 not applicable ... not applicable ...
3 or more household maintainers 995 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by age group of primary household maintainersFootnote 128 35,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under 25 years 240 not applicable ... not applicable ...
25 to 34 years 4,315 not applicable ... not applicable ...
35 to 44 years 8,740 not applicable ... not applicable ...
45 to 54 years 10,450 not applicable ... not applicable ...
55 to 64 years 6,490 not applicable ... not applicable ...
65 to 74 years 2,795 not applicable ... not applicable ...
75 years and over 2,010 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by number of persons per roomFootnote 129 35,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
One person or fewer per room 34,350 not applicable ... not applicable ...
More than one person per room 690 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of private households by housing suitabilityFootnote 130 35,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Suitable 32,670 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Not suitable 2,365 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total number of owner and tenant households with household total income greater than zero, in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings by shelter-cost-to-income ratioFootnote 131 35,010 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending less than 30% of household total income on shelter costs 25,215 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costs 9,790 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Spending 30% to less than 100% of household total income on shelter costs 8,395 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Number of owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 30,460 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of owner households with a mortgageFootnote 132 75.9 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of owner households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsFootnote 133 25.7 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)Footnote 134 1,650 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average monthly shelter costs for owned dwellings ($)Footnote 135 1,615 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median value of dwellings ($)Footnote 136 333,633 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average value of dwellings ($)Footnote 137 357,867 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Number of tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings 4,570 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of tenant households in subsidized housingFootnote 138 15.1 not applicable ... not applicable ...
% of tenant households spending 30% or more of household total income on shelter costsFootnote 139 43.2 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)Footnote 140 1,050 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average monthly shelter costs for rented dwellings ($)Footnote 141 1,061 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overFootnote 142 86,545 41,250 45,290
Without income 5,825 2,620 3,205
With income 80,715 38,625 42,085
Under $5,000Footnote 143 9,430 4,645 4,780
$5,000 to $9,999 6,085 2,305 3,780
$10,000 to $14,999 6,335 2,390 3,945
$15,000 to $19,999 5,550 1,970 3,580
$20,000 to $29,999 8,080 3,430 4,655
$30,000 to $39,999 8,545 3,970 4,570
$40,000 to $49,999 8,270 3,735 4,530
$50,000 to $59,999 7,145 3,315 3,830
$60,000 to $79,999 9,890 5,420 4,465
$80,000 to $99,999 6,055 3,680 2,375
$100,000 and over 5,335 3,765 1,570
$100,000 to $124,999 2,820 1,820 1,000
$125,000 and over 2,515 1,945 575
Median income $Footnote 144 35,981 41,853 30,440
Average income $Footnote 145 43,541 50,513 37,143
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overFootnote 146 86,545 41,250 45,295
Without after-tax income 5,855 2,625 3,230
With after-tax income 80,690 38,620 42,065
Under $5,000Footnote 147 9,515 4,675 4,840
$5,000 to $9,999 6,165 2,320 3,850
$10,000 to $14,999 6,405 2,430 3,975
$15,000 to $19,999 5,995 2,195 3,800
$20,000 to $29,999 9,605 4,100 5,505
$30,000 to $39,999 10,660 4,920 5,735
$40,000 to $49,999 10,525 5,025 5,500
$50,000 to $59,999 7,570 3,950 3,625
$60,000 to $79,999 9,310 5,545 3,760
$80,000 to $99,999 2,945 1,920 1,025
$100,000 and over 1,995 1,545 455
Median after-tax income $Footnote 148 32,594 36,936 28,031
Average after-tax income $Footnote 149 36,376 41,244 31,907
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over %Footnote 150 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income %Footnote 151 90.5 93.1 87.2
Employment income %Footnote 152 83.5 85.5 80.9
Wages and salaries %Footnote 153 80.7 81.9 79.2
Self-employment income %Footnote 154 2.8 3.6 1.7
Investment income %Footnote 155 1.4 1.4 1.4
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities %Footnote 156 4.2 5.0 3.3
Other money income %Footnote 157 1.4 1.2 1.7
Government transfer payments %Footnote 158 9.5 6.9 12.8
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits %Footnote 159 2.1 1.8 2.5
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement %Footnote 160 1.7 1.3 2.3
Employment Insurance benefits %Footnote 161 1.7 1.3 2.1
Child benefits %Footnote 162 1.6 0.1 3.4
Other income from government sources %Footnote 163 2.4 2.3 2.4
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeFootnote 164 16.5 18.4 14.1
After-tax income as a % of total incomeFootnote 165 83.5 81.7 85.9
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeFootnote 166 0.8 1.1 0.4
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010Footnote 167 36,140 19,240 16,905
Median employment income in 2010 $ 54,986 60,731 50,013
Average employment income in 2010 $ 62,200 68,769 54,724
Family income in 2010 of economic familiesFootnote 168 29,460 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 96,573 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 108,414 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 82,904 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 90,553 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 3.5 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Couple-only economic familiesFootnote 169 6,320 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 84,913 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 95,657 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 73,527 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 79,067 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.0 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Couple-with-children economic familiesFootnote 170 17,375 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 111,978 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 123,440 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 95,409 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 102,530 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 4.2 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Lone-parent economic familiesFootnote 171 4,545 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median family income $ 59,916 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family income $ 68,411 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax family income $ 53,625 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax family income $ 59,859 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average family size 2.9 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and over not in economic familiesFootnote 172 7,180 3,240 3,945
Median total income $Footnote 173 38,532 43,587 35,106
Average total income $Footnote 174 44,639 49,544 40,611
Median after-tax income $Footnote 175 34,619 37,383 32,025
Average after-tax income $Footnote 176 37,235 40,336 34,689
Total population by decile of adjusted after-tax family incomeFootnote 177 109,220 52,810 56,410
In bottom half of the Canadian distribution 40,535 18,815 21,715
In bottom decile 6,375 2,900 3,475
In second decile 6,410 2,845 3,570
In third decile 7,835 3,725 4,105
In fourth decile 9,110 4,430 4,675
In fifth decile 10,810 4,925 5,885
In top half of the Canadian distribution 68,690 33,990 34,695
In sixth decile 12,265 5,890 6,370
In seventh decile 12,120 5,860 6,255
In eighth decile 14,455 7,155 7,295
In ninth decile 16,675 8,330 8,345
In top decile 13,175 6,750 6,420
Household total income in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 178 35,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under $5,000 630 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$5,000 to $9,999 270 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$10,000 to $14,999 630 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$15,000 to $19,999 705 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$20,000 to $29,999 1,445 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$30,000 to $39,999 1,925 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$40,000 to $49,999 2,055 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$50,000 to $59,999 2,670 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$60,000 to $79,999 5,040 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$80,000 to $99,999 5,170 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 to $124,999 4,645 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$125,000 to $149,999 3,545 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$150,000 and over 6,305 not applicable ... not applicable ...
After-tax income of households in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 179 35,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Under $5,000 635 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$5,000 to $9,999 295 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$10,000 to $14,999 625 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$15,000 to $19,999 720 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$20,000 to $29,999 1,660 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$30,000 to $39,999 2,290 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$40,000 to $49,999 2,860 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$50,000 to $59,999 3,265 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$60,000 to $79,999 6,670 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$80,000 to $99,999 5,130 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 and over 10,900 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$100,000 to $124,999 4,865 not applicable ... not applicable ...
$125,000 and over 6,030 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Household income in 2010 of private householdsFootnote 180 35,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 88,262 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 100,305 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 75,662 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 83,770 not applicable ... not applicable ...
One-person private householdsFootnote 181 5,035 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 44,221 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 49,748 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 38,082 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 41,242 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Two-or-more-persons private householdsFootnote 182 30,000 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median household total income $ 97,002 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average household total income $ 108,793 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Median after-tax household income $ 83,291 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Average after-tax household income $ 90,910 not applicable ... not applicable ...
Population in private households for income statusFootnote 183 109,220 52,810 56,410
Less than 18 years 28,105 14,355 13,755
Less than 6 years 8,735 4,495 4,240
18 to 64 years 71,935 34,220 37,710
65 years and over 9,180 4,230 4,950
In low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) 10,165 4,560 5,605
Less than 18 years 3,310 1,595 1,715
Less than 6 years 1,065 505 560
18 to 64 years 6,335 2,810 3,530
65 years and over 515 160 355
Prevalence of low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure % 9.3 8.6 9.9
Less than 18 years % 11.8 11.1 12.5
Less than 6 years % 12.2 11.2 13.2
18 to 64 years % 8.8 8.2 9.4
65 years and over % 5.6 3.8 7.2

Symbol(s)

Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period

..

Symbol ...

not applicable

...

Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

x

Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

F

Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

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Footnote 2

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

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Footnote 3

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Footnote 4

Period of immigration refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained his or her landed immigrant/permanent resident status. A landed immigrant/permanent resident refers to a person who has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 5

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 6

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 7

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 8

Includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 9

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 10

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 11

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 12

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 13

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 14

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 15

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 16

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 17

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 18

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 19

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 20

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 21

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 22

Recent immigrants are immigrants who landed in Canada between January 1, 2006 and May 10, 2011.

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada.

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by recent immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 23

The official name of Venezuela is Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

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Footnote 24

The official name of Moldova is Republic of Moldova.

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Footnote 25

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 26

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 27

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 28

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 29

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 30

The official name of Syria is Syrian Arab Republic.

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Footnote 31

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 32

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 33

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 34

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 35

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 36

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 37

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

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Footnote 38

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Malaysian,' 'Laotian,' etc.

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Footnote 39

For example, 'Iranian,' 'Afghan,' etc.

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Footnote 40

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 41

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 42

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 43

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the NHS.

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Footnote 44

Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer,' 'Manitoban').

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Footnote 45

Includes general responses indicating British Isles origins (e.g., 'British,' 'United Kingdom') as well as more specific responses indicating British Isles origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Celtic').

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Footnote 46

Includes general responses indicating Western European origins (e.g., 'Western European') as well as more specific responses indicating Western European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Liechtensteiner').

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Footnote 47

Includes general responses indicating Northern European origins (e.g., 'Northern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Northern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Faroese,' 'Scandinavian').

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Footnote 48

Includes general responses indicating Eastern European origins (e.g., 'Eastern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Eastern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baltic').

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Footnote 49

Includes general responses indicating Southern European origins (e.g., 'Southern European') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Gibraltarian').

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Footnote 50

Includes general responses indicating Other European origins (e.g., 'European') as well as more specific responses indicating European origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Central European').

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Footnote 51

Includes general responses indicating Caribbean origins (e.g., 'Caribbean') as well as more specific responses indicating Caribbean origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Guadelupian,' 'Aruban').

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Footnote 52

Includes general responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins (e.g., 'South American') as well as more specific responses indicating Latin, Central or South American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Surinamese').

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Footnote 53

Includes general responses indicating Central or West African origins (e.g., 'West African') as well as more specific responses indicating Central or West African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Ewe,' 'Wolof').

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Footnote 54

Includes general responses indicating North African origins (e.g., 'North African') as well as more specific responses indicating North African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maghreb').

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Footnote 55

Includes general responses indicating Southern or East African origins (e.g., 'East African') as well as more specific responses indicating Southern or East African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Hutu,' 'Shona').

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Footnote 56

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

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Footnote 57

Includes general responses indicating Other African origins (e.g., 'African') as well as more specific responses indicating Other African origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Saharan').

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Footnote 58

Includes general responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins (e.g., 'West Asian,' 'Middle Eastern') as well as more specific responses indicating West Asian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Baloch,' 'Circassian').

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Footnote 59

Some respondents may choose to provide very specific ethnic origins in the National Household Survey (NHS), while other respondents may choose to give more general responses. This means that two respondents with the same ethnic ancestry could have different response patterns and thus could be counted as having different ethnic origins. For example, one respondent may report 'East Indian' ethnic origin while another respondent, with a similar ancestral background, may report 'Punjabi' or 'South Asian' origins; one respondent may report 'Black' while another, similar respondent, may report 'Ghanaian' or 'African.' As a result, ethnic origin data are very fluid, and counts for certain origins, such as 'East Indian' and 'Black,' may seem lower than initially expected. Users who wish to obtain broader response counts may wish to combine data for one or more ethnic origins together or use counts for ethnic categories such as 'South Asian origins' or 'African origins.' (Please note, however, that 'African origins' should not be considered equivalent to the 'Black' population group or visible minority status, as there are persons reporting African origins who report a population group or visible minority status other than 'Black.' Conversely, many people report a population group or visible minority status of 'Black' and do not report having 'African' origins. For information on population group and visible minority population in the 2011 NHS, refer to the appropriate definitions in this publication.)

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Footnote 60

Includes general responses indicating South Asian origins (e.g., 'South Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating South Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bhutanese').

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Footnote 61

Includes general responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins (e.g., 'Southeast Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating East and Southeast Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Bruneian,' 'Karen').

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Footnote 62

Includes general responses indicating Other Asian origins (e.g., 'Asian') as well as more specific responses indicating Other Asian origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Eurasian').

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Footnote 63

Includes general responses indicating Pacific Islands origins (e.g., 'Pacific Islander') as well as more specific responses indicating Pacific Islands origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Tahitian').

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Footnote 64

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

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Footnote 65

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 66

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 67

'Multiple Aboriginal identities' includes persons who reported being any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 68

'Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere' includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who did report Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 69

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 70

Registered or Treaty Indian status refers to whether or not a person reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian.
'Registered or Treaty Indian' includes persons who reported being a Registered or Treaty Indian in Question 20. Registered Indians are persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada. Treaty Indians are persons who belong to a First Nation or Indian band that signed a treaty with the Crown. Registered or Treaty Indians are sometimes also called Status Indians.

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Footnote 71

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ancestries in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ancestry (ethnic origin) in the NHS.

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Footnote 72

'Aboriginal ancestry' includes persons who reported one or more than one of First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17, either with or without also reporting a non-Aboriginal ancestry. The sum of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry', 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' is thus greater than the sum of the total for 'Aboriginal ancestry' because persons who reported more than one Aboriginal ancestry are included in the response category for each Aboriginal ancestry they reported. All respondents with Aboriginal ancestry are counted in at least one of the categories 'First Nations (North American Indian) ancestry,' 'Métis ancestry' and 'Inuit ancestry' and also in the category 'Aboriginal ancestry.'

Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent's ancestors, an ancestor being usually more distant than a grandparent. A person can have more than one ethnic or cultural origin.

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Footnote 73

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 74

'Non-Aboriginal ancestry only' includes persons who did not report First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit ancestry in Question 17.

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Footnote 75

Refers to languages, other than English or French, in which the respondent can conduct a conversation. The category 'Non-official languages spoken' represents the sum of single language responses and multiple language responses received in the NHS. Hence, this total is greater than the total population.

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Footnote 76

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

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Footnote 77

This is a subtotal of all Aboriginal languages collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

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Footnote 78

This is a subtotal of all non-Aboriginal languages, other than English or French, collected on May 10, 2011 that are not displayed separately here.

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Footnote 79

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 80

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 81

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 82

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 83

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 84

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 85

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 86

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 87

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 88

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 89

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 90

(4) 'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 91

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 92

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 93

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.



For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.



For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 94

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 95

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 96

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 97

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.



Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees.



For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 98

Population by language used most often at work

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 99

Cree languages include the following categories: Cree not otherwise specified (which refers to those who reported 'Cree'), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and a category labelled 'Cree not included elsewhere' (which includes Moose Cree, Northern East Cree and Southern East Cree).

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Footnote 100

Population by language used most often at work.

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 101

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

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In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 102

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 103

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 104

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 105

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 106

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

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Footnote 107

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 108

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 109

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 110

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 111

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 112

Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

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Footnote 113

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

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Footnote 114

Refers to persons who worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010. These persons were asked to report whether the weeks they worked in 2010 were full-time weeks (30 hours or more per week) or not, on the basis of all jobs held. Persons with a part-time job for part of the year and a full-time job for another part of the year were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most weeks.

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Footnote 115

Includes persons who never worked, persons who worked prior to 2010 only, or persons who worked in 2011 only.

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Footnote 116

Classification of respondents according to whether they worked at home, worked outside Canada, had no fixed workplace address or worked at a specific address (usual place of work).

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Footnote 117

Refers to the main mode of transportation a respondent uses to travel between his or her home and his or her place of work.

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Footnote 118

Refers to how many minutes it took for a person to travel from home to work. Median commuting duration is the value which divides the commuting duration into two equal halves, i.e., the commuting duration of individuals for the first half is below the median, while the commuting distance of individuals for the second half is above the median.

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Footnote 119

Time at which a respondent usually leaves home to go to work.

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Footnote 120

Condition of dwelling - Refers to whether the dwelling is in need of repairs. This does not include desirable remodelling or additions.

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Footnote 121

Period of construction - Refers to the period in time during which the building or dwelling was originally constructed.

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Footnote 122

Includes data up to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 123

Rooms - Refers to enclosed areas within a private dwelling which are finished and suitable for year round living. The number of rooms of a private dwelling includes kitchens, bedrooms and finished rooms in the attic or basement.

The number of rooms of a private dwelling excludes bathrooms, halls, vestibules and rooms used solely for business purposes. Partially divided rooms are considered to be separate rooms if they are considered as such by the respondent (e.g., L-shaped diningroom and livingroom arrangements).

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Footnote 124

Bedrooms - Refers to rooms in a private dwelling that are designed mainly for sleeping purposes even if they are now used for other purposes, such as guest rooms and television rooms. Also included are rooms used as bedrooms now, even if they were not originally built as bedrooms, such as bedrooms in a finished basement.

Bedrooms exclude rooms designed for another use during the day such as dining rooms and living rooms even if they may be used for sleeping purposes at night. By definition, one-room private dwellings such as studio apartments have zero bedrooms.

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Footnote 125

Tenure - Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling, or whether the dwelling is band housing (on an Indian reserve or settlement).

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Footnote 126

Condominium status - Refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium development. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.

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Footnote 127

Household maintainer - Refers to whether or not a person residing in the household is responsible for paying the rent, or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity or other services or utilities. Where a number of people may contribute to the payments, more than one person in the household may be identified as a household maintainer. If no person in the household is identified as making such payments, the reference person is identified by default.

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Footnote 128

Primary household maintainer - First person in the household identified as someone who pays the rent or the mortgage, or the taxes, or the electricity bill, and so on, for the dwelling.

The order of the persons in a household is determined by the order in which the respondent lists the persons on the questionnaire. Generally, an adult is listed first followed, if applicable, by that person's spouse or common-law partner and by their children. The order does not necessarily correspond to the proportion of household payments made by the person.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 129

Persons per room - Refers to an indicator of the level of crowding in a private dwelling. It is calculated by dividing the number of persons in the household by the number of rooms in the dwelling.

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Footnote 130

Housing suitability - Housing suitability refers to whether a private household is living in suitable accommodations according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS); that is, whether the dwelling has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of the household. A household is deemed to be living in suitable accommodations if its dwelling has enough bedrooms, as calculated using the NOS.

Housing suitability assesses the required number of bedrooms for a household based on the age, sex, and relationships among household members. An alternative variable, the number of persons per room, considers all rooms in a private dwelling and the number of household members.

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) on which it is based were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

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Footnote 131

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio - Percentage of a household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent (for tenants) or the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees (for owners) and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.

Includes owner and tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 132

Presence of mortgage - Refers to whether the owner households reported mortgage or loan payments for their dwelling.

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Footnote 133

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for owner households - Percentage of an owner household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.

Includes owner households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 134

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

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Footnote 135

Shelter cost for owned dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that own their dwellings, such as the mortgage payment and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees.

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Footnote 136

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

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Footnote 137

Value of dwelling - Refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the dwelling were to be sold.

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Footnote 138

Subsidized housing - Refers to whether the dwelling is subsidized. Subsidized housing includes rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances.

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Footnote 139

Shelter-cost-to-income ratio for tenant households - Percentage of a tenant household's average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc. The percentage is calculated by dividing the total shelter-related expenses by the household's total monthly income and multiplying the result by 100.


Includes tenant households in non-farm, non-reserve private dwellings with household total income greater than zero in 2010 (i.e., excludes negative or zero household total income).

The relatively high shelter costs to household income ratios for some households may have resulted from the difference in the reference period for shelter costs and household total income data. The reference period for shelter cost data is 2011, while household total income is reported for the year 2010. As well, for some households, the 2010 household total income may represent income for only part of a year.

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. Total income refers to the total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income, before income taxes and deductions, during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 140

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

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Footnote 141

Shelter costs for rented dwellings - Includes all shelter expenses paid by households that rent their dwellings, such as the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat and municipal services.

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Footnote 142

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 143

Including loss.

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Footnote 144

For population with income.

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Footnote 145

For population with income.

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Footnote 146

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.


Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 147

Including loss.

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Footnote 148

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 149

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 150

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.
Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.
Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 151

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Footnote 152

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

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Footnote 153

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

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Footnote 154

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

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Footnote 155

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

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Footnote 156

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

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Footnote 157

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

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Footnote 158

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in:

- the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor
- benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- child benefits
- other income from government sources.

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Footnote 159

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

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Footnote 160

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 161

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

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Footnote 162

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

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Footnote 163

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

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Footnote 164

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

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Footnote 165

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

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Footnote 166

Net capital gains or losses -
Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds).
Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

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Footnote 167

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.
Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings.

Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 168

Economic family total income - The total income of an economic family is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that family.

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

After-tax income of economic families - The after-tax income of an economic family is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that family. After-tax income of family members or persons not in families refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of economic families - The median income of a specified group of families is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the families are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of economic families - Average income of economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of families (for example, husband-wife families with working wives) by the number of families in that group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of economic families.


Economic family - Refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship. A couple may be of opposite or same sex.

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Footnote 169

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.
Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.
Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.
Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 170

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.
Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.
Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.
Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

Presence of children - Refers to the number of children in private households by age groups. To be included, children must live in the same household as the family, without a married spouse, common-law partner or one or more of their children living in the same household. In a census family, they may be children by birth, marriage or adoption. In an economic family, foster children are also included.

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Footnote 171

Economic family structure - Refers to the classification of economic families as couple families, lone-parent families or other economic families.

Couple families - Those in which a member of either a married or common-law couple is the economic family reference person.

Lone-parent families - Those in which either a male or female lone parent is the economic family reference person.

Other economic families - Those in which the economic family reference person has other relatives but does not have a married spouse or common-law partner or a child in their census family.

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Footnote 172

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of persons not in economic families - The median income of a specified group of persons not in economic families (for example, males aged 55 to 64) is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves. That is, the incomes of the first half of the persons are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median incomes of persons not in economic families are normally calculated for all units in the specified group, whether or not they reported income.

Average income of persons not in economic families - Average income of persons not in economic families refers to the weighted mean total income of the persons not in economic families in 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of persons not in economic families by the number of persons in that group, whether or not they reported income.

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics on the after-tax income of persons not in economic families.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

Economic family persons refer to two or more household members who are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law, adoption or a foster relationship, and thereby constitute an economic family.

Persons not in economic families refer to household members who do not belong to an economic family, including persons living alone.

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Footnote 173

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

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Footnote 174

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without income (with an income of zero).

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Footnote 175

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without after-tax income (with an after-tax income of zero).

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Footnote 176

Calculation includes persons not in economic families without after-tax income (with an after-tax income of zero).

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Footnote 177

Adjusted after-tax income for economic families and persons not in economic families - For economic family members, this refers to economic family after-tax income that has been adjusted by a factor that accounts for family size. The adjustment factor takes into account the lower relative needs of additional family members, as compared to a single person living alone. For use with the NHS income data, the adjusted after-tax income is computed as the economic family after-tax income divided by the square root of family size.
For persons not in economic families, the adjusted after-tax income is set at after-tax income. This is equivalent to a factor of 1.0 for a person not in an economic family.

Decile of adjusted after-tax family income - The deciles divide the population ranked by size of adjusted after-tax family income into 10 groups of equal size. The population in the bottom decile is the one who falls in the lower 10 percent of the adjusted after-tax family income distribution. The population in the top decile is the one who falls in the highest ten percent of the adjusted after-tax family income distribution. The 10 groups were formed with the full population in private households of Canada, whether or not they reported income.

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Footnote 178

Household total income - The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household.

Total i