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Area of residence - On reserve
Part A - Short definition:
Part B - Detailed definition:
'Area of residence: On reserve' refers to the following geographic areas: Indian reserves and settlements (referred to as 'On reserve'), and all other areas (referred to as 'Off reserve'). These geographic areas can be used to show where people, primarily Registered Indians and First Nations people, reside.
'On reserve' includes six census subdivisions (CSDs) types legally affiliated with First Nations or Indian bands, i.e., Indian reserve (IRI), Indian settlement (S-É) (except for the five Yukon settlements of Champagne Landing 10, Klukshu, Two and One-Half Mile Village, Two Mile Village and Kloo Lake), Indian government district (IGD), terres réservées aux Cris (TC), terres réservées aux Naskapis (TK) and Nisga'a land (NL), as well as the northern village of Sandy Bay in Saskatchewan.
Population in private households
The NHS classification for Area of residence: On reserve is:
- Total – Area of residence: On Reserve
- On reserve
- Off reserve
'On reserve' is a derived variable that is captured by using the census subdivision (CSD) type according to criteria established by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC; formerly Indian and Northern Affairs Canada [INAC]). The 'On reserve' population includes people living in any of the six CSD types legally affiliated with First Nations or Indian bands (described below), as well as the northern village of Sandy Bay in Saskatchewan.
The following census subdivision types are based on the legal definition of communities affiliated with First Nations or Indian bands.
- Indian reserve (IRI) - A tract of federally owned land with specific boundaries that is set apart for the use and benefit of an Indian band and that is governed by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC). Statistics Canada only recognizes the subset of Indian reserves that are populated (or potentially populated) as census subdivisions. For 2011, of the more than 3,100 Indian reserves across Canada, there are 961 Indian reserves classified as CSDs (including the 6 reserves added for 2011). Statistics Canada works closely with AANDC to identify those reserves to be added as CSDs.
- Indian settlement (S-É) - A place where a self-contained group of at least 10 Indian (First Nations) persons resides more or less permanently. It is usually located on Crown lands under federal or provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Indian settlements have no official limits and have not been set apart for the use and benefit of an Indian band as is the case with Indian reserves. Statistics Canada relies on AANDC to identify Indian settlements to be recognized as census subdivisions, and their inclusion must be with the agreement of the provincial or territorial authorities. An arbitrary boundary is delineated to represent each Indian settlement as a census subdivision. (Exclusions: Champagne Landing 10, Klukshu, Two and One-Half Mile Village, Two Mile Village and Kloo Lake which have CSD type S-É are excluded from this tabulation.)
- Indian government district (IGD) - Sechelt reserve lands in British Columbia. The Sechelt Indian Band Self-Government Act is a transfer by Her Majesty in right of Canada to the Sechelt Band in all Sechelt reserve lands, recognizing that the Sechelt Band would assume complete responsibility for the management, administration and control of all Sechelt lands. The Sechelt Indian Government District Enabling Act (British Columbia) recognizes the district Council as the governing body of the Sechelt Indian Government District. The district Council may enact laws or by-laws that a municipality has power to enact under an Act of the province.
- Terres réservées aux Cris (TC) - Parcels of land in Quebec set aside for the permanent residence of Cree First Nations of Quebec. Terres réservées aux Cris are adjacent to villages cris. The area of a village cri is set aside for the use of Cree bands, but members of Cree bands are not permanently residing there. Note that a village cri and its adjacent terre réservée aux Cris can have the same name, e.g., the village cri of Waswanipi and the terre reservée aux Cris of Waswanipi.
- Terres réservées aux Naskapis (TK) - Parcels of land in Quebec set aside for the permanent residence of Naskapi First Nations of Quebec. Terres réservées aux Naskapis are adjacent to village Naskapi. The lone area of village Naskapi is set aside for the use of the Naskapi band, although its members do not reside there permanently.
- Nisga'a land (NL) - Part of the territory whose title has been transferred to the Nisga'a Nation by the Final Land Claims Agreement of 1998 between the Nisga'a Nation, the Government of Canada and the Government of British Columbia. Together with the four Nisga'a villages (NVL), this territory makes up the Nisga'a Lands defined by the land claims agreement.
Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey, 2011.
For additional information on the collection and dissemination of Aboriginal data, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey, 2011, and the Aboriginal Peoples Technical Report, National Household Survey, 2011.